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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Low‐Temperature Phase Diagram Of Ybbipt, R. Movshovich, A. Lacerda, Paul C. Canfield, J. D. Thompson, Z. Fisk Nov 1994

Low‐Temperature Phase Diagram Of Ybbipt, R. Movshovich, A. Lacerda, Paul C. Canfield, J. D. Thompson, Z. Fisk

Paul C. Canfield

Resistivity measurements are reported on the cubic heavy‐fermion compound YbBiPt at ambient and hydrostatic pressures to ≊19 kbar and in magnetic fields to 1 T. The phase transition at T c =0.4 K is identified by a sharp rise in resistivity. That feature is used to build low‐temperature H‐T and P‐Tphase diagrams. The phase boundary in the H‐T plane follows the weak‐coupling BCS expression remarkably well from T c to T c /4, while small hydrostatic pressure of ≊1 kbar suppresses the low‐temperature phase entirely. These effects of hydrostatic pressure and magnetic ...


Estimation Of The Free-Charge-Carrier Concentration In Fast-Ion Conducting Na2s-B2s3 Glasses From An Analysis Of The Frequency-Dependent, Ernest F. Hairetdinov, Nikolai F. Uvarov, Hitendra K. Patel, Steve W. Martin Nov 1994

Estimation Of The Free-Charge-Carrier Concentration In Fast-Ion Conducting Na2s-B2s3 Glasses From An Analysis Of The Frequency-Dependent, Ernest F. Hairetdinov, Nikolai F. Uvarov, Hitendra K. Patel, Steve W. Martin

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

ac and dc conductivities of fast-ion conducting xNa2S+(1-x)B2S3 glasses in the composition range 0.001≤x≤0.1 were analyzed using the Almond-West formula σ(ν)=σdc[1+(ν/νH)α]. The hopping frequency for free charge carriers νH, the dc conductivity σdc, and their respective activation energies were determined. The concentration of free charge carriers evaluated from the conductivities and estimated mobilities is in good agreement with the overall content of sodium cations in the glasses and it is proposed that this supports the concept of a strong and not weak electrolyte model for these ...


Band Dispersion In C60(111): An Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study, P. J. Benning, C. G. Olson, David W. Lynch, J. H. Weaver Oct 1994

Band Dispersion In C60(111): An Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study, P. J. Benning, C. G. Olson, David W. Lynch, J. H. Weaver

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Angle-resolved photoemission studies of single-crystal C60(111) films grown on GeS(001) reveal changes in valence feature line shape with emission angle and photon energy that are indicative of band dispersion. For an excitation energy (hν) of 10 eV, normal emission spectra show four sharp structures within the ∼1.1-eV-wide valence feature derived from the second highest molecular orbital (HOMO-1) of C60. For hν=8.1 eV, the 1-eV-wide HOMO-derived feature exhibits changes with emission angle mainly due to dispersion of 0.6 eV in the unoccupied bands. The distribution of electronic states underlying HOMO and HOMO-1 indicates ...


Method For Producing Strain Tolerant Multifilamentary Oxide Superconducting Wire, Douglas K. Finnemore, Theodore A. Miller, Jerome E. Ostenson, Louis A. Schwartzkopf, Steven C. Sanders Jul 1994

Method For Producing Strain Tolerant Multifilamentary Oxide Superconducting Wire, Douglas K. Finnemore, Theodore A. Miller, Jerome E. Ostenson, Louis A. Schwartzkopf, Steven C. Sanders

Iowa State University Patents

A strain tolerant multifilamentary wire capable of carrying superconducting currents is provided comprising a plurality of discontinuous filaments formed from a high temperature superconducting material. The discontinuous filaments have a length at least several orders of magnitude greater than the filament diameter and are sufficiently strong while in an amorphous state to withstand compaction. A normal metal is interposed between and binds the discontinuous filaments to form a normal metal matrix capable of withstanding heat treatment for converting the filaments to a superconducting state. The geometry of the filaments within the normal metal matrix provides substantial filament-to-filament overlap, and the ...


