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Full-Text Articles in Physics

The Spectral Center Of Gravity Effect And Auditory Filter Bandwidth, Marc Fagelson, Linda M. Thibodeau Nov 1994

The Spectral Center Of Gravity Effect And Auditory Filter Bandwidth, Marc Fagelson, Linda M. Thibodeau

Marc A. Fagelson

The spectral center of gravity refers to a listener’s averaging of frequency and intensity components when formant peaks in a speechlike signal are separated by 3.5 Bark units or less. In this paper a total of 18 synthetic vowels whose spectra approximated /ae/ or /inverted vee/ were generated digitally; each stimulus contained the first 40 harmonics of a 100‐Hz fundamental. Nine spectra contained three formants, while the balance contained only two. Subjects with normal hearing and mild high‐frequency hearing loss above 3000 Hz were instructed to identify synthetic vowels as either /ae/ or /inverted vee/ as ...


X-Ray Studies Of Bond-Orientational Order In Liquid-Crystalline Orthogonal Hexatic-B Phase, E. Gorecka, Li Chen, Oleg Lavrentovich, W. Pyzuk Aug 1994

X-Ray Studies Of Bond-Orientational Order In Liquid-Crystalline Orthogonal Hexatic-B Phase, E. Gorecka, Li Chen, Oleg Lavrentovich, W. Pyzuk

Oleg Lavrentovich

X-ray scattering measurements have been carried out for free-standing, thick . monodomain films of the orthogonal hexatic-B phase. From Fourier analysis of X-scans, 6n-fold-symmetry order parameters were determined and proved to fulfill the scaling relation C6n = C6n+lambdan(n-1). The temperature behavior of C6 and lambda was found nonuniversal when comparing homologues, PIR5 and PIR7, differing in their range of the hexatic phase. The hexatic order parameter varies with the critical exponents 0.25, 0.20 (+/- 0.03), respectively. For comparison results for compound RFL6, of other homologue series, are presented.


Why Magnification Works, Terry L. Smith, Jay S. Huebner Jan 1994

Why Magnification Works, Terry L. Smith, Jay S. Huebner

Jay S Huebner

The simplest way to magnify the view of a small object is to bring the object closer to the eye, and of course science teachers know about magnifying glasses, telescopes, and microscopes.But why magnification works seems intuitive and is not usually explained to our students. We present here a few ideas on magnification that we use in our classroom and some general information on vision that we hope will be helpful to other teachers.


Biaxiality In A Cyclic Thermotropic Nematic Liquid-Crystal, Jian-Feng Li, V. Percec, Ch. Rosenblatt, Oleg Lavrentovich Jan 1994

Biaxiality In A Cyclic Thermotropic Nematic Liquid-Crystal, Jian-Feng Li, V. Percec, Ch. Rosenblatt, Oleg Lavrentovich

Oleg Lavrentovich

Birefringence and textural data are presented for a ring-shaped trimeric liquid crystal. The material apparently undergoes a uniaxial-to-biaxial nematic phase transition as a function of temperature.


Click‐Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions In Normal‐Hearing Children, Jacek Smurzynski Jan 1994

Click‐Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions In Normal‐Hearing Children, Jacek Smurzynski

Jacek Smurzynski

Click‐evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOEs) were collected from 167 ears of 106 normal‐hearing children using the ILO88 system with the stimuli presented at 80±2 dB pe SPL. Subjects were divided into five age groups: 13–24 months (24 ears), 25–36 months (49 ears), 37–48 months (31 ears), 49–60 months (34 ears), and 61–72 months (29 ears). All subjects had normal middle ear function and their audiological data were within normal limits. Mean overall CEOE level was calculated for each age group. None was statistically different from any other. However, the data of the 167 ...


Direct Simulation Monte Carlo For Thin Film Bearings, Alejandro Garcia, B. Alder, F. J. Alexander Dec 1993

Direct Simulation Monte Carlo For Thin Film Bearings, Alejandro Garcia, B. Alder, F. J. Alexander

Alejandro Garcia

The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) scheme is used to study the gas flow under a read/write head positioned nanometers above a moving disk drive platter (the slider bearing problem). In most cases, impressive agreement is found between the particle-based simulation and numerical solutions of the continuum hydrodynamic Reynolds equation which has been corrected for slip. However, at very high platter speeds the gas is far from equilibrium, and the load capacity for the slider bearing cannot be accurately computed from the hydrodynamic pressure.


Chiral Sum Rules And Their Phenomenology, John Donoghue, Eugene Golwich Dec 1993

Chiral Sum Rules And Their Phenomenology, John Donoghue, Eugene Golwich

John Donoghue

We present an analysis of four sum rules, each based on chiral symmetry and containing the difference p&(s)—p&(s) of isovector vector and axial-vector spectral functions. Experimental data from ~ lepton decay and electron-positron scattering identify the spectral functions over a limited kinematic domain. We summarize the status of the existing database. However, a successful determination of the sum rules requires additional content, in the form of theoretical input. We show how chiral symmetry and the operator product expansion can be used to constrain the spectral functions, respectively, in the low energy and the high energy limits and proceed ...


General Relativity As An Effective Field Theory: The Leading Quantum Corrections, John Donoghue Dec 1993

General Relativity As An Effective Field Theory: The Leading Quantum Corrections, John Donoghue

John Donoghue

I describe the treatment of gravity as a quantum effective field theory. This allows a natural separation of the (known) low energy quantum effects from the (unknown) high energy contributions. Within this framework, gravity is a well behaved quantum field theory at ordinary energies. In studying the class of quantum corrections at low energy, the dominant effects at large distance can be isolated, as these are due to the propagaion of the massless particles (including gravitons) of the theory and are manifested in the nonlocal/nonanalytic contributions to vertex functions and propagators. These leading quantum corrections are parameter-free and represent ...


Determination Of Plasma Parameters In A Dc Arcjet Diamond Reactor: Part 1, Scott Reeve, Wayne Weimer Dec 1993

Determination Of Plasma Parameters In A Dc Arcjet Diamond Reactor: Part 1, Scott Reeve, Wayne Weimer

Scott Reeve

No abstract provided.


Microscopic Simulation Of Dilute Gases With Adjustable Transport Coefficients, Alejandro Garcia, F. Baras, M. Malek Mansour Dec 1993

Microscopic Simulation Of Dilute Gases With Adjustable Transport Coefficients, Alejandro Garcia, F. Baras, M. Malek Mansour

Alejandro Garcia

The Bird algorithm is a computationally efficient method for simulating dilute gas flows. However, due to the relatively large transport coefficients at low densities, high Rayleigh or Reynolds numbers are difficult to achieve by this technique. We present a modified version of the Bird algorithm in which the relaxation processes are enhanced and the transport coefficients reduced, while preserving the correct equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluid properties. The present algorithm is found to be two to three orders of magnitude faster than molecular dynamics for simulating complex hydrodynamical flows.