Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Further Thoughts On Newton's Zero-Order Rainbow, James A. Lock, Timothy A. Mccollum Dec 1994

Further Thoughts On Newton's Zero-Order Rainbow, James A. Lock, Timothy A. Mccollum

Physics Faculty Publications

A zero-order rainbow angle may be defined as the relative minimum angle of deviation of geometrical light rays transmitted without internal reflections through a transparent particle. If the incident rays are parallel and the particle is a sphere, such a minimum does not exist. But if the incident rays ale not parallel or if the particle has an elliptical rather than circular cross section, an angle of minimum deviation, hence a zero-order rainbow, can occur. For a spherical water droplet, the zero-order rainbow will occur when a point source is placed less than a droplet radius away from its surface ...


Interaction Of A Group Of Dislocations Within The Framework Of The Continuum Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon Nov 1994

Interaction Of A Group Of Dislocations Within The Framework Of The Continuum Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon

Physics Faculty Publications

The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of edge dislocation is analyzed. Solutions of the continuum limit of the FK model [the sine-Gordon (SG) equation] are obtained in a form convenient for investigation of dynamics of a large number of interacting dislocations. We consider, based on these solutions, some nonstationary processes: dislocation generation, diffusion of dislocations, and crack-dislocation interaction. Simple relations connecting the velocity of plastic deformation, density and velocity of dislocations, and the force of interaction between dislocations are obtained. The nucleation of dislocations at a moving crack tip is described.


Magnetoluminescence Studies In Gaas-Alxga1-Xas Single Heterojunctions - Observation Of Parity-Forbidden Landau-Level Transitions, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz, R. Jones, K. K. Bajaj Oct 1994

Magnetoluminescence Studies In Gaas-Alxga1-Xas Single Heterojunctions - Observation Of Parity-Forbidden Landau-Level Transitions, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz, R. Jones, K. K. Bajaj

Physics Faculty Publications

We have observed a number of allowed and parity-forbidden Landau-level transitions in a modulation-doped GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs single heterojunction structure using photoluminescence-excitation spectroscopy at 2 K. The GaAs layer in this structure is 5000 Å thick. From the allowed Landau-level transitions we determine the reduced mass of the electron-hole pair to be 0.07me. Using a heavy-hole mass of 0.45me, we determine the average value of the electron effective mass to be 0.084me. From the parity-forbidden transitions where the hole Landau level is the same but the electron Landau levels are different, we ...


Nondestructive Mapping Of Carrier Concentration And Dislocation Density In N(+)-Type Gaas, David C. Look, D. C. Walters, M. G. Mier, J. R. Sizelove Oct 1994

Nondestructive Mapping Of Carrier Concentration And Dislocation Density In N(+)-Type Gaas, David C. Look, D. C. Walters, M. G. Mier, J. R. Sizelove

Physics Faculty Publications

Transmission mappings (500 μm×500 μm resolution) at wavelengths of 0.9–1.5 μm on 3 in., n+‐GaAs wafers (n≂1–2×1018 cm-3) correlate well with carrier concentration n, measured by the Hall effect, and dislocation density, as confirmed by KOH etch‐pit patterns. The absorption for λ≳1.0 μm (below band edge) varies directly with n via free‐carrier interconduction‐band transitions, while the absorption for λ≲0.95 μm (near band edge) varies inversely with n because of band‐filling effects. Both phenomena are highly useful for n+‐GaAs wafer characterization.


Diamagnetic Shifts Of Excitons Associated With Symmetrical And Antisymmetric Wave Functions In Coupled Inxga1-Xas-Gaas Quantum Wells, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz Oct 1994

Diamagnetic Shifts Of Excitons Associated With Symmetrical And Antisymmetric Wave Functions In Coupled Inxga1-Xas-Gaas Quantum Wells, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz

Physics Faculty Publications

Magneto‐optical data obtained from photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation measurements performed in the presence of applied magnetic fields were used to determine the diamagnetic shifts of free excitons. The samples studied were coupled InxGa1−xAs–GaAs quantum wells. In all cases the excitons associated with antisymmetric wave functions were found to have larger diamagnetic shifts than the excitons associated with symmetric wave functions. This suggests that the excitons associated with antisymmetric wave functions have a smaller binding energy than excitons associated with symmetric wave functions. These properties are consistent with the fact that excitons associated with ...


