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1993

Electrical and Computer Engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Sensitivity Improvement Of A 1-Μm Ladar System Incorporating An Active Optical Fiber Preamplifier, Michael S. Salisbury, Paul F. Mcmanamon, Bradley D. Duncan Nov 1993

Sensitivity Improvement Of A 1-Μm Ladar System Incorporating An Active Optical Fiber Preamplifier, Michael S. Salisbury, Paul F. Mcmanamon, Bradley D. Duncan

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

In an effort to increase the SNR of a continuous wave, 1-μm all solid state ladar system, a rare-earth-doped optical fiber amplifier is investigated as a preamplifier for ladar return signals. The experimental system is detailed and a theoretical analysis of the fiber amplifier's effect on both heterodyne and direct detection schemes is provided. Beginning with the optical powers incident on the detector, the signal and noises are analyzed, through the detector electronics, to predict the SNR. The SNR is then plotted as a function of the return signal power, and a SNR threshold is defined to determine a ...


Proposal For A Dod Combined Battlefield Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Initiative, George H. Baker Iii Oct 1993

Proposal For A Dod Combined Battlefield Electromagnetic Environmental Effects (E3) Initiative, George H. Baker Iii

Department of Integrated Science and Technology - Faculty Scholarship

The presentation emphasizes the growing importance of electromagnetic survivability and compatibility. Operation Desert Storm demonstrated the clear military advantage provided by sophisticated electronic weapon and communication systems. In addition, the offensive tactic of taking out the enemy's eyes and ears during the air war paid off, giving our military decisive air superiority. The lessons for the future are clear. High-tech electronics now so dominates the battlefield that the outcome of future conflicts could well be decided by electronics attrition rather than human casualties. Our Desert Storm experience thus accentuates the importance of guaranteeing that our electronic systems will not ...


Enhanced Differential Magnetostrictive Response In Annealed Terfenol‐D, N. Galloway, M. P. Schulze, R. D. Greenough, David C. Jiles Aug 1993

Enhanced Differential Magnetostrictive Response In Annealed Terfenol‐D, N. Galloway, M. P. Schulze, R. D. Greenough, David C. Jiles

Ames Laboratory Publications

The field and pressure dependencies of the magnetostriction of Tb0.316Dy0.684Fe1.982 have been measured in a grain‐oriented rod after thermally annealing for 1 day at 850 °C and for 4 days at 950 °C in an argon atmosphere. The results of the heat treatment are a fivefold increase in the strain coefficient d 33(=dλ/dH) and a 100% increase in the maximum strain (λ). There was also an increase in the λ‐vs‐Hhysteresis. Under compressive uniaxial stress there was virtually no bulk change in magnetostrictive strain until the ...


Electronic Simulation Of The Temporal Characteristics Of Photon Memory Echoes And Some Related Applications, Yuwen Kuo, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee Aug 1993

Electronic Simulation Of The Temporal Characteristics Of Photon Memory Echoes And Some Related Applications, Yuwen Kuo, Monish Ranjan Chatterjee

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The characteristics of nonlinear photon memory echoes are investigated by means of SPICE simulations using equivalent resonator ensembles. By developing implicit nonlinear circuit models in the memory echo domain, the triple product formalism of electronic holography, involving correlation and convolution, is tested for the storage and recall of arbitrary signals and/or data bit streams in both time-inverted and nontime-inverted modes. Furthermore, a few specific optical data processing applications are also simulated in which the mixed binary multiplication of two or more binary bit streams is achieved.

Higher order products, optical pattern recognition, and other possible applications are also discussed ...