Compositional Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: Band-Filling, Charge-Transfer, And Size Effects From A First-Principles All-Electron Landau-Type Theory, J. B. Staunton, Duane D. Johnson, F. J. Pinski Jul 1994

Compositional Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: Band-Filling, Charge-Transfer, And Size Effects From A First-Principles All-Electron Landau-Type Theory, J. B. Staunton, Duane D. Johnson, F. J. Pinski

Duane D. Johnson

Using a mean-field statistical description, we derive a general formalism to investigate atomic short-range order in alloys based on a density-functional description of the finite-temperature, grand potential of the random alloy. This ‘‘first-principles,’’ Landau-type approach attempts to treat several contributions (electronic structure, Fermi surface, electrostatics, magnetism, etc.) to the electronic energy on an equal footing. An important ingredient for the statistical averaging is the replacement of the molecular mean fields (Weiss fields) with Onsager cavity fields, which forces the diagonal part of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to be obeyed. To show its general applicability and usefulness, we apply the theory to ...


First-Principles All-Electron Theory Of Atomic Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: D022- Versus L12-Like Correlations, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski Jul 1994

First-Principles All-Electron Theory Of Atomic Short-Range Ordering In Metallic Alloys: D022- Versus L12-Like Correlations, Duane D. Johnson, J. B. Staunton, F. J. Pinski

Duane D. Johnson

We use a ‘‘first-principles’’ concentration-wave approach based on a finite-temperature, electronic density-functional, mean-field, grand potential of the random alloy to investigate the high-temperature atomic short-range order (ASRO) in Ni75V25 and Pd75V25 solid solutions. Experimentally, these similar alloys both develop D022-type long-range order at low temperatures but different ASRO at high temperatures. Our calculations describe the measured ASRO well. We compare these results with those found for a hypothetical Co75Ti25 solid solution. Since this alloy orders directly from the melt into the L12 phase, it should exhibit strong L12-like ASRO, as we find in our calculations. We analyze the features in ...


Surface-Induced Ordering In Asymmetric Block Copolymers, Y. Liu, W. Zhao, X. Zheng, Alexander H. King, A. Sing, M. H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, K. H. Dai, E. J. Kramer, S. A. Schwarz, O. Gebizlioglu, S. K. Sinha Jul 1994

Surface-Induced Ordering In Asymmetric Block Copolymers, Y. Liu, W. Zhao, X. Zheng, Alexander H. King, A. Sing, M. H. Rafailovich, J. Sokolov, K. H. Dai, E. J. Kramer, S. A. Schwarz, O. Gebizlioglu, S. K. Sinha

Alexander H. King

The surface-induced ordering in thin films of asymmetric deuterated polystyrene (dPS)- poly(viny1pyridine) (PVP) diblock and triblock copolymers of comparable polymerization index and PVP volume fraction - 0.25) was studied using transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion massspectrometry, and neutron reflectivity. The morphology of both di- and triblock copolymer films was found to be cylindrical except for the layer adjacent to the silicon oxide surface, which due to the strong interaction of silica with PVP, was lamellar. The spacing between adjacent cylindrical layers was found to be consistent with mean field theory predictions. In the triblock copolymer films ...


Elastic Constants Of Bcc Cu-Al-Ni Alloys, Lluís Mañosa, M. Jurado, Antoni Planes, Jerel L. Zarestky, Thomas A. Lograsso, C. Stassis Apr 1994

Elastic Constants Of Bcc Cu-Al-Ni Alloys, Lluís Mañosa, M. Jurado, Antoni Planes, Jerel L. Zarestky, Thomas A. Lograsso, C. Stassis

Ames Laboratory Publications

We have measured the adiabatic elastic constants of two Cu-Al-Ni martensitic alloys using ultrasonic methods and we have compared the results to recent neutron-scattering experiments. It is shown that the elastic behavior of Cu-Al-Ni alloys follows the same trends exhibited by other Cu-based alloys; in particular, the TA2 long-wavelength acoustic modes are softer than all other modes.


