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1997

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Articles 1 - 30 of 366

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Observation Of The Plasma Channel Dynamics And Coulomb Explosion In The Interaction Of A High-Intensity Laser Pulse With A He Gas Jet, G.S. Sarkisov, V. Yu. Bychenkov, V.T. Tikhonchuk, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Shouyuan Chen, R. Wagner, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter Dec 1997

Observation Of The Plasma Channel Dynamics And Coulomb Explosion In The Interaction Of A High-Intensity Laser Pulse With A He Gas Jet, G.S. Sarkisov, V. Yu. Bychenkov, V.T. Tikhonchuk, Anatoly Maksimchuk, Shouyuan Chen, R. Wagner, G. Mourou, Donald P. Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

We report the first interferometric observations of the dynamics of electron–ion cavitation of relativistically self-focused intense 4 TW, 400 fs laser pulse in a He gas jet. The electron density in a channel 1 mm long and 30 mm in diameter drops by a factor of approximately 10 from the maximum value of ~8x1019 cm23. A high radial velocity of the plasma expansion, ~3.8x108 cm/s, corresponding to an ion energy of about 300 keV, is observed. The total energy of fast ions is estimated to be 6% of the laser pulse energy. The high-velocity ...


Nanoscale Imaging Of Domain Dynamics And Retention In Ferroelectric Thin Films, Alexei Gruverman, H. Tokumoto, A. S. Prakash, S. Aggarwal, B. Yang, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, O. Auciello, T. Venkatesan Dec 1997

Nanoscale Imaging Of Domain Dynamics And Retention In Ferroelectric Thin Films, Alexei Gruverman, H. Tokumoto, A. S. Prakash, S. Aggarwal, B. Yang, M. Wuttig, R. Ramesh, O. Auciello, T. Venkatesan

Alexei Gruverman Publications

We report results on the direct observation of the microscopic origins of backswitching in ferroelectric thin films. The piezoelectric response generated in the film by a biased atomic force microscope tip was used to obtain static and dynamic piezoelectric images of individual grains in a polycrystalline material. We demonstrate that polarization reversal occurs under no external field (i.e., loss of remanent polarization) via a dispersive continuous-time random walk process, identified by a stretched exponential decay of the remanent polarization.


Global Energetic Neutral Atom (Ena) Measurements And Their Association With The Dst Index, A. M. Jorgensen, Harlan E. Spence, M. G. Henderson, G. D. Reeves, M. Sugiura, T. Kamei Dec 1997

Global Energetic Neutral Atom (Ena) Measurements And Their Association With The Dst Index, A. M. Jorgensen, Harlan E. Spence, M. G. Henderson, G. D. Reeves, M. Sugiura, T. Kamei

Physics Scholarship

We present a new global magnetospheric index that measures the intensity of the Earth's ring current through energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). We have named it the Global Energetic Neutral Index (GENI), and it is derived from ENA measurements obtained by the Imaging Proton Spectrometer (IPS), part of the Comprehensive Energetic Particle and Pitch Angle Distribution (CEPPAD) experiment on the POLAR satellite. GENI provides a simple orbit-independent global sum of ENAs measured with IPS. Actual ENA measurements for the same magnetospheric state look different when seen from different points in the POLAR orbit. In addition, the instrument is sensitive to ...


Hyperfine Splitting Of Low-Lying Heavy Baryons, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Asif Qamar, Francesco Sannino, Herbert Weigel Dec 1997

Hyperfine Splitting Of Low-Lying Heavy Baryons, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Asif Qamar, Francesco Sannino, Herbert Weigel

Physics

We calculate the next-to-leading order contribution to the masses of the heavy baryons in the bound state approach for baryons containing a heavy quark. These 1/N_C corrections arise when states of good spin and isospin are generated from the background soliton of the light meson fields. Our study is motivated by the previously established result that light vector meson fields are required for this soliton in order to reasonably describe the spectrum of both the light and the heavy baryons. We note that the inclusion of light vector mesons significantly improves the agreement of the predicted hyperfine splitting with ...


