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1995

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Articles 1 - 30 of 377

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Investigation Of Potential Oxygen Defect Mechanism Of Persistent Photoconductivity And Photoinduced Superconductivity In Yba2cu3ox, Denise Catherine Chew Dec 1995

Investigation Of Potential Oxygen Defect Mechanism Of Persistent Photoconductivity And Photoinduced Superconductivity In Yba2cu3ox, Denise Catherine Chew

Theses

In this thesis work, we conclude that oxygen vacancy defects play a fundamental role in the PPC/PISC mechanism and identify the oxygen defects as F centers (an oxygen vacancy which traps two electrons) or F+ centers. Also, the correlation between the peaks observed in the luminescence spectra and those observed in the wavelength dependence of PPC suggest that the photogeneration of charges and their annihilation via luminescent recombination occur in the same level (Cu-O chains) of the YBa2Cu3Ox crystal. Previous models had assigned the peaks in the PPC excitation spectrum to charge transfer in ...


Novel Switching Phenomena In Ferroelectric Langmuir-Blodgett Films, A. Bune, Stephen Ducharme, V.M. Fridkin, L. Blinov, S. Palto, N. Petukhova, S. Yudin Dec 1995

Novel Switching Phenomena In Ferroelectric Langmuir-Blodgett Films, A. Bune, Stephen Ducharme, V.M. Fridkin, L. Blinov, S. Palto, N. Petukhova, S. Yudin

Stephen Ducharme Publications

We have established ferroelectric switching and observed a novel conductance switching phenomenon in ferroelectric polymer films fabricated by the Langmuir–Blodgett technique. The films consist of 10–30 monolayers (ML) of a copolymer of vinylidene fluoride (70%) and trifluoroethylene (30%), exhibiting a first-order ferroelectric phase transition at 70 °C and nearly rectangular ferroelectric and conductance hysteresis at 24 °C. Ferroelectric switching is accompanied by switching of the conductance by three orders of magnitude. A model describing this switching phenomenon is proposed.


Foam Mechanics At The Bubble Scale, Douglas J. Durian Dec 1995

Foam Mechanics At The Bubble Scale, Douglas J. Durian

Department of Physics Papers

By focusing on entire bubbles rather than films or vertices, a simple model is proposed for the deformation and flow of foam in which dimensionality, polydispersity, and liquid content can easily be varied. Simulation results are presented for the linear elastic properties as a function of bubble volume fraction, showing a melting transition where the static shear modulus vanishes and the relaxation time scale peaks. Results are also presented for shear stress versus strain rate, showing intermittent flow via avalanchelike topological rearrangements and Bingham-plastic behavior.


Measured Stark Widths Of A 425,94 Nm Ari Spectral Line, Ljiljana Skuljan, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Aleksandar Sreckovic, Stevan Djenize Dec 1995

Measured Stark Widths Of A 425,94 Nm Ari Spectral Line, Ljiljana Skuljan, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Aleksandar Sreckovic, Stevan Djenize

Articles

No abstract provided.


Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds And The Origin Of Quasar Emission Lines, Jack Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, Kirk Korista, Dima Verner Dec 1995

Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds And The Origin Of Quasar Emission Lines, Jack Baldwin, Gary J. Ferland, Kirk Korista, Dima Verner

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The similarity of quasar line spectra has been taken as an indication that the emission line clouds have preferred parameters, suggesting that the environment is subject to a fine-tuning process. We show here that the observed spectrum is a natural consequence of powerful selection effects. We computed a large grid of photoionization models covering the widest possible range of cloud gas density and distance from the central continuum source. For each line only a narrow range of density and distance from the continuum source results in maximum reprocessing efficiency, corresponding to "locally optimally emitting clouds" (LOCs). These parameters depend on ...


