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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Scattering Of A Sagittal Surface Acoustic Wave From A Large Amplitude Ridge Or A Deep Groove, A. Baghai-Wadji, A. A. Maradudin Jan 1993

Scattering Of A Sagittal Surface Acoustic Wave From A Large Amplitude Ridge Or A Deep Groove, A. Baghai-Wadji, A. A. Maradudin

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In [1] we presented a Green’s function theory for obtaining the frequencies of acoustic surface shape resonances of sagittal polarization associated with an isolated ridge or groove of rather general shape on a planar, stress-free surface of an isotropic elastic medium (for details we refer to [2]). It was shown that employing Green’s second theorem, and using tensor Green’s functions associated with the boundary value problem, the initial coupled partial differential equations can be converted into a coupled system of integral equations. Further, it was shown that by discretizing the boundary and using the method of moments ...


Application Of Diffracto Sight Ot The Nondestructive Inspection Of Aircraft Structures, Jerzy Komorowski, Ronald W. Gould, David L. Simpson, Omer Hageniers Jan 1993

Application Of Diffracto Sight Ot The Nondestructive Inspection Of Aircraft Structures, Jerzy Komorowski, Ronald W. Gould, David L. Simpson, Omer Hageniers

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The D Sight optical set up was first assembled nearly ten years ago at Diffracto Ltd. It has received several patents, the first of which was in the United States [1]. Since the mid 1980’s, D Sight has been successfully applied to surface quality inspections, particularly in the automotive and plastics industries. Recently, Komorowski et al. [2–5] have shown several potential applications of D Sight in the field of nondestructive inspection of aircraft structures. The technique has been shown to be particularly effective in locating nonvisible impact damage on large surfaces of aircraft structures built from composite materials ...


Interaction Of Gaussian Acoustic Beams With Plane And Cylindrical Fluid-Loaded Elastic Structures, Jinguang Zhang, Dale E. Chimenti, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen Jan 1993

Interaction Of Gaussian Acoustic Beams With Plane And Cylindrical Fluid-Loaded Elastic Structures, Jinguang Zhang, Dale E. Chimenti, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Nonspecular reflection effects for ultrasonic beams incident from a fluid onto solid surfaces have been studied continuously since the early investigations by Schoch [1]. He calculated the reflected held for both the fluid-loaded halfspace and the plate using a series expansion for the phase of the reflection coefficient. A more accurate expression for Gaussian beam reflection has been derived by Bertoni and Tamir [2], who approximated the reflection coefficient by leading terms in a Laurent series, performing the resulting integrals analytically. Many researchers have contributed to this literature from the experimental [3–5], theoretical [6,7], and numerical sides [8 ...


Laser Generation Of Rayleigh And Lamb Waves For Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing, R. Costley Jr., Yves H. Berthelot Jan 1993

Laser Generation Of Rayleigh And Lamb Waves For Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing, R. Costley Jr., Yves H. Berthelot

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser ultrasonics has been the focus of several research efforts over the last two decades. The main advantage of the technique is its noncontact nature which alleviates the problem of sensor coupling inherent in conventional techniques. However, laser ultrasonics has some limitations When operated in the thermoelastic regime, where no damage is inflicted on the surface of the specimen, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is very small, particularly when compared with conventional piezoelectric generation.[1] Several authors have proposed increasing the SNR by producing a source with spatial periodicity designed to enhance a particular wavelength. Royer and Dieulasaint [2] have used ...