Phase Structure Of Dynamical Triangulation Models In Three Dimensions, Simon Catterall, Ray L. Renken, John B. Kogut Dec 1997

Phase Structure Of Dynamical Triangulation Models In Three Dimensions, Simon Catterall, Ray L. Renken, John B. Kogut

Physics

The dynamical triangulation model of three-dimensional quantum gravity is shown to have a line of transitions in an expanded phase diagram which includes a coupling mu to the order of the vertices. Monte Carlo renormalization group and finite size scaling techniques are used to locate and characterize this line. Our results indicate that for mu < mu1 ~ -1.0 the model is always in a crumpled phase independent of the value of the curvature coupling. For mu < 0 the results are in agreement with an approximate mean field treatment. We find evidence that this line corresponds to first order transitions extending to positive mu. However, the behavior appears to change for mu > mu2 ~ 2-4. The simplest scenario that is consistent with the data is the existence of a critical end point.


Cholesteric Gratings With Field-Controlled Period, Darius Subacius, Sergij V. Shiyanovskii, Philip J. Bos, Oleg Lavrentovich Dec 1997

Cholesteric Gratings With Field-Controlled Period, Darius Subacius, Sergij V. Shiyanovskii, Philip J. Bos, Oleg Lavrentovich

Chemical Physics Publications

Diffractive gratings with period varied by an electric field are developed using a cholesteric liquid crystal confined between two transparent electrodes with unidirectionally treated alignment layers. In the initial state (zero field), the cholesteric layers are parallel to the cell planes. The electric field creates an in-plane modulated structure of variable period. Diffraction regimes of both Raman-Nath and Bragg types are demonstrated. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.


Remark On The Potential Function Of The Linear Sigma Model, Joseph Schechter, David Delphenich Dec 1997

Remark On The Potential Function Of The Linear Sigma Model, Joseph Schechter, David Delphenich

Physics

It is shown that the potential functions for the ordinary linear sigma model can be divided into two topographically different types depending on whether the quantity R\equiv (m_\sigma /m_\pi)^2 is greater than or less than nine. Since the Wigner-Weyl mode (R=1) and the Nambu-Goldstone mode (R=\infty belong to different regions, we speculate that this classification may provide a generalization to the broken symmetry situation, which could be convenient for roughly characterizing different possible applications of the model. It is noted that a more complicated potential does not so much change this picture as add ...


Measurement Of The Decay Amplitudes And Branching Fractions Of BJK* And BJK Decays, C.P. Jessop, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration Dec 1997

Measurement Of The Decay Amplitudes And Branching Fractions Of B → J/Ψ K* And B → J/Ψ K Decays, C.P. Jessop, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration

Kenneth Bloom Publications

Using data taken with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we present the first full angular analysis in the color-suppressed modes B0JK *0and B0JK*+. This leads to a complete determination of the decay amplitudes of these modes including the longitudinal polarization ΓL/Γ= 0.52 ± 0.07 ± 0.04 and the P wave component │P2= 0.16 ± 0.08 ± 0.04. In addition, we update the branching fractions for BJK and BJK*.


Stern-Gerlach Effect For Electron Beams, Herman Batelaan, Timothy J. Gay, J. J. Schwendiman Dec 1997

Stern-Gerlach Effect For Electron Beams, Herman Batelaan, Timothy J. Gay, J. J. Schwendiman

Timothy J. Gay Publications

The conflict between Bohr’s assertion that the magnetic moment of the electron cannot be measured with experiments based on the concept of classical trajectories, and the measurement of the magnetic moment of electrons in a modified Penning trap by Dehmelt et al. has led us to reevaluate other implications of Bohr’s assertion. We show that, contrary to the analysis of Bohr and Pauli, the assumption of classical trajectories in a Stern-Gerlach–like device can result in a high degree of spin separation for an electron beam. This effect may persist within a fully quantum-mechanical analysis. The magnetic fields ...