Singular Vertices And The Triangulation Space Of The D-Sphere, Simon Catterall, G. Thorleifsson, John B. Kogut, R. Renken Dec 1995

Singular Vertices And The Triangulation Space Of The D-Sphere, Simon Catterall, G. Thorleifsson, John B. Kogut, R. Renken

Physics

By a sequence of numerical experiments we demonstrate that generic triangulations of the D-sphere for D>3 contain one {\it singular} (D-3)-simplex. The mean number of elementary D-simplices sharing this simplex increases with the volume of the triangulation according to a simple power law. The lower dimension subsimplices associated with this (D-3)-simplex also show a singular behaviour. Possible consequences for the DT model of four-dimensional quantum gravity are discussed.


Nanoscale Oxide Patterns On Si (100) Surfaces, T. -C. Shen, C. Wang, J. W. Lyding, J. R. Tucker Dec 1995

Nanoscale Oxide Patterns On Si (100) Surfaces, T. -C. Shen, C. Wang, J. W. Lyding, J. R. Tucker

T. -C. Shen

Ultrathin oxide patterns of a linewidth of 50 Å have been created on Si(100)‐2×1 surfaces by a scanning tunneling microscope operating in ultrahigh vacuum. The oxide thickness is estimated to be 4–10 Å. The morphology and spectroscopy of the oxide region are obtained. Hydrogen passivation is used as an oxidation mask. The defects caused by oxidation in the passivated region before and after the hydrogen desorption are compared and discussed. The multistep silicon processings by an ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling micropscope is thus demonstrated.


Correlations Between Auditory‐Filter Shape Parameters Measured At Proximal Center Frequencies, Marc A. Fagelson, Craig A. Champlin Dec 1995

Correlations Between Auditory‐Filter Shape Parameters Measured At Proximal Center Frequencies, Marc A. Fagelson, Craig A. Champlin

Marc A. Fagelson

Auditory‐filter shape parameters in 20 normal‐hearing listeners were determined at center frequencies (CFs) of 913, 1095, 3651, and 4382 Hz using the five‐point roex (p,r) method. Slopes of the filters’ skirts were correlated for the CFs in each frequency region at both low and high stimulus levels. In the λ=1000‐Hz region, the auditory filters’ low‐frequency slopes were significantly correlated at the low and high stimulus levels, while the high‐frequency slopes were associated at the high, but not the low level. In the λ=4000‐Hz region the relationships were clearer as the ...


Effect Of Disorder On Synchronization In Prototype 2-Dimensional Josephson Arrays, Adam S. Landsberg, Yuri Braiman, Kurt Wiesenfeld Dec 1995

Effect Of Disorder On Synchronization In Prototype 2-Dimensional Josephson Arrays, Adam S. Landsberg, Yuri Braiman, Kurt Wiesenfeld

WM Keck Science Faculty Papers

We study the effects of quenched disorder on the dynamics of two-dimensional arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions. Disorder in both the junction critical currents and resistances is considered. Analytical results for small arrays are used to identify a physical mechanism which promotes frequency locking across each row of the array, and to show that no such locking mechanism exists between rows. The intrarow locking mechanism is surprisingly strong, so that a row can tolerate large amounts of disorder before frequency locking is destroyed.


Local Magnetic Properties Of Antiferromagnetic Febr2, J. Pelloth, R.A. Brand, S. Takele, M.M. Pereira De Azevedo, Wolfman Kleemann, Christian Binek, J. Kushauer, D. Bertrand Dec 1995

Local Magnetic Properties Of Antiferromagnetic Febr2, J. Pelloth, R.A. Brand, S. Takele, M.M. Pereira De Azevedo, Wolfman Kleemann, Christian Binek, J. Kushauer, D. Bertrand

Christian Binek Publications

The antiferromagnet FeBr2 has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy in external fields both in the metamagnetic region below the multicritical temperature TMCP and in the second-order transition region above. The local magnetization shows that the metamagnetic transition occurs by spin flips, as in simple models. However, in the second-order transition region, the local magnetization of the sublattice oriented antiparallel to the external field varies continuously but remains parallel to the c axis. This can only be understood if the external magnetic field induces strong transversal spin precession of the moments on the antiparallel sublattice. This shows that the ...