Rigorous Justification Of The Localized Approximation To The Beam Shape Coefficients In Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory .1. On-Axis Beams, James A. Lock, Gérard Gouesbet Sep 1994

Rigorous Justification Of The Localized Approximation To The Beam Shape Coefficients In Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory .1. On-Axis Beams, James A. Lock, Gérard Gouesbet

Physics Faculty Publications

Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory describes electromagnetic scattering of an arbitrary light beam by a spherical particle. The computationally most expensive feature of the theory is the evaluation of the beam-shape coefficients, which give the decomposition of the incident light beam into partial waves. The so-called localized approximation to these coefficients for a focused Gaussian beam is an analytical function whose use greatly simplifies Gaussian-beam scattering calculations. A mathematical justification and physical interpretation of the localized approximation is presented for on-axis beams.


Radiative Recombination At The Alxga1-Xas-Gaas Heterostructure Interface By 2-Dimensional Excitons, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, Phil W. Yu, K. Evans, C. E. Stutz, L. Radomsky Sep 1994

Radiative Recombination At The Alxga1-Xas-Gaas Heterostructure Interface By 2-Dimensional Excitons, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, Phil W. Yu, K. Evans, C. E. Stutz, L. Radomsky

Physics Faculty Publications

Radiative recombination from the AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs heterostructure interface was investigated using photoluminescence and photoluminescence-excitation spectroscopy in modulation-doped and undoped samples. This emission is identified as H-band A, resulting from an indirect excitonlike transition in real space. The exciton is made up of a two-dimensional electron in the interface notch and a valence-band hole in the neutral region, having a binding energy of 1.8 meV. The H-band A exciton is directly excited by a free exciton making a vertical transition in real space. H-band A may be a distortion of the vertical direct free exciton in real ...


Light And Color In The Open Air: Introduction By The Feature Editors, James A. Lock Jul 1994

Light And Color In The Open Air: Introduction By The Feature Editors, James A. Lock

Physics Faculty Publications

The natural environment is still rich in new observable phenomena despite centuries of scientific observation. Reflecting this fact, the papers in this feature issue of Applied Optics report the observation and analysis of both new and well-known naked-eye optical phenomena.


Rainbow Scattering By A Coated Sphere, James A. Lock, J. Michael Jamison, Chih-Yang Lin Jul 1994

Rainbow Scattering By A Coated Sphere, James A. Lock, J. Michael Jamison, Chih-Yang Lin

Physics Faculty Publications

We examine the behavior of the first-order rainbow for a coated sphere by using both ray theory and Aden-Kerker wave theory as the radius of the core alpha12 and the thickness of the coating delta are varied. As the ratio delta/alpha12 increases from 10(-4) to 0.33, we find three classes of rainbow phenomena that cannot occur for a homogeneous-sphere rainbow. For delta/alpha12 less than or similar to 10(-3), the rainbow intensity is an oscillatory function of the coating thickness, for delta/alpha12 almost-equal-to 10(-2), the first-order rainbow breaks into a pair of twin rainbows ...


Correlated Light Scattering By A Dense Distribution Of Condensation Droplets On A Window Pane, James A. Lock, Chin-Lien Chiu Jul 1994

Correlated Light Scattering By A Dense Distribution Of Condensation Droplets On A Window Pane, James A. Lock, Chin-Lien Chiu

Physics Faculty Publications

An analytical model of the scattering structure factor for an assembly of noninteracting hard disks has recently appeared in the literature [Phys. Rev. A 42, 5978-5989 (1990)]. We employ this model to calculate correlated light scattering by monodispersions and binary mixtures of condensation droplets on a window pane. We find that an area fraction of f greater-than-or-equal-to 0.6 is required for producing the near-forward direction scattering suppression and that a moderately wide polydispersion of droplet sizes is capable of producing the experimentally observed bright ring of colored light.