Advances In Pultiple-Pulse Radio-Frequency-Gradient Imaging Of Solids, John Marohn, David N. Shykind, Margat H. Werner, Daniel P. Weitekamp Jan 1993

Advances In Pultiple-Pulse Radio-Frequency-Gradient Imaging Of Solids, John Marohn, David N. Shykind, Margat H. Werner, Daniel P. Weitekamp

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the premier tool for the non-destructive evaluation of soft tissue in living systems [1]. Established liquid-state MRI strategies are generally found to be inappropriate for the imaging of rigid solids, because the linewidth for nuclear magnetic resonance in solids is orders-of-magnitude larger than in liquids. Methods currently under development for the NMR imaging of solids either involve the use of very large (fringe-field) magnetic field gradients to encode spatial information over very short periods of time [2], or employ multiple-pulse line-narrowing techniques that prolong a solid’s apparent transverse relaxation time [3–7]. In ...


Laser Ultrasonic And Photoacoustic Characterization Of Subsurface Structures, Meng-Chou Wu, F. Raymond Parker, William P. Winfree Jan 1993

Laser Ultrasonic And Photoacoustic Characterization Of Subsurface Structures, Meng-Chou Wu, F. Raymond Parker, William P. Winfree

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

There is a strong interest in applying laser ultrasonic and photoacoustic techniques to the NDE of some high performance structures, for example, the actively cooled panels of the National Aero-Space Plane. Both laser ultrasonic and photoacoustic techniques have been developed for years. Much significant work has been done on either the generation of waves, the mechanisms [1–3] or various techniques for the detection of these waves [4–6]. A few applications being pursued or conducted since the early stage of the development for these techniques [5–7]. However, there is little work concentrating on the interaction of these waves ...


Ultrasonic Propagation Through A Surface With A Step Discontinuity: Validation Of A Hybrid, Gauss-Hermite Ray Tracing Beam Model, M. Greenwood, J.-L. Mai, A. Minachi, I. Yalda-Mooshabad, R. Bruce Thompson Jan 1993

Ultrasonic Propagation Through A Surface With A Step Discontinuity: Validation Of A Hybrid, Gauss-Hermite Ray Tracing Beam Model, M. Greenwood, J.-L. Mai, A. Minachi, I. Yalda-Mooshabad, R. Bruce Thompson

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

This research continues our cooperative effort to study the effects of large-scale surface roughness on ultrasonic transmission through interfaces and updates our previously-reported results [1], The Center for Nondestructive Evaluation has developed a model for the propagation of ultrasound through a surface and into an isotropic metal and this model is undergoing experimental validation at Battelle PNL. Once validated, this model will be used as an engineering tool to study the effects of surface conditions upon an ultrasonic inspection of nuclear reactor components. The goal is to quantify and develop requirements to limit the adverse effects of surface conditions during ...


Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White Jan 1993

Numerical Calculation Of Diffraction Coefficients In Anisotropic Media, J. Temple, L. White

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic inspection is used to detect and size crack-like defects in pressure vessels and pipework used in the nuclear industry. Reliable inspection can only be achieved if the inspection technique is understood, is optimised and subsequently applied correctly. Austenitic steels are used because of their corrosion resistance and toughness. Welds and centrifugally cast materials tend to crystallise with grains larger than the ultrasonic wavelength required to achieve the desired resolution in the inspection and thus appear anisotropic. Since the grains in a weld grow along the, varying, directions of maximum heat flux during cooling, the welds are inhomogeneous as well ...


High-Speed Time-Resolved Holography For Imaging Transient Events, Michael Ehrlich, James W. Wagner Jan 1993

High-Speed Time-Resolved Holography For Imaging Transient Events, Michael Ehrlich, James W. Wagner

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A time-resolved holographic system was developed to study detonation dynamics in dispersed solid particulate explosives. This required a system capable of recording a rapid sequence of exposures during the approximate 1/µs lifetime of the detonation event.


Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin Jan 1993

Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic techniques are widely used in industry for thickness gauging, flaw detection and materials characterization. The ultrasonic waves are usually generated and detected by piezoelectric transducers and coupled to the inspected part either by direct contact or through a water bath or a water jet. Although widespread and generally cost effective, these conventional ultrasonic techniques suffer from essentially two severe limitations, which impact upon their use for on-line process control and the inspection of advanced materials.