The Anomalous Mössbauer Fraction Of Ferritin And Polysaccharide Iron Complex (Pic), M. E. Y. Mohie-Eldin, Richard B. Frankel, L. Gunther, G. C. Papaefthymiou Dec 1995

The Anomalous Mössbauer Fraction Of Ferritin And Polysaccharide Iron Complex (Pic), M. E. Y. Mohie-Eldin, Richard B. Frankel, L. Gunther, G. C. Papaefthymiou

Physics

Mössbauer studies of the ubiquitous protein molecule ferritin and its synthetic "biomimic" polysaccharide iron complex (PIC) exhibit an anomaly in the Mössbauer spectrum wherein the recoil free fraction f-factor has a sharp drop with respect to temperature as the temperature rises above 30 K for mammalian ferritin and 60 K for PIC. The anomaly coincides with the disappearance of hyperfine splitting, which is due to superparamagnetic relaxation above the blocking temperature. Different absorbers were used to experimentally investigate the effect of absorber thickness on the Mössbauer spectrum. The anomaly persists for thin absorbers. Also, spectra treated with FFT procedures ...


Hybrid Treatment Of Spatio‐Temporal Behavior In Surface Reactions With Coexisting Immobile And Highly Mobile Reactants, Michael Joseph Tammaro, M. Sabella, James W. Evans Dec 1995

Hybrid Treatment Of Spatio‐Temporal Behavior In Surface Reactions With Coexisting Immobile And Highly Mobile Reactants, Michael Joseph Tammaro, M. Sabella, James W. Evans

Mathematics Publications

For surface reactions on single-crystal substrates which involve highly mobile adspecies, there is a vast separation in natural time and length scales. Adspecies hop rates can be many orders of magnitude larger than rates for other processes. Strong spatial correlations or ordering can exist on the atomic scale, while spatial pattern formation occurs on a macroscopic scale due to high diffusivity. An efficient analysis of such systems is provided by a "hybrid treatment" which we apply here to the monomer-dimer surface reaction model in the case of coexisting immobile dimer adspecies and highly mobile monomer adspecies. Specifically, we combine a ...


Recombination In Kr^34+ + H2 And 0^6+ + He Collisions, Konstantinos Zaharakis Dec 1995

Recombination In Kr^34+ + H2 And 0^6+ + He Collisions, Konstantinos Zaharakis

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Broad Ne Viii Λ744 Emission From The Quasar Pg 1148+549, Fred Hamann, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Kirk T. Korista Dec 1995

Broad Ne Viii Λ744 Emission From The Quasar Pg 1148+549, Fred Hamann, Joseph C. Shields, Gary J. Ferland, Kirk T. Korista

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We discuss the probable detection of broad Ne VIII λ774 emission from the zɛ = 0.978 quasar PG 1148+549, and we use spectral synthesis calculations to study the physical conditions in the line-forming gas. The theoretical predictions and the measured line wavelength both support Ne VIII λ774 as the most likely identification.

Our calculations show that Ne VIII λ774 forms in hotter and more highly ionized gas than previously recognized in the broad emission line region. If the gas is photoionized by a standard active galactic nucleus continuum, the observed Ne VIII equivalent width, the Ne VIII/O ...


Local Magnetic Properties Of Antiferromagnetic Febr2, J. Peloth, R. A. Brand, Takele Seda, M. M. Pereira De Azevedo, W. Kleeman, Ch. Binek, J. Kushauer, D. Bertrand Dec 1995

Local Magnetic Properties Of Antiferromagnetic Febr2, J. Peloth, R. A. Brand, Takele Seda, M. M. Pereira De Azevedo, W. Kleeman, Ch. Binek, J. Kushauer, D. Bertrand

Physics & Astronomy

The antiferromagnet FeBr2 has been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy in external fields both in the metamagnetic region below the multicritical temperature TMCP and in the second-order transition region above. The local magnetization shows that the metamagnetic transition occurs by spin flips, as in simple models. However, in the second-order transition region, the local magnetization of the sublattice oriented antiparallel to the external field varies continuously but remains parallel to the c axis. This can only be understood if the external magnetic field induces strong transversal spin precession of the moments on the antiparallel sublattice. This shows that the ...