Low‐Cost Technique For Preparing N‐Sb2S3/P‐Si Heterojunction Solar Cells, O. Savadogo, K. C. Mandal Jul 1993

Low‐Cost Technique For Preparing N‐Sb2S3/P‐Si Heterojunction Solar Cells, O. Savadogo, K. C. Mandal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


A Model For Hysteretic Magnetic Properties Under The Application Of Noncoaxial Stress And Field, Martin J. Sablik, S. W. Rubin, L. A. Riley, David C. Jiles, David A. Kaminski, S. B. Biner Jul 1993

A Model For Hysteretic Magnetic Properties Under The Application Of Noncoaxial Stress And Field, Martin J. Sablik, S. W. Rubin, L. A. Riley, David C. Jiles, David A. Kaminski, S. B. Biner

Center for Nondestructive Evaluation Publications

Although descriptions of the effect of stress on spontaneous magnetization within a single domain already exist, there remains no adequate mathematical model for the effects of noncoaxial magnetic field and stress on bulk magnetization in a multidomained specimen. This article addresses the problem and provides a phenomenological theory that applies to the case of bulk isotropic materials. The magnetomechanical hysteresis model of Sablik and Jiles is thus extended to treat magnetic properties in the case of noncoaxial stress and magnetic field in an isotropic, polycrystalline medium. In the modeling, noncollinearity between magnetization and magnetic field is taken into account. The ...


Photopolarimeter Based On Planar Grating Diffraction, R. M.A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina Jun 1993

Photopolarimeter Based On Planar Grating Diffraction, R. M.A. Azzam, K. A. Giardina

Electrical Engineering Faculty Publications

A division-of-amplitude photopolarimeter (DOAP) is described that employs a diffraction grating in the conventional spectrometer orientation with the grating grooves normal to the plane of incidence. Four coplanar diffracted orders are used for polarimetric analysis to determine all four Stokes parameters of incident light simultaneously and virtually instantaneously (with the speed being determined solely by the photodetectors and their associated electronics); a fifth order is used for alignment by autocollimation or by use of a position-sensing quadrant detector. To sensitize the instrument for the +45° and -45° azimuths of incident linearly polarized light and for the handedness of incident circular ...


Measurements Of Magnetic Circuit Characteristics For Comprehension Of Intrinsic Magnetic Properties Of Materials From Surface Inspection, Z. J. Chen, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles May 1993

Measurements Of Magnetic Circuit Characteristics For Comprehension Of Intrinsic Magnetic Properties Of Materials From Surface Inspection, Z. J. Chen, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles

Ames Laboratory Publications

A transfer function is presented for calculating magnetic field and flux density inside a test material as a result of surface measurement. By considering flux leakage, we introduce a parameter η, called the leakage coefficient, which can be experimentally determined. It is introduced into the equations to make the transfer function more practical. The distribution of field inside a test material is then discussed in accordance with a surfacemagnetic charge model.


Magnescope: Applications In Nondestructive Evaluation, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles, A. R. Eichmann, David A. Kaminski, S. Hardwick May 1993

Magnescope: Applications In Nondestructive Evaluation, Michael K. Devine, David C. Jiles, A. R. Eichmann, David A. Kaminski, S. Hardwick

Ames Laboratory Publications

This paper describes recent results obtained with the Magnescope, which has been used on location in industrial environments and has successfully detected impending fatigue failure, creep damage, applied stress, and microstructural differences. It is concluded that the device provides a useful nondestructive method for evaluating the mechanical properties of materials through the measurement of their structure sensitive magnetic properties.


Analytic Model Calculation Of Magnetic Field In A Magnetic Half‐Space Due To Surface Magnetic Charge, Z. J. Chen, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, David C. Jiles May 1993

Analytic Model Calculation Of Magnetic Field In A Magnetic Half‐Space Due To Surface Magnetic Charge, Z. J. Chen, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, David C. Jiles

Ames Laboratory Publications

By analogy with electrostatic field, a simple analytic model is presented on the distribution of magnetic field inside a test material as a result of surface inspection with a magnetic probe. According to this model, the penetration depth of the magnetic field is defined and the permeability of the material at different depths is calculated. Finally, the magnetic flux inside the inspection head when placed on samples of different thicknesses is calculated and compared with experimental results.