A New Dynamic Mechanism Of Topological Charge Creation In A Commensurate One-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Near The Contact With A Normal Metal, A. S. Rozhavsky, Yuriy V. Pershin Dr, A. S. Kovalev Dec 1997

A New Dynamic Mechanism Of Topological Charge Creation In A Commensurate One-Dimensional Charge Density Wave Near The Contact With A Normal Metal, A. S. Rozhavsky, Yuriy V. Pershin Dr, A. S. Kovalev

Faculty Publications

The dynamics of conversion of conduction electrons into topological solitons of a charge density wave (CDW) commensurability in an external electric field is investigated. A novel mechanism of initiation of a nonlinear CDW current in the vicinity of the interface between a CDW and a normal metal is revealed and explained. The nonlinear current is produced by the conduction solitons created by the moving profile of the order parameter, formed during the conversion of electrons into collective phase excitations of a CDW. The field dependence of the current is of threshold nature and has no analogs in the bulk mechanisms ...


Monte Carlo Simulations Of Stable Point Defects In Hybrid Nematic Films, C. Chiccoli, Oleg Lavrentovich, P. Pasini, C. Zannoni Dec 1997

Monte Carlo Simulations Of Stable Point Defects In Hybrid Nematic Films, C. Chiccoli, Oleg Lavrentovich, P. Pasini, C. Zannoni

Chemical Physics Publications

Monte Carlo (MC) simulations based exclusively on nearest-neighbor intermolecular interactions reveal the existence of stable long-range deformations and topological defects in a thin nematic film confined between two surfaces with antagonistic (normal and tangential) molecular orientations. Thus the MC technique allows one to describe a delicate balance of bulk elasticity and surface energy usually treated only with macroscopic theories.


Torsional Directed Walks, Entropic Elasticity, And Dna Twist Stiffness, J. David Moroz, Philip C. Nelson Dec 1997

Torsional Directed Walks, Entropic Elasticity, And Dna Twist Stiffness, J. David Moroz, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

DNA and other biopolymers differ from classical polymers because of their torsional stiffness. This property changes the statistical character of their conformations under tension from a classical random walk to a problem we call the "torsional directed walk." Motivated by a recent experiment on single lambda-DNA molecules [Strick, T. R., Allemand, J.-F., Bensimon, D., Bensimon, A. & Croquette, V. (1996) Science 271, 1835-1837], we formulate the torsional directed walk problem and solve it analytically in the appropriate force regime. Our technique affords a direct physical determination of the microscopic twist stiffness C and twist-stretch coupling D relevant for DNA functionality. The theory quantitatively fits existing experimental data for relative extension as a function of overtwist over a wide range of applied force; fitting to the experimental data yields the numerical values C = 120 nm and D = 50 nm. Future experiments will refine these values. We also predict that the phenomenon of reduction of effective twist stiffness by bend fluctuations should be testable in future single-molecule ...


Spin Splitting Of Donor-Bound Excitons In Zno Due To Combined Stress And Spin Exchange, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, T. C. Collins Dec 1997

Spin Splitting Of Donor-Bound Excitons In Zno Due To Combined Stress And Spin Exchange, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, T. C. Collins

Physics Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections Of Ch And C2H2, Yong-Ki Kim, M. Asgar Ali, M. Eugene Rudd Dec 1997

Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections Of Ch And C2H2, Yong-Ki Kim, M. Asgar Ali, M. Eugene Rudd

M. Eugene Rudd Publications

Electron-impact total ionization cross sections for the CH radical and C2H2 (acetylene) have been calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model. The BEB model combines the Mott cross section and the asymptotic form of the Bethe theory, and has been shown to generate reliable ionization cross sections for a large variety of molecules. The BEB cross sections for CH and C2H2 are in good agreement with the available experimental data from ionization thresholds to hundreds of eV in incident energies.


Shielding Strategies For Human Space Exploration Chapter 9: Hze Interactions In Biological Materials, M. Eugene Rudd Dec 1997

Shielding Strategies For Human Space Exploration Chapter 9: Hze Interactions In Biological Materials, M. Eugene Rudd

M. Eugene Rudd Publications

It is shown that most of the energy deposited by fast charged particles traversing matter occurs through ionization, i.e., the ejection of electrons during the atomic collision. The important mechanisms of ionization are identified and several methods of calculating the relevant differential and total cross sections are described. These include both classical and quantum theoretical methods and two semi-empirical models. The calculational methods were intended only for light, bare-ion projectiles, and care must be exercised in extending them to heavy, dressed projectiles.