Deep Traps In Molecular-Beam-Epitaxial Gaas Grown At Low Temperatures, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, H. Yamamoto, J. R. Sizelove, M. G. Mier, C. E. Stutz Jul 1994

Deep Traps In Molecular-Beam-Epitaxial Gaas Grown At Low Temperatures, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, H. Yamamoto, J. R. Sizelove, M. G. Mier, C. E. Stutz

Physics Faculty Publications

Deep‐level transient spectroscopy has been performed on Si‐doped GaAs layers grown by molecular‐beam epitaxy at substrate temperatures of 400–450 °C. The λ effect is taken into account and overlapping peaks are analyzed numerically. An 0.65 eV electron trap of concentration 2×1016 cm−3 is believed to be related to the AsGa‐associated 0.65 eV Hall‐effect center, and also to the trap EB4 found in electron‐irradiated GaAs.


Magneto-Hall Characterization Of Delta-Doped Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Structures, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz, R. E. Sherriff, G. C. Desalvo, T. J. Rogers, J. M. Ballingall Jul 1994

Magneto-Hall Characterization Of Delta-Doped Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Structures, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz, R. E. Sherriff, G. C. Desalvo, T. J. Rogers, J. M. Ballingall

Physics Faculty Publications

Conventional Hall‐effect determination of the two‐dimensional electron gas (2DEG) concentration n2D in pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor structures is invalid because of interference from the highly doped GaAs cap. Furthermore, the usual methods of dealing with this cap‐interference problem, namely, (1) etching off the cap totally, (2) etching the cap until the mobility reaches a maximum, or (3) growing a separate structure with a thin, depleted cap, in general, give n2D values that are too low. However, we show here that magnetic‐field‐dependent Hall (M‐Hall) measurements can separately determine the carrier concentrations and ...


Observation Of A Metastable Defect Transition In Gaas, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, J. R. Sizelove Jun 1994

Observation Of A Metastable Defect Transition In Gaas, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, J. R. Sizelove

Physics Faculty Publications

We show that the well-known 0.15-eV donor in bulk GaAs quenches under IR-light illumination and that the quenched (metastable) state has an electronic transition energy about 0.14 eV deeper than the ground state and can be observed by temperature-dependent-resistivity and Hall-effect measurements. The quenched state thermally recovers by an Auger-like process at a rate of r=2.3×10-12 nvn exp(-0.18/kT). Many of the properties exhibited by this donor are similar to those predicted theoretically for the complex defect AsGa-VAs.


Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher May 1994

Scaling Behavior Of Fluctuations In Systems With Continuous Symmetry, Ulrich Zürcher

Physics Faculty Publications

In nematic liquid crystals, director fluctuations correpond to the dynamical mode that is critical for all temperatures in zero external fields. The Hurst exponent characterizes the temporal behavior of the mean square displacement of director fluctuations, 〈[δn(r,t)-δn(r,0)]2〉∼t2H. We find H=1/2 in finite fields and H=3/4 in zero field. This result differs from that of Zhang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1834 (1993)] who find a Hurst exponent that varies continuously from H≃1 in zero field to H≃1/2 in moderate fields.


Electrochemical Capacitance-Voltage Analysis Of Delta-Doped Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Material, C. E. Stutz, B. Jogai, David C. Look, J. M. Ballingall, T. J. Rogers May 1994

Electrochemical Capacitance-Voltage Analysis Of Delta-Doped Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Material, C. E. Stutz, B. Jogai, David C. Look, J. M. Ballingall, T. J. Rogers

Physics Faculty Publications

This work shows how electrochemical capacitance‐voltage (ECV) measurements can be used to evaluate delta‐doped pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor material. These ECV measurements are compared with magnetic‐field‐dependent Hall effect (M‐Hall) measurements and a self‐consistent Poisson/kp calculation of the band structure and electron concentration. The ECV technique can clearly delineate the cap layer, the delta‐doped layer, and the InxGa1−xAs channel layer, whereas the M‐Hall method characterizes only the cap and InxGa1−xAs channel layers. The amount of electron charge ...