Failure Of The Optical Theorem For Gaussian-Beam Scattering By A Spherical Particle, James A. Lock, Joseph T. Hodges, Gérard Gouesbet Dec 1995

Failure Of The Optical Theorem For Gaussian-Beam Scattering By A Spherical Particle, James A. Lock, Joseph T. Hodges, Gérard Gouesbet

Physics Faculty Publications

It is shown that when an electromagnetic wave with some degree of amplitude rolloff in the transverse direction is scattered by a spherical particle, the optical theorem is not valid. For such shaped beams the extinction cross section may be written as an infinite series in powers of the reciprocal of the beam width. The imaginary part of the forward-scattering amplitude is shown to be the first term in this series. Two approximations to based on the dominance of diffraction in the forward direction for w(0) greater than or similar to a, where w(0) is the beam half-width ...


Single Molecule Emission Characteristics In Near-Field Microscopy, Randy X. Bian, Robert C. Dunn, X. Sunney Xie, P.T. Leung Dec 1995

Single Molecule Emission Characteristics In Near-Field Microscopy, Randy X. Bian, Robert C. Dunn, X. Sunney Xie, P.T. Leung

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

In near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), the measured fluorescence lifetime of a single dye molecule can be shortened or lengthened, sensitively dependent on the relative position between the molecule and aluminum coated fiber tip. The modified lifetimes and other emission characteristics are simulated by solving Maxwell equations with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The 2D computation reveals insight into the lifetime behaviors and provides guidance for nonperturbative spectroscopic measurements with NSOM. This new methodology is capable of predicting molecular emission properties in front of a metal/dielectric interface of arbitrary geometry.


Methods For Generating Quasi-Exactly Solvable Potentials, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Avinash Khare, Uday P. Sukhatme Dec 1995

Methods For Generating Quasi-Exactly Solvable Potentials, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Avinash Khare, Uday P. Sukhatme

Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works

We describe three different methods for generating quasi-exactly solvable potentials, for which a finite number of eigenstates are analytically known. The three methods are respectively based on (i) a polynomial ansatz for wave functions; (ii) point canonical transformations; (iii) supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The methods are rather general and give considerably richer results than those available in the current literature.


What Future Will We Choose For Physics?, Sol M. Gruner, James S. Langer, Philip C. Nelson, Viola Vogel Dec 1995

What Future Will We Choose For Physics?, Sol M. Gruner, James S. Langer, Philip C. Nelson, Viola Vogel

Department of Physics Papers

Science in the United States is in a time of pain and uncertainty. The pain is felt most acutely by young scientists, who are having great difficulty establishing their careers. The uncertainty about the duration and outcome of the current situation stems from its roots in ponderous events of recent history—the end of the cold war, industrial downsizing, government deficits and demographic trends. Although budget difficulties and lack of jobs plague most of the sciences, the atmosphere of uncertainty about the future is palpably different from one profession to the next. Our concern here is with the profession of ...


Band Structure For Acoustic Waves Propagating In A Periodic Elastic Media And Impurity Modes Arising From Slab Substitutions, Abdur Rahman Dec 1995

Band Structure For Acoustic Waves Propagating In A Periodic Elastic Media And Impurity Modes Arising From Slab Substitutions, Abdur Rahman

Master's Theses

In this thesis I study the band structure for acoustic waves propagating in a one-dimensional elastic array which forms a periodic elastic system in which band gaps are opened in the frequency spectrum. Specifically, I study the single impurity problem in this system. An impurity is introduced in the system by replacing one of the acoustic slabs with a new slab of different acoustic medium or by changing the thickness of impurity slab. I study the very narrow (in frequency) impurity modes in the band gaps which are localized about the impurity sites. Then I study the frequency of impurity ...