Rapid Inspection Of Composites Using Laser-Based Ultrasound, Andrew Mckie, Robert C. Addison Jr. Jan 1993

Rapid Inspection Of Composites Using Laser-Based Ultrasound, Andrew Mckie, Robert C. Addison Jr.

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Current techniques for automated ultrasonic inspection of airframe structures can only be used to examine limited areas which have large radii of curvature. Manual inspection techniques are required in areas having small radii. Laser-based ultrasound (LBU) offers the potential to rapidly inspect large-area composite structures having contoured geometries, without restriction to large radii of curvature [1–4]. The key components that comprise an LBU rapid inspection system are the generation and detection lasers, a 2D scanner and a suitably fast data acquisition system. These must be integrated to provide an areal scan rate of at least 100 ft2/hr based ...


Source Efficiency And Sensor Detectability Factors In Laser Ultrasonics, James Wagner Jan 1993

Source Efficiency And Sensor Detectability Factors In Laser Ultrasonics, James Wagner

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Perhaps the greatest fundamental deterrent to the application of current laser ultrasonic technology has been the fact that the detection sensitivity or detectability of laser receiver systems, compared with their piezoelectric counterparts, is rather poor. That is to say that in general, and especially on a dollar-for-dollar basis, piezoelectric transducers are able to detect much smaller surface displacements than can easily be detected by laser methods. As will be discussed shortly, there are several strategies which may be used to overcome these detectability shortcomings. Indeed, several of these strategies have been investigated at the laboratory level and some implemented in ...


Improved Laser Interferometry For Ultrasonic Nde, Peter Nagy, Gabor Blaho, Laszlo Adler Jan 1993

Improved Laser Interferometry For Ultrasonic Nde, Peter Nagy, Gabor Blaho, Laszlo Adler

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In spite of its obvious advantages over conventional contact and immersion techniques, laser interferometry has not yet become a practical tool in ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation since its sensitivity is insufficient in most practical applications. Part of the problem is that the maximum signal-to-noise ratio often cited in scientific publications and manufacturers’ specifications cannot be maintained on ordinary diffusely reflecting surfaces. Although these surfaces reflect a fair amount (5–50%) of the incident laser light, this energy is randomly distributed among a large number of bright speckles. Unless the detector happens to see one of these bright speckles, the interferometer’s ...


Laser Ultrasound For The Study Of Thin Sheets, C. Edwards, A. Al-Kassim, S. B. Palmer Jan 1993

Laser Ultrasound For The Study Of Thin Sheets, C. Edwards, A. Al-Kassim, S. B. Palmer

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser ultrasound is now an accepted and mature technology. However it is still seeking its first fully commercial industrial application although there are several potential uses in prototype form. The major advantage of laser ultrasound is that it is a non contact technique and can therefore be used on hot or moving components. The pulsed laser source generates simultaneously longitudinal and shear bulk waves and Rayleigh surface waves. When the material is in the form of a thin sheet the latter propagate as Lamb or plate waves providing the ultrasonic wavelength is greater than the sheet thickness.


Laser Ultrasonics For Coating Thickness Evaluation At 1200°C, H. Ringermacher, F. A. Reed, J. R. Strife Jan 1993

Laser Ultrasonics For Coating Thickness Evaluation At 1200°C, H. Ringermacher, F. A. Reed, J. R. Strife

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser ultrasonics has come of age in such diverse industrial applications as in-process evaluation during steel processing[1] and composite air frame inspection[2,3]. This approach generally offers certain unique advantages for process evaluation and diagnostics. It is a noncontact, largely contour independent, technique ideally suited for hostile environments.