Nmr And Nqr Study Of The Thermodynamically Stable Quasicrystals , Ananda Shastri Jan 1994

Nmr And Nqr Study Of The Thermodynamically Stable Quasicrystals , Ananda Shastri

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

[superscript]27Al and [superscript]63,65Cu NMR measurements are reported for powder samples of stable AlCuFe and AlCuRu icosahedral quasicrystals and their crystalline approximants, and for a AlPdMn single grain quasicrystal. Furthermore, [superscript]27Al NQR spectra at 4.2 K have been observed in the AlCuFe and AlCuRu samples. From the quadrupole perturbed NMR spectra at different magnetic fields, and from the zero field NQR spectra, a wide distribution of local electric field gradient (EFG) tensor components and principal axis system orientations was found at the Al site. A model EFG calculation based on a 1/1 AlCuFe approximant was ...


Kinetics Of Restricted Solid-On-Solid Models Of Film Growth, James W. Evans, M. C. Bartelt Jan 1994

Kinetics Of Restricted Solid-On-Solid Models Of Film Growth, James W. Evans, M. C. Bartelt

Physics and Astronomy Publications

We consider the kinetics of irreversible film growth in solid-on-solid models with various restrictions on the adsorption (or growth) sites. We show how the master equations for the probabilities of subconfigurations of filled sites can be analyzed exactly to obtain coverages and spatial correlations for the first several layers. These provide an efficient framework for analysis of the early-stage growth kinetics, and indicate rapid attainment of asymptotic behavior. We illustrate the (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional cases for the simplest restricted solid-on-solid condition, and various modifications.


Reflection High-Energy Electron-Diffraction Study Of Surface Disorder And Anomalous Expansion Of Pb(100), D. Tang, H. E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 1994

Reflection High-Energy Electron-Diffraction Study Of Surface Disorder And Anomalous Expansion Of Pb(100), D. Tang, H. E. Elsayed-Ali

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The temperature-dependent surface structural behavior of Pb(100) is studied using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Anomalous surface expansion for temperatures between room temperature to about 500 K is observed. A high density of surface vacancies appears at temperatures above ~ 500 K. © 1994 The American Physical Society.


Low Internal Magnetic Fields In Anisotropic Superconductors, Allan J. Greer Jr. Jan 1994

Low Internal Magnetic Fields In Anisotropic Superconductors, Allan J. Greer Jr.

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This thesis is a theoretical, numerical study of the magnetic fields which exist in the anisotropic, high temperature superconductors like $YBa\sb2Cu\sb3O\sb{7-\delta}$, or YBCO for short, using both the anisotropic London theory and simulations based on existing muon spin rotation techniques. The thesis first describes the muon spin rotation ($\mu$SR) techniques, and then gives a brief discussion of superconductivity with regard to the London theory of anisotropic, type II superconductors. Next, numerical results of the application of this theory to YBCO are presented. Three dimensional surface plots of the magnetic field components within the flux ...


Magnetic And Crystallographic Order In Α‐Manganese, A. C. Lawson, Allen C. Larson, M. C. Aronson, S. Johnson, Z. Fisk, Paul C. Canfield, J. D. Thompson, R. B. Von Dreele Jan 1994

Magnetic And Crystallographic Order In Α‐Manganese, A. C. Lawson, Allen C. Larson, M. C. Aronson, S. Johnson, Z. Fisk, Paul C. Canfield, J. D. Thompson, R. B. Von Dreele

Paul C. Canfield

We have made time‐of‐flight neutron diffractionmeasurements on α‐manganese metal. Powder diffraction measurements were made at 14 temperatures between 15 and 305 K, and single crystalmeasurements were made at 15 and 300 K. We found that the crystal structure of α‐Mn is tetragonal below its Néel point of 100 K, with crystal symmetryI4̄2m and magnetic (Shubnikov) symmetry P I 4̄21 c. In agreement with the earlier results of Yamada et al., there are six independent magnetic atoms, and we found that their moments are weakly temperature dependent. The onset of magnetic order causes slight changes ...