Joint Map Registration And High Resolution Image Estimation Using A Sequence Of Undersampled Images, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Ernest E. Armstrong Dec 1997

Joint Map Registration And High Resolution Image Estimation Using A Sequence Of Undersampled Images, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Ernest E. Armstrong

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

n many imaging systems, the detector array is not sufficiently dense to adequately sample the scene with the desired field of view. This is particularly true for many infrared focal plane arrays. Thus, the resulting images may be severely aliased. This paper examines a technique for estimating a high-resolution image, with reduced aliasing, from a sequence of undersampled frames. Several approaches to this problem have been investigated previously. However, in this paper a maximum a posteriori (MAP) framework for jointly estimating image registration parameters and the high-resolution image is presented. Several previous approaches have relied on knowing the registration parameters ...


"Hands-On" Epicycles And Retrograde Motion, Matthew J. Moelter, Bernard A. Bates Dec 1997

"Hands-On" Epicycles And Retrograde Motion, Matthew J. Moelter, Bernard A. Bates

Physics

No abstract provided.


Three-Dimensional Camera Calibration Technique For Stereo Imaging Velocimetry Experiments, Mark D. Bethea, James A. Lock, Frank Merat, Paul Crouser Dec 1997

Three-Dimensional Camera Calibration Technique For Stereo Imaging Velocimetry Experiments, Mark D. Bethea, James A. Lock, Frank Merat, Paul Crouser

Physics Faculty Publications

A three-dimensional camera calibration technique is developed by combining two, 2-D camera calibrations for an orthogonal stereo viewing geometry. The left camera view (YZ view) and the right camera view (XZ view) are calibrated separately and then combined to produce an XYZ (3-D) calibration routine, Our technique employs three parallel calibration planes. One is placed along the main diagonal of the cubic experimental chamber, and the other two planes are placed known distances in front of it and behind it within the chamber. Both cameras view the calibration points on the planes simultaneously. Given the coordinates of a number of ...


A Large Scintillation Detector For Nuclear Physics Experiments At Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Apurva Pathak Dec 1997

A Large Scintillation Detector For Nuclear Physics Experiments At Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Apurva Pathak

Master's Theses

A new, large, scintillation detector, called the "K" detector has been designed and built for use in a series of nuclear physics experiments being performed at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF). This project describes the design, construction and testing of this scintillation detector. The K detector was designed to augment an existing detector stack at IUCF, and will serve to increase the energy range of previous studies of neutral pion production in proton-proton collisions near threshold. The test data for the current project came from a proton-proton scattering experiment, during which several runs were carried out between the bombarding ...


Near-Field Measurements On Contrail Properties From Fuels With Different Sulfur Content, Andreas Petzold, Reinhold Busen, Franz Peter Schroder, Robert Baumann, Markus Kuhn, Johan Strom, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Darrel G. Baumgardner, Frank Arnold, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Schumann Dec 1997

Near-Field Measurements On Contrail Properties From Fuels With Different Sulfur Content, Andreas Petzold, Reinhold Busen, Franz Peter Schroder, Robert Baumann, Markus Kuhn, Johan Strom, Donald E. Hagen, Philip D. Whitefield, Darrel G. Baumgardner, Frank Arnold, Stephan Borrmann, Ulrich Schumann

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Microphysical properties of jet exhaust aerosol and contrails were studied in the near field of the emitting aircraft for different fuel sulfur contents. Measurements were performed behind two different aircraft (ATTAS test aircraft of type VFW 614 and Airbus A310-300) using fuels with sulfur contents of 6 ppm and 2700 ppm, respectively. At closest approach (plume age < 1 s), the total number concentrations exceeded the measuring range of the condensation particle counter, i.e., N > 105 cm-3. The concentration of the dry accumulation mode aerosol, i.e., predominantly soot particles, was not affected by the fuel sulfur content. At a plume age of 10 s, an increase in total number concentration (Dp > 0.01 μm) by ...