Thermoelastic Sound Source: Waveforms In A Sensing Application, Markku Oksanen, R. Lehtiniemi, J. Wu Jan 1993

Thermoelastic Sound Source: Waveforms In A Sensing Application, Markku Oksanen, R. Lehtiniemi, J. Wu

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Photoacoustically generated sound pulses are widely used in various NDT, NDE and sensing applications when a non-touching method is preferred. The generation mechanisms are relatively well known, including types of waves generated, directional patterns, sound pressures and damage thresholds for the laser intensity [1]. The so-called thermoelastic regime is attractive to many applications despite of its low efficiency (usually about sub 0.1%). It is because that the process is nondestructive to samples and the theory is well established [2,3,4]. The current study addresses the prediction of the temporal ultrasound pulse shape of an optimum sound generation scheme ...


Reception Of Laser Generated Ultrasound From A Cfrp Plate By An Air Matched Piezoelectric Composite Transducer, L. Scudder, D. A. Hutchins, G. Hayward Jan 1993

Reception Of Laser Generated Ultrasound From A Cfrp Plate By An Air Matched Piezoelectric Composite Transducer, L. Scudder, D. A. Hutchins, G. Hayward

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser generated ultrasound is being investigated [1,2] for testing structures made of both conventional metals and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP). Laser interferometers are widely used in such work to detect the normal surface motion caused by ultrasonic pulses. Interferometers offer non-contact, remote and high-fidelity detection, together with a potential to cover large areas rapidly by optical scanning. However their cost is high and only in testing large and/or expensive structures may the cost be justified. A lower cost alternative, but with some compromise on the virtues of an interferometer, would be to use an air transducer as ...


An Actively-Stabilized Fiber-Optic Interferometer For Laser-Ultrasonic Flaw Detection, S. Pierce, R. E. Corbett, R. J. Dewhurst Jan 1993

An Actively-Stabilized Fiber-Optic Interferometer For Laser-Ultrasonic Flaw Detection, S. Pierce, R. E. Corbett, R. J. Dewhurst

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser ultrasound for NDE applications is reported in several places within this Review. Interest in the subject remains high, even though the cost of associated instrumentation remains high. Benefits associated with optical probing of a sample include potentially high spatial resolution, truly non-contacting transduction permitting non-contact C-scan inspection systems, and the possibility of probing structures having awkward surface shapes. Non-contact imaging systems were first reported at an earlier review [1]. Images of defects in carbon-fiber composite samples have been demonstrated in both reflection mode and more recently in transmission mode [2]. In all cases, such experiments have been conducted using ...


Visualization Of Laser Generated Ultrasound In A Solid, A Liquid And In Air, D. Billson, D. A. Hutchins Jan 1993

Visualization Of Laser Generated Ultrasound In A Solid, A Liquid And In Air, D. Billson, D. A. Hutchins

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

A laser pulse incident on a bulk medium produces a very complex ultrasonic field, which is often further complicated by phenomena such as mode conversion, surface waves and plate waves. The propagating ultrasonic wavefronts have been modelled using computer intensive techniques, but it was thought that a method of directly observing the ultrasound could give a much clearer understanding of how the field propagates through various media.


Crack Detection In Fuselage Panels By A Narrow-Band Laser-Based Ultrasonic System, Jin Huang, Sridhar Krishnaswamy, Jan D. Achenbach Jan 1993

Crack Detection In Fuselage Panels By A Narrow-Band Laser-Based Ultrasonic System, Jin Huang, Sridhar Krishnaswamy, Jan D. Achenbach

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Surface acoustic waves can be used for the characterization of mechanical properties of materials, as well as to investigate the near-surface region of a solid for cracks and other flaws by probing for the presence of scattering sources. In the non-destructive characterization of solids, laser generation of ultrasound as well as interferometric detection of the surface waves are particularly attractive in view of the non-contacting nature of such systems. In recent studies, accurate detection of surface wave speed and attenuation have been shown to be possible by the use of dual-probe laser interferometers[1,2]. A number of authors have ...