Electronic Band Dispersion And Pseudogap In Quasicrystals: Angular-Resolved Photoemission Studies On Icosahedral Al70pd21.5mn8.5, X. Wu, Stefan Walenty Kycia, C. G. Olson, P. J. Benning, Alan I. Goldman, David W. Lynch Dec 1995

Electronic Band Dispersion And Pseudogap In Quasicrystals: Angular-Resolved Photoemission Studies On Icosahedral Al70pd21.5mn8.5, X. Wu, Stefan Walenty Kycia, C. G. Olson, P. J. Benning, Alan I. Goldman, David W. Lynch

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Angular-resolved photoelectron spectra from the fivefold surface of single-grain icosahedral Al70Pd21.5Mn8.5 exhibit a quasiperiodic dispersion of 300 meV at 2.3 eV binding energy. Low energy electron diffraction studies confirm quasicrystalline order at the surface. A distinct pseudogap feature is observed with a density of states near the Fermi level decreasing as a square-root power law.


Transitions Between Convective Patterns In Chemical Fronts, Y. Wu, D. A. Vasquez, Boyd F. Edwards, J. W. Wilder Dec 1995

Transitions Between Convective Patterns In Chemical Fronts, Y. Wu, D. A. Vasquez, Boyd F. Edwards, J. W. Wilder

All Physics Faculty Publications

We present a theory for the transition from nonaxisymmetric to axisymmetric convection in iodate-arsenous acid reaction fronts propagating in a vertical slab. The transition takes place away from the onset of convection, where a convectionless flat front becomes unstable to a nonaxisymmetric convective front. The transition is studied by numerically solving a reaction-diffusion equation coupled with nonlinear hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional slab.


Upper-Tropospheric Aerosol Sampled During Project Fire Ifo Ii, Donald E. Hagen, Josef Podzimek, Max B. Trueblood Dec 1995

Upper-Tropospheric Aerosol Sampled During Project Fire Ifo Ii, Donald E. Hagen, Josef Podzimek, Max B. Trueblood

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

Aerosols can play a role in the cloud formation process through the heterogeneous nucleation mechanism, and in turn, once formed, cirrus clouds can impact the ambient aerosol through scavenging and other collection mechanisms. University of Missouri aerosol sampling facilities were employed on aircraft for in situ collection and characterization of the particulates near cirrus cloud level. Tandem differential mobility analyzer and impactor techniques were used to measure aerosol size distribution, hydration capability, and particle composition information. Evidence of aerosol layering was observed near the tropospause, and there was a tendency toward depletion of the ambient aerosol at both ends of ...


Observation Of Beam-Induced Changes In The Polarization Of Balmer-Α Radiation Emitted Following Beam--Tilted-Foil Transmission, Wang Qi, David D. Allred, Larry V. Knight, Douglas L. Harper, Royal G. Albridge, Norman H. Tolk Dec 1995

Observation Of Beam-Induced Changes In The Polarization Of Balmer-Α Radiation Emitted Following Beam--Tilted-Foil Transmission, Wang Qi, David D. Allred, Larry V. Knight, Douglas L. Harper, Royal G. Albridge, Norman H. Tolk

Faculty Publications

Measurements of the circular polarization of Balmer-α radiation emitted by excited hydrogen atoms, following the transmission of (20-50)-keV protons through thin, tilted amorphous carbon foils, exhibit markedly unexpected behavior as a function of exposure of the foil to the proton beam. Specifically, the circular polarization changes from an initially well understood tilt-angle dependence to a behavior which, for low tilt angles, gives the opposite handedness of circular polarization from that predicted. In addition, the degree of alignment, indicated by the linear Stokes parameter M/I, is enhanced also as a function of dose. These changes in the tilt-angle dependence ...


Pion Fusion In Peripheral Pp Collisions, Alec Schramm, Burndt Muller Nov 1995

Pion Fusion In Peripheral Pp Collisions, Alec Schramm, Burndt Muller

Alec J Schramm

We estimate the cross section for quasielastic double pion exchange in high energy proton-proton collisions. Total and elastic ππ cross sections are calculated in an equivalent pion approximation, with pion-baryon vertices taken from chiral perturbation theory.