Optical And Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Novel Pristine And Photo-Oxidized Conjugated Polymers , Andrew Vernon Smith Jan 1994

Optical And Magnetic Resonance Studies Of Novel Pristine And Photo-Oxidized Conjugated Polymers , Andrew Vernon Smith

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Optical and magnetic resonance properties of several [pi]-conjugated polymers were studied and the results consolidated in this thesis. Photoluminescence (PL), electron spin resonance (ESR), and the novel Ultraviolet Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (UV-ODMR) results on poly(p-phenyleneethynyleneaniline) (PPEA) derivatives are shown. The source wavelength, [lambda][subscript]ex, dependence of the ODMR is investigated on several [pi]-conjugated polymers including poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV), poly(p-phenyleneacetylene) (PPA), and poly(3-alkylthiophene) (P3AT) derivative films. The effects of photo-oxidation on the UV- and laser-excited ODMR of dioctoxy substituted PPV (DOOPPV) films is shown. The ODMR results on unsubstituted PPV and CN-PPV films are ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films, Cvd Diamond Films, And Their Devices , Hao Jia Jan 1994

Fabrication And Characterization Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Films, Cvd Diamond Films, And Their Devices , Hao Jia

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films have been prepared by radio frequency (rf) sputtering technique, and studied by infrared (IR) absorption, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), electron spin resonance (ESR), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The optoelectronic properties of a-Si:H films were improved dramatically by annealing at 250-330°C; strong correlation between hydrogen content and SAXS determined microvoid was found in a-Si:H film; and contradictory evidences to the widely invoked "multiple trapping" model for hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H were also found for the first time and discussed in this work;As the second part of this ...


Theory Of Magneto-Optics And Circular Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism , Xindong Wang Jan 1994

Theory Of Magneto-Optics And Circular Magnetic X-Ray Dichroism , Xindong Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis contains three parts. In the first part, before getting into the discussion of magneto-optical properties for the systems under study, the author reviews some background subjects, such as the energy-band theory within the framework of density functional theory, the multiple scattering approach to the solution of band problem and its relation with the LMTO method, an account of the tight-binding LMTO method which we use exclusively in our calculations, the linear response theory and its application to the quantum theory of dielectric constants. In the second part, circular magnetic x-ray dichroism, as a powerful and newly developed experimental ...


Classical Wave Propagation In Periodic And Random Media , Sreela Datta Jan 1994

Classical Wave Propagation In Periodic And Random Media , Sreela Datta

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents the results of numerical studies of scalar and electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic and random dielectric media. The photonic energy band structure of periodic composite materials, consisting of regular spherical arrays or scaffoldings of one kind of dielectric material in a different background material, are studied using the plane wave expansion method in order to determine, among other things, the optimum conditions (crystal structure, dielectric constant ratio, filling ratio etc.) for the existence of photonic band gaps. The significance of these numerical studies lies in the potential for important applications of photonic band gap materials and also ...


Photoemission Study Of Some Novel Materials: Rare Earth/Transition Metal Interface, Ba06k04bio3 And Alpdmn , Xilin Wu Jan 1994

Photoemission Study Of Some Novel Materials: Rare Earth/Transition Metal Interface, Ba06k04bio3 And Alpdmn , Xilin Wu

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) are applied to explore several novel materials: (a) Ce epitaxial growth on W (110) surfaces; (b) Eu epitaxial growth on Ta (110) surfaces; (c) Sm epitaxial growth on Ta (110) surfaces; (d) quasicrystalline AlPdMn; (e) superconducting Ba[subscript]1-xK[subscript] xBiO[subscript]3. In the case of rare earth overlayers on transition metal surface, resonance photoemission spectroscopy is used to enhance the 4f features. The metal surface phase transition is investigated on an atomic-scale. In the case of quasicrystalline AlPdMn and superconducting Ba[subscript]1-xK[subscript] xBiO[subscript]3 the ...