Laser Ultrasonic Inspection Of Honeycomb Aircraft Structures, F. P. Chang, T. E. Drake, M. A. Osterkamp, Jean-Pierre Monchalin, R. Heon, P. Bouchard, C. Padioleau, D. A. Froom, W. Frazier, J. Barton Jan 1993

Laser Ultrasonic Inspection Of Honeycomb Aircraft Structures, F. P. Chang, T. E. Drake, M. A. Osterkamp, Jean-Pierre Monchalin, R. Heon, P. Bouchard, C. Padioleau, D. A. Froom, W. Frazier, J. Barton

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic methods have been used extensively for the inspection of advanced composite materials and adhesively bonded structures. Conventional ultrasonic inspections usually require couplants to propagate ultrasonic waves to and from the part surface. Delaminations, porosities, and foreign inclusions in composite laminates can be successfully detected by pulsed-echo and through-transmission modes of ultrasonic inspection. Debonds in adhesively bonded structures are most effectively detected by the through-transmission mode of ultrasonic inspection.


Solid Rocket Motor Nde Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Lowell Burnett, Dale R. Mckay, Erik M. Magnuson, E. J. Vanderheiden Jan 1993

Solid Rocket Motor Nde Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Lowell Burnett, Dale R. Mckay, Erik M. Magnuson, E. J. Vanderheiden

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Solid rocket motors (SRMs) are complex integrated structures. An integral part of an SRM is the adhesive liner, which is used to bond the propellant to the insulator covering the inner surface of the case. In order to ensure SRM performance and reliability, the adhesive liner must be properly cured, of the specified thickness, and free of contamination. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method to ensure that these conditions are met.


Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance As A Non-Destructive Testing Tool, George Williams, Z. M. Saleh, P. Hari Jan 1993

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance As A Non-Destructive Testing Tool, George Williams, Z. M. Saleh, P. Hari

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Nuclear pure quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a resonance technique that provides distinctly different information from that provided by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In NMR the splitting of the energy levels, and therefore the frequency observed, occurs because of the interaction of the nuclear magnetic moment with an external magnetic field. Information about the system under study comes from perturbations on this magnetic interaction. These perturbations lead to a broadening of the line, or to relaxation effects on the interchange of energy between the spins and the lattice, and among the spins. In NQR the primary interaction is between the electric ...


General Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Nde X-Ray Images, Karl Ulmer, John P. Basart Jan 1993

General Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Nde X-Ray Images, Karl Ulmer, John P. Basart

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

This paper presents an approach to automated flaw detection (AFD) in an arbitrary X-ray image. The intensities in the digitized radiographic image are modeled as piecewise-smooth surface functions corrupted by noise and flaws. It has been observed that radiographs generated for NDE purposes containing flaws also have a combination of three unwanted features; background trends, geometrical structures, and noise. These features inhibit the performance of automated flaw detection algorithms. The proposed general processing scheme reduces the unwanted features in such a way that candidate flaws within the image can be identified. The proposed scheme is robust and is applicable to ...


X-Ray Computed Tomography For Geometry Acquisition, R. Bossi, A. Crews, G. Georgeson, J. Nelson, J. Shrader Jan 1993

X-Ray Computed Tomography For Geometry Acquisition, R. Bossi, A. Crews, G. Georgeson, J. Nelson, J. Shrader

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

X-ray computed tomography (CT) uses penetrating radiation measurements from many angles about an object to reconstruct cross sectional images of the object interior [1–2]. The images are two dimensional maps of the X-ray linear attenuation coefficient for small volume elements in the object defined by the effective X-ray beam size. The CT images provide quantitative measures of component feature dimensions and density as related to the linear X-ray attenuation of the material under study.