Bound Μ+Μ- System, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Vladimir G. Ivanov, Savely Karshenboim Dec 1997

Bound Μ+Μ- System, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Gerhard Soff, Vladimir G. Ivanov, Savely Karshenboim

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

We consider the hyperfine structure, the atomic spectrum, and the decay channels of the bound μ+μ- system (dimuonium). The annihilation lifetimes of low-lying atomic states of the system lie in the 10-12 s range. The decay rates could be measured by detection of the decay products (high-energy photons or electron-positron pairs). The hyperfine-structure splitting of the dimuonic system and its decay rate are influenced by electronic vacuum polarization effects in the far timelike asymptotic region. This constitutes a previously unexplored kinematic regime. We evaluate next-to-leading-order radiative corrections to the decay rate of low-lying atomic states. We also obtain ...


Unfolding Of The Period-Two Bifurcation In A Fiber Laser Pumped With Two Modulation Tones, Scott Glasgow, T. C. Newell, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, D. Sukow, T. Erneux Dec 1997

Unfolding Of The Period-Two Bifurcation In A Fiber Laser Pumped With Two Modulation Tones, Scott Glasgow, T. C. Newell, A. Gavrielides, V. Kovanis, D. Sukow, T. Erneux

Faculty Publications

The effect of a small second frequency component on a pump modulated neodymium fiber laser is investigated experimentally and theoretically. This term, whose frequency is exactly half the primary driver, incites an unfolding of the attractor. It breaks the period two pitchfork bifurcation and splits the period one orbit. The modification of the bifurcation diagram is studied analytically by employing a map derived from the class B laser rate equations. We determine specific conditions and scaling laws for this phenomenon. Our analytical predictions are in good agreement with recorded experimental data.


Collision Spectroscopy Of Low Energy Capture By Multiply Charged Ions From Atomic Targets, Kadir Akgungor Dec 1997

Collision Spectroscopy Of Low Energy Capture By Multiply Charged Ions From Atomic Targets, Kadir Akgungor

Dissertations

State-selective differential cross sections for single-electron capture processes in very slow collisions of Ar^q+ (q = 4 - 6) ions with Ne, and Ar^6+ ions with He have been studied experimentally at laboratory collision energies between 15 and 100 qeV, and at scattering angles between 0° and 8° by means of translational energy-gain spectroscopy technique. The translational energy spectra show that only a few final states are populated depending on the charge state of the projectile, the projectile laboratory scattering angle, and the collision energy. These measurements also show that the dominant reaction channels are due to capture into excited ...


Photolithographic Patterning Of Vacuum-Deposited Organic Light Emitting Devices, Peifang Tian, P. E. Burrows, S. E. Forrest Nov 1997

Photolithographic Patterning Of Vacuum-Deposited Organic Light Emitting Devices, Peifang Tian, P. E. Burrows, S. E. Forrest

Peifang Tian

We demonstrate a photolithographic technique to fabricate vacuum-deposited organic light emitting devices. Photoresist liftoff combined with vertical deposition of the emissive organic materials and the metal cathode, followed by oblique deposition of a metal cap, avoids the use of high processing temperatures and the exposure of the organic materials to chemical degradation. The unpackaged devices show no sign of deterioration in room ambient when compared with conventional devices fabricated using low-resolution, shadow mask patterning. Furthermore, the devices are resistant to rapid degradation when operated in air for extended periods. This work illustrates a potential foundation for the volume production of ...


Control Of Nematic Director Orientation By Exposing Rubbed Polyimide Films To Linearly Polarized Ultraviolet Light, Jae-Hoon Kim, Yushan Shi, Satyendra Kumar, Sin-Doo Lee Nov 1997

Control Of Nematic Director Orientation By Exposing Rubbed Polyimide Films To Linearly Polarized Ultraviolet Light, Jae-Hoon Kim, Yushan Shi, Satyendra Kumar, Sin-Doo Lee

Physics Publications

The delicate interplay between the effects of mechanical rubbing and subsequent photo-induced chemical reactions on polyimide films has been studied for aligning liquid crystals. Exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet (LPUV) light was found to profoundly alter the direction and the degree of molecular orientations obtained by rubbing. A simple model is presented to describe the observed changes in the director orientation. The results show that LPUV exposure can be very effectively used to control and fine-tune liquid crystal alignment.