Magnetization Studies Of Oxides Related To The High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors , Zhaorong Wang Jan 1994

Magnetization Studies Of Oxides Related To The High Temperature Cuprate Superconductors , Zhaorong Wang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

An Oxford Instruments Faraday magnetometer, capable of operating in the temperature range between 1.5 K and 1000 K, and magnetic field range between 0 T to 8 T, with a sensitivity of 3x10[superscript]-8 cm[superscript]3G, was assembled and calibrated. The pumping station which supported this magnetometer was designed and built. Software for reducing the raw data and generating calibration files was written. The magnetic properties of several oxides related to the high temperature cuprate superconductors BaCuO[subscript]2+x, La[subscript]2CuO[subscript]4, Sr[subscript]2IrO[subscript]4, Sr[subscript]2RhO[subscript]4, Sr[subscript ...


Optical Anisotropy Of (110) Surfaces Of Ag And Cu , Zai Chen Jan 1994

Optical Anisotropy Of (110) Surfaces Of Ag And Cu , Zai Chen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A reflectance-difference spectroscopy (RD) system was designed and built. Automatically controlled by a computer (PC), the system was used to study the anisotropic optical response of the (110) surfaces of Ag and Cu. Four Ag(110) surfaces were prepared, one epitaxially-grown single-crystalline thin film surface and three chemically etched single crystal surfaces. The RD spectra show all surfaces have very similar anisotropic peaks around 3.8 eV and 3.9 eV. This anisotropy is produced by the surface layer of atoms and is sensitive to the details of the electronic band structure. The peak structures can be attributed to transitions ...


Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Fullerenes And [Pi]-Conjugated Polymers , Paul Andrew Lane Jan 1994

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Of Fullerenes And [Pi]-Conjugated Polymers , Paul Andrew Lane

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

The photophysics of two novel [pi]-conjugated systems, buckminsterfullerene and [pi]-conjugated polymers, are studied by the technique of Photoluminescence-Detected Magnetic Resonance (PLDMR);The PLDMR of C60 and C70 dissolved in toluene/polystyrene glasses and of fullerene films is described. The PLDMR of the glasses is due to a triplet exciton delocalized over the entire molecule. That of 3C70 strikingly differs from 3C60 in both lineshape and dynamics, due to the much longer triplet lifetime of 3C70. The PLDMR of films indicates that the delocalized triplet is distorted by intermolecular interactions and reveals a half-field resonance due to triplet-triplet fusion ...


Sub-Micron Scale Conduction Processes On Clean Surfaces , Kevin R. Kimberlin Jan 1994

Sub-Micron Scale Conduction Processes On Clean Surfaces , Kevin R. Kimberlin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Fundamental electrical conductance measurement has been studied in-situ in two dimensions in the Ag/Si(111) system as a function of the incident adatom flux rate with a four probe technique. A conductance study in a three dimensional conical structure was also carried out with field emission techniques. Field emission is now well established and has been used in this case to characterize a novel geometry for use in flat panel displays to replace cathode ray tube monitors. For the two dimensional study on Ag/Si(111), the origin of conduction is still unclear, as both transport by means of ...


Models For Water Outgassing From Metal Surfaces, Minxu Li Jan 1994

Models For Water Outgassing From Metal Surfaces, Minxu Li

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this study, the outgassing rate from an electropolished stainless steel surface following exposures to H{dollar}\sb2{dollar}O vapor under various conditions was measured. The results of the experiments showed that the outgassing rate is proportional to {dollar}p\sb0\sp{lcub}n{rcub}{dollar}, where {dollar}p\sb0{dollar} is the H{dollar}\sb2{dollar}O exposure pressure and n is about 0.25. The outgassing rate is not as strongly dependent on the system temperature as one would expect if the temperature is kept the same during exposure and pump-down. The outgassing rate is also a ...