Low-Temperature Growth Of High Resistivity Gaas By Photoassisted Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition, J. C. Roberts, K. S. Boutros, S. M. Bedair, David C. Look May 1994

Low-Temperature Growth Of High Resistivity Gaas By Photoassisted Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition, J. C. Roberts, K. S. Boutros, S. M. Bedair, David C. Look

Physics Faculty Publications

We report the photoassisted low‐temperature (LT) metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of high resistivity GaAs. The undoped as‐grown GaAs exhibits a resistivity of ∼106 Ω cm, which is the highest reported for undoped material grown in the MOCVD environment. Photoassisted growth of doped and undoped device quality GaAs has been achieved at a substrate temperature of 400 °C in a modified atmospheric pressure MOCVD reactor. By using silane as a dopant gas, the LT photoassisted doped films have high levels of doping and electron mobilities comparable to those achieved by MOCVD for growth temperatures, Tg≳600 ...


Observation Of Free And Bound Excitons Associated With The 2-Dimensional Electron-Gas In Modulation-Doped Heterostructures, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz Apr 1994

Observation Of Free And Bound Excitons Associated With The 2-Dimensional Electron-Gas In Modulation-Doped Heterostructures, D. C. Reynolds, David C. Look, B. Jogai, C. E. Stutz

Physics Faculty Publications

Overlapping bulk and two-dimensional excitons have been observed in modulation-doped heterostructures. Their differing behavior in a magnetic field allows them to be studied separately. Both free and bound excitons, associated with the two-dimensional electron gas, have been observed in the photoluminescence spectra of these structures. These excitons show a reduced binding energy due to screening and are found in a region of the structure where band-gap renormalization occurs due to many-body interactions. The two-dimensional excitons are identified from measurements conducted in applied magnetic fields.


Phase Diagram Of The Ising Model On Percolation Clusters, Miron Kaufman, T. Berger, P. D. Gujrati, D. Bowman Apr 1994

Phase Diagram Of The Ising Model On Percolation Clusters, Miron Kaufman, T. Berger, P. D. Gujrati, D. Bowman

Physics Faculty Publications

The annealed Ising magnet on percolation clusters is studied by means of a mapping into a Potts-Ising model and with the Migdal-Kadanoff renormalization-group method. The phase diagram is determined in the three-dimensional parameter space of the Ising coupling K, the bond-occupation probability p, and the fugacity q, which controls the number of clusters. Three phases are identified: percolating ferromagnetic, percolating paramagnetic, and nonpercolating paramagnetic. For large q the phase diagram includes a multicritical point at the intersection of the Ising critical line and the percolation critical line. In the case of random bond percolation (q = 1) the Ising critical line ...


Force Field And Potential Due To The Fermi-Coulomb Hole Charge For Nonspherical-Density Atoms, Marlina Slamet, Viraht Sahni, Manoj K. Harbola Feb 1994

Force Field And Potential Due To The Fermi-Coulomb Hole Charge For Nonspherical-Density Atoms, Marlina Slamet, Viraht Sahni, Manoj K. Harbola

Physics Faculty Publications

In the work formalism for the determination of electronic structure, the exchange-correlation energy and (local) potential of the electrons both arise via Coulomb’s law from the same source, viz., the quantum-mechanical Fermi-Coulomb hole charge. The potential is the work Wxc(r) done to move an electron in the field of its Fermi-Coulomb hole and the energy is the interaction energy between the electronic and hole charge densities. For nonsymmetrical electronic density systems for which the curl of the field may not vanish, a local effective exchange-correlation potential Wxceff(r) is determined from the irrotational component of ...