Forming B1-XCX Semiconductor Devices By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Peter A. Dowben Nov 1995

Forming B1-XCX Semiconductor Devices By Chemical Vapor Deposition, Peter A. Dowben

Peter Dowben Publications

Active semiconductor devices including heterojunction diodes and thin film transistors are formed by PECVD deposition of a boron carbide thin film on an N-type substrate. The boron to carbon ratio of the deposited material is controlled so that the film has a suitable band gap energy. Boron carbides such as B4.7C, B7.2C and B19C have suitable band gap energies between 0.8 and 1.7 eV. The stoichiometry of the film can be selected by varying the partial pressure of precursor gases, such as nido pentaborane and methane. The precursor gas or ...


Simple Description Of Pion-Pion Scattering To 1 Gev, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Francesco Sannino Nov 1995

Simple Description Of Pion-Pion Scattering To 1 Gev, Joseph Schechter, Masayasu Harada, Francesco Sannino

Physics

Motivated by the 1/Nc expansion, we present a simple model of pion-pion scattering as a sum of a `current-algebra' contact term and resonant pole exchanges. The model preserves crossing symmetry as well as unitarity up to 1.2 GeV. Key features include chiral dynamics, vector meson dominance, a broad low energy scalar (sigma) meson and a `Ramsauer-Townsend' mechanism for the understanding of the 980 MeV region. We discuss in detail the `regularization' (corresponding to rescattering effects) necessary to make all these nice features work.


Evidence For Crystal-Field Splitting In Surface-Atom Photoemission From Potassium, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe Nov 1995

Evidence For Crystal-Field Splitting In Surface-Atom Photoemission From Potassium, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe

All Physics Faculty Publications

Photoemission spectra from the shallow 3p3/2 core levels of the surface atoms of metallic potassium exhibit the effects of a small but measurable crystal-field splitting of ∼38 meV. It manifests itself mainly as an apparent angle-dependent modulation of the spin-orbit splitting. This phenomenon may, in general, interfere with accurate determinations of surface-atom core-level shifts.


Complexity Properties Of The Cellular Automaton Game Of Life, Andreas Rechtsteiner Nov 1995

Complexity Properties Of The Cellular Automaton Game Of Life, Andreas Rechtsteiner

Dissertations and Theses

The Game of life is probably the most famous cellular automaton. Life shows all the characteristics of Wolfram's complex Class N cellular automata: long-lived transients, static and propagating local structures, and the ability to support universal computation. We examine in this thesis questions about the geometry and criticality of Life. We find that Life has two different regimes with different dimensionalities. In the small scale regime Life shows a fractal dimensionality with Ds = 0.658 and in the large scale regime D1 = 2.0, suggesting that the objects of Life are randomly distributed. We find that Life differentiates between ...


The Geometry And Kinematics Of The Broad-Line Region In Ngc 5548 From Hst And Iue Observations, Ignaz Wanders, Mike R. Goad, Kirk T. Korista, Bradley M. Peterson, Keith Horne, Gary J. Ferland, Anuradha P. Koratkar, Richard W. Pogge, Joseph C. Sheilds Nov 1995

The Geometry And Kinematics Of The Broad-Line Region In Ngc 5548 From Hst And Iue Observations, Ignaz Wanders, Mike R. Goad, Kirk T. Korista, Bradley M. Peterson, Keith Horne, Gary J. Ferland, Anuradha P. Koratkar, Richard W. Pogge, Joseph C. Sheilds

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The spatial and radial velocity distribution of broad-line-emitting gas in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 is examined through the process of reverberation mapping, which is done by detailed comparison of continuum and emission-line variations. Recent spectroscopic monitoring of NGC 5548 with HST and IUE allows us to resolve the "transfer function" (TF) that relates the continuum and emission-line variability. We also examine the radial velocity-resolved TFs, and confirm that predominantly radial motions of the line-emitting clouds can be excluded. We find that a broad-line region comprised of clouds that are orbiting a central source of mass ~108 M ...