Low-Field Hole Mobility In A Photorefractive Polymer, Arosha Goonesekera, Stephen Ducharme, James M. Takacs, Lei Zhang Nov 1997

Low-Field Hole Mobility In A Photorefractive Polymer, Arosha Goonesekera, Stephen Ducharme, James M. Takacs, Lei Zhang

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We present the time-of-flight measurements of hole mobility in a photorefractive polymer composite as a function of temperature and applied electric field. The analysis shows that the temperature dependence of the low-field mobility is in apparent disagreement with the predictions of the Gaussian disorder model and also with polaron models.


Study Of The Decay Τ-→2Π-Π+0ΝΤ, S. Anderson, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration Nov 1997

Study Of The Decay Τ-→2Π-Π+3Π0ΝΤ, S. Anderson, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration

Kenneth Bloom Publications

The decay τ-→2π-π+0ντ has been studied with the CLEO II detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring. The branching fraction is measured to be (2.85 ± 0.56 ± 0.51) X 10-4. The result is in good agreement with the isospin expectation but somewhat below the conserved-vectorcurrent prediction. We have searched for resonance substructure in the decay. Within the statistical precision, the decay is saturated by the channels τ-→π-0ωντ, 2π-π+ωντ, and π-0ωντ This is the first observation of this ω decay ...


Limit On The Two-Photon Production Of The Glueball Candidate FJ(2220) At The Cornell Electron Storage Ring, R. Godang, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration Nov 1997

Limit On The Two-Photon Production Of The Glueball Candidate FJ(2220) At The Cornell Electron Storage Ring, R. Godang, Kenneth A. Bloom, Cleo Collaboration

Kenneth Bloom Publications

We use the CLEO detector at the Cornell e+e- storage ring, CESR, to search for the two-photon production of the glueball candidate fJ (2220) in its decay to KsKs. We present a restrictive upper limit on the product of the two-photon partial width and the KsKs branching fraction, (Γγγ BKsKs)fJ(2220). We use this limit to calculate a lower limit on the stickiness, which is a measure of the two-gluon coupling relative to the two-photon coupling. This limit on stickiness indicates that the fJ ...


High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction Study Of Smectic Polymorphism And Fluctuations In A Mixture Of Octyl- And Decyl-Oxyphenyl Nitrobenzoyloxy Benzoate, Yushan Shi, George Nounesis, Carl W. Garland, Satyendra Kumar Nov 1997

High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction Study Of Smectic Polymorphism And Fluctuations In A Mixture Of Octyl- And Decyl-Oxyphenyl Nitrobenzoyloxy Benzoate, Yushan Shi, George Nounesis, Carl W. Garland, Satyendra Kumar

Physics Publications

Reentrant nematic phases and smectic antiphases occur as intermediate states between two one-dimensionally ordered frustrated smectic phases, characterized by two competing and, in general, incommensurate smectic density waves. Using high-resolution x-ray diffraction, we have examined the evolution of the two density waves as a function of temperature in all phases of a mixture of polar liquid crystals octyl-and decyl-oxyphenyl nitrobenzoyloxy benzoate (47.4 mol% DB8ONO2+52.6% DB10ONO2). This mixture exhibits at temperatures below 127 degrees C the liquid-crystal phase sequence: smectic-A(d), reentrant nematic phases N-d and N-1, smectic-A(1), tilted antiphase (C) over tilde, smectic-A(2), and smectic-C-2 ...


Upper Limits To The Outflow Of Ions At Mars: Implications For Atmospheric Evolution, Jane L. Fox Nov 1997

Upper Limits To The Outflow Of Ions At Mars: Implications For Atmospheric Evolution, Jane L. Fox

Physics Faculty Publications

Escape of ions is potentially important for the evolution of volatiles on Mars, but the mechanisms and rates of ion escape processes are not fully understood. Instruments on the Russian Phobos 2 orbiter have, however, measured fluxes of heavy ions apparently of ionospheric origin in the optical shadow of Mars. These ions are assumed to arise from escape processes induced by the interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere. We determine here upper limits to the ion loss rates by imposing upward flux boundary conditions on models of the low and high solar activity Mars ionosphere. The maximum fluxes ...