The Physics Of Grain-Grain Collisions And Gas-Grain Sputtering In Interstellar Shocks, A G. Tielens, C F. Mckee, C G. Seab, D J. Hollenbach Jan 1994

The Physics Of Grain-Grain Collisions And Gas-Grain Sputtering In Interstellar Shocks, A G. Tielens, C F. Mckee, C G. Seab, D J. Hollenbach

Physics Faculty Publications

Grain-grain collisions and ion sputtering destroy dust grains in interstellar shocks. An analytical theory is developed for the propagation of shock waves in solids driven by grain-grain collisions, which compares very favorably with detailed numerical calculations. This theory is used to determine the fraction of a grain vaporized by a grain-grain collision. Our results predict much less vaporization of colliding grains in interstellar shocks than previous estimates. This theory can also be used to determine the fraction of a colliding grain that melts, shatters, or undergoes a phase transformation to a higher density phase. In particular, the latter two processes ...


Interstellar Gas And Dust In The Young Cluster Ic 348, Theodore P. Snow, Margaret Murray Hanson, C Gregory Seab, Jon M. Saken Jan 1994

Interstellar Gas And Dust In The Young Cluster Ic 348, Theodore P. Snow, Margaret Murray Hanson, C Gregory Seab, Jon M. Saken

Physics Faculty Publications

We have completed a multiband absorption- and emission-line study of a star embedded in the young cluster IC 348, to determine the environmental effect of star formation on the interstellar medium (ISM) local to the region. The hottest and youngest star in IC 348 is BD+31°643, a B5 V star which samples the inner bright nebular region. The nearby star o Per, which lies only 8 to the north and is thought to lie beyond IC 348, samples the gas and dust which has not been processed by very recent star formation. We speculate that the ISM throughout ...


Rate Coefficient For The Reaction N + No, Jane L. Fox Jan 1994

Rate Coefficient For The Reaction N + No, Jane L. Fox

Physics Faculty Publications

Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO → N2; + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900-1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100-200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits ...


Hopping Conduction In Molecular Beam Epitaxial Gaas Grown At Very Low Temperatures, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, J. W. Look, J. R. Sizelove Jan 1994

Hopping Conduction In Molecular Beam Epitaxial Gaas Grown At Very Low Temperatures, David C. Look, Z-Q. Fang, J. W. Look, J. R. Sizelove

Physics Faculty Publications

Conductivity and Hall effect measurements have been performed on 2 μm thick molecular beam epitaxial layers grown at very low substrate temperatures, 200 to 400°C. For growth temperatures below 300°C, the conduction is dominated by hopping between arsenic antisite defects of concentrations up to 1020 cm−3. Below measurement temperatures of about 130 K, the hopping conduction can be quenched by strong IR light illumination, because the antisite then becomes metastable. The antisite has a thermal activation energy of , and thus is not identical to the famous EL2. Both nearest‐neighbor and variable‐range hopping mechanisms are ...


Molecular-Dynamics Simulations Of Some Baxf4 Compounds, John Flocken, Z. Mo, Wai-Ning Mei, John R. Hardy, Dorian Hatch Jan 1994

Molecular-Dynamics Simulations Of Some Baxf4 Compounds, John Flocken, Z. Mo, Wai-Ning Mei, John R. Hardy, Dorian Hatch

Physics Faculty Publications

We have carried out molecular-dynamics simulations on BaXF4 compounds, where X is Mg, Mn, or Zn. Ab initio potentials, with no adjustable parameters, were used to obtain short-range interactions between ion pairs. We found a polar ground-state structure which is in agreement with the A21am space group reported experimentally. We were able to reverse polarization in BaMgF4 at high temperatures, using large fields, but were unable to reverse polarization in the other compounds. The second-order phase transition in the Mn compound at 250 K was reproduced. We believe this to be the first extension of ...