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Full-Text Articles in Physics

The Spectral Center Of Gravity Effect And Auditory Filter Bandwidth, Marc Fagelson, Linda M. Thibodeau Nov 1994

The Spectral Center Of Gravity Effect And Auditory Filter Bandwidth, Marc Fagelson, Linda M. Thibodeau

Marc A. Fagelson

The spectral center of gravity refers to a listener’s averaging of frequency and intensity components when formant peaks in a speechlike signal are separated by 3.5 Bark units or less. In this paper a total of 18 synthetic vowels whose spectra approximated /ae/ or /inverted vee/ were generated digitally; each stimulus contained the first 40 harmonics of a 100‐Hz fundamental. Nine spectra contained three formants, while the balance contained only two. Subjects with normal hearing and mild high‐frequency hearing loss above 3000 Hz were instructed to identify synthetic vowels as either /ae/ or /inverted vee/ as ...


Compositional Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: Band-Filling, Charge-Transfer, And Size Effects From A First-Principles All-Electron Landau-Type Theory, J. B. Staunton, Duane D. Johnson, F. J. Pinski Jul 1994

Compositional Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: Band-Filling, Charge-Transfer, And Size Effects From A First-Principles All-Electron Landau-Type Theory, J. B. Staunton, Duane D. Johnson, F. J. Pinski

Duane D. Johnson

Using a mean-field statistical description, we derive a general formalism to investigate atomic short-range order in alloys based on a density-functional description of the finite-temperature, grand potential of the random alloy. This ‘‘first-principles,’’ Landau-type approach attempts to treat several contributions (electronic structure, Fermi surface, electrostatics, magnetism, etc.) to the electronic energy on an equal footing. An important ingredient for the statistical averaging is the replacement of the molecular mean fields (Weiss fields) with Onsager cavity fields, which forces the diagonal part of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to be obeyed. To show its general applicability and usefulness, we apply the theory to ...


First-Principles All-Electron Theory Of Atomic Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: D022- Versus L12-Like Correlations, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski Jul 1994

First-Principles All-Electron Theory Of Atomic Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: D022- Versus L12-Like Correlations, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski

Duane D. Johnson

We use a ‘‘first-principles’’ concentration-wave approach based on a finite-temperature, electronic density-functional, mean-field, grand potential of the random alloy to investigate the high-temperature atomic short-range order (ASRO) in Ni75V25 and Pd75V25 solid solutions. Experimentally, these similar alloys both develop D022-type long-range order at low temperatures but different ASRO at high temperatures. Our calculations describe the measured ASRO well. We compare these results with those found for a hypothetical Co75Ti25 solid solution. Since this alloy orders directly from the melt into the L12 phase, it should exhibit strong L12-like ASRO, as we find in our calculations. We analyze the features in ...


Surface-Induced Ordering In Asymmetric Block Copolymers, Y. Liu, W. Zhao, X. Zheng, Alexander H. King, A. Sing, M. H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, K. H. Dai, E. J. Kramer, S. A. Schwarz, O. Gebizlioglu, S. K. Sinha Jun 1994

Surface-Induced Ordering In Asymmetric Block Copolymers, Y. Liu, W. Zhao, X. Zheng, Alexander H. King, A. Sing, M. H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, K. H. Dai, E. J. Kramer, S. A. Schwarz, O. Gebizlioglu, S. K. Sinha

Alexander H. King

The surface-induced ordering in thin films of asymmetric deuterated polystyrene (dPS)- poly(viny1pyridine) (PVP) diblock and triblock copolymers of comparable polymerization index and PVP volume fraction - 0.25) was studied using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion massspectrometry, and neutron reflectivity. The morphology of both di- and triblock copolymer films was found to be cylindrical except for the layer adjacent to the silicon oxide surface, which due to the strong interaction of silica with PVP, was lamellar. The spacing between adjacent cylindrical layers was found to be consistent with mean field theory predictions. In the triblock copolymer films ...


Click‐Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions In Normal‐Hearing Children, Jacek Smurzynski Jan 1994

Click‐Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions In Normal‐Hearing Children, Jacek Smurzynski

Jacek Smurzynski

Click‐evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOEs) were collected from 167 ears of 106 normal‐hearing children using the ILO88 system with the stimuli presented at 80±2 dB pe SPL. Subjects were divided into five age groups: 13–24 months (24 ears), 25–36 months (49 ears), 37–48 months (31 ears), 49–60 months (34 ears), and 61–72 months (29 ears). All subjects had normal middle ear function and their audiological data were within normal limits. Mean overall CEOE level was calculated for each age group. None was statistically different from any other. However, the data of the 167 ...