Computed Tomography Applications In Turbine Engine Overhaul, Ward Rummel, Mark Davis, Rodolfo Garcia Jan 1993

Computed Tomography Applications In Turbine Engine Overhaul, Ward Rummel, Mark Davis, Rodolfo Garcia

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The United States Air Force has an initiative for technology development and implementation in design, production, acceptance and maintenance overhaul operations. As a part of this initiative, an x-ray computed tomography capability was acquired for use in the support of aircraft structures and gas turbine engine overhaul applications at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. Implementation of the technology into the Kelly work flow has required acquisition of the knowledge and skills required to use the system, and re-analysis of work functions to assess added capability, measurement precision, reliability and productivity. At the same time, the nature of the data / information ...


Development And Application Of Local 3-D Ct Reconstruction Software For Imaging Critical Regions In Large Ceramic Turbine Rotors, E. Sivers, D. L. Holloway, W. A. Ellingson, J. Ling Jan 1993

Development And Application Of Local 3-D Ct Reconstruction Software For Imaging Critical Regions In Large Ceramic Turbine Rotors, E. Sivers, D. L. Holloway, W. A. Ellingson, J. Ling

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Current 3-D X-ray CT imaging technology is limited in some cases by the size and sensitivity of the X-ray detector. This limitation can be overcome to some degree by the use of region-of-interest (ROI) reconstruction software when only part of a larger object need be examined. However, images produced from ROI data often exhibit severe density shading if they are reconstructed by unaltered 3-D X-ray CT algorithms (called Global methods here). These density artifacts can be so severe that low-contrast features are hidden. Time-consuming methods introduced previously to remedy these artifacts require specialized processing to replace or approximate the missing ...


Electronic Holography And Shearography Nde For Inspection Of Modern Materials And Structures, J. Clarady, M. Summers Jan 1993

Electronic Holography And Shearography Nde For Inspection Of Modern Materials And Structures, J. Clarady, M. Summers

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Coherent optical techniques such as holography, shearography, and ESPI have been available for inspection applications for years. However, they are still not well known or widely used. In fact, they have sometimes been described as “a solution looking for a problem” and like so many new technologies, they may have been somewhat oversold. These optical NDE methods do, however, offer some impressive advantages over more conventional inspection techniques for the right applications. It is the intent of this paper to provide some basic information on how two of these optical methods, holography and shearography, work discuss capabilities and limitations of ...


Beam Profile Reflectometry: A New Technique For Thin Film Measurements, J. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, Allan Rosencwaig Jan 1993

Beam Profile Reflectometry: A New Technique For Thin Film Measurements, J. Fanton, J. Opsal, D. L. Willenborg, S. M. Kelso, Allan Rosencwaig

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

In the manufacture of semiconductor devices, it is of critical importance to know the thickness and material properties of various dielectric and semiconducting thin films. Although there are many techniques for measuring these films, the most commonly used are reflection spectrophotometry [1,2] and ellipsometry [3]. In the former method, the normal- incidence reflectivity is measured as a function of wavelength. The shape of the reflectivity spectrum is then analyzed using the Fresnel equations to determine the thickness of the film. In some cases, the refractive index can also be determined provided that the dispersion of the optical constants are ...


Electronic Shearography: Current Capabilities, Potential Limitations, And Future Possibilities For Industrial Nondestructive Inspection, John Deaton Jr., Robert S. Rogowski Jan 1993

Electronic Shearography: Current Capabilities, Potential Limitations, And Future Possibilities For Industrial Nondestructive Inspection, John Deaton Jr., Robert S. Rogowski

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Image-shearing speckle pattern interferometry, more commonly referred to as ‘shearography’, is a full-field, laser-based interferometric technique first developed for applications in experimental mechanics [1,2]. Shearography is sensitive to derivatives of the out-of-plane surface displacement of a body under load, as opposed to other full-field methods such as holographic interferometry and conventional speckle pattern interferometry, which typically contour the surface displacement directly [3]. The early shearography experiments used high-resolution photographic film to record images of the laser speckle patterns. In contrast to traditional film-based techniques, electronic shearography uses an electronic camera for image recording [4]. This technology, commercially available for ...