Evaluation Of Fatigue Damage In Steel Structural Components By Magnetoelastic Barkhausen Signal Analysis, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, Andrew Strom, David C. Jiles, S. B. Biner, Z. J. Chen May 1993

Evaluation Of Fatigue Damage In Steel Structural Components By Magnetoelastic Barkhausen Signal Analysis, Madhav Rao Govindaraju, Andrew Strom, David C. Jiles, S. B. Biner, Z. J. Chen

Ames Laboratory Publications

This paper is concerned with using a magnetic technique for the evaluation of fatigue damage in steel structural components. It is shown that Barkhausen effect measurements can be used to indicate impending failure due to fatigue under certain conditions. The Barkhausen signal amplitude is known to be highly sensitive to changes in density and distribution of dislocations in materials. The sensitivity of Barkhausen signal amplitude to fatigue damage has been studied in the low‐cycle fatigue regime using smooth tensile specimens of a medium strength steel. The Barkhausen measurements were taken at depths of penetration of 0.02, 0.07 ...


Modeling Of Micromagnetic Barkhausen Activity Using A Stochastic Process Extension To The Theory Of Hysteresis, David C. Jiles, Levent B. Sipahi, G. Williams May 1993

Modeling Of Micromagnetic Barkhausen Activity Using A Stochastic Process Extension To The Theory Of Hysteresis, David C. Jiles, Levent B. Sipahi, G. Williams

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

Recent work by Bertotti [IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG‐24, 621 (1988)] and others has shown that it is possible to model the micromagnetic Barkhausen discontinuities at the coercive point using a two‐parameter stochastic model. However, the present formulation of the model is restricted to limited regions of the hysteresis curve over which dM/dH is approximately constant and whendH/dt is held at a constant rate. A natural extension of this model is to take the basic result, in which the level of Barkhausen activity in one time period is related to the activity in the previous time ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Barkhausen Emission Spectra Using Pulse Height Analysis, Frequency Spectrum, And Pulse Wave Form Analysis, Levent B. Sipahi, David C. Jiles, D. Chandler May 1993

Comprehensive Analysis Of Barkhausen Emission Spectra Using Pulse Height Analysis, Frequency Spectrum, And Pulse Wave Form Analysis, Levent B. Sipahi, David C. Jiles, D. Chandler

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The dependence of magnetic Barkhausen emissions (MBE) upon both field excitation and detection frequencies and excitation wave form was studied in order to investigate two of several crucial factors which affect the emissions. Sinusoidal, triangular, and square wave forms were used to generate the MBE and the pulse height spectra, frequency spectra, and pulse wave forms of these signals were analyzed. The frequency spectra of sinusoidal and triangular alternating field excitations showed similar behavior but the spectrum under square wave excitation was different due to the existence of high frequency components during square wave switching. As yet, no common standard ...


Advances In Pultiple-Pulse Radio-Frequency-Gradient Imaging Of Solids, John Marohn, David N. Shykind, Margat H. Werner, Daniel P. Weitekamp Jan 1993

Advances In Pultiple-Pulse Radio-Frequency-Gradient Imaging Of Solids, John Marohn, David N. Shykind, Margat H. Werner, Daniel P. Weitekamp

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the premier tool for the non-destructive evaluation of soft tissue in living systems [1]. Established liquid-state MRI strategies are generally found to be inappropriate for the imaging of rigid solids, because the linewidth for nuclear magnetic resonance in solids is orders-of-magnitude larger than in liquids. Methods currently under development for the NMR imaging of solids either involve the use of very large (fringe-field) magnetic field gradients to encode spatial information over very short periods of time [2], or employ multiple-pulse line-narrowing techniques that prolong a solid’s apparent transverse relaxation time [3–7]. In ...


Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin Jan 1993

Progress Towards The Application Of Laser-Ultrasonics In Industry, Jean-Pierre Monchalin

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Ultrasonic techniques are widely used in industry for thickness gauging, flaw detection and materials characterization. The ultrasonic waves are usually generated and detected by piezoelectric transducers and coupled to the inspected part either by direct contact or through a water bath or a water jet. Although widespread and generally cost effective, these conventional ultrasonic techniques suffer from essentially two severe limitations, which impact upon their use for on-line process control and the inspection of advanced materials.


Reception Of Laser Generated Ultrasound From A Cfrp Plate By An Air Matched Piezoelectric Composite Transducer, L. Scudder, D. A. Hutchins, G. Hayward Jan 1993

Reception Of Laser Generated Ultrasound From A Cfrp Plate By An Air Matched Piezoelectric Composite Transducer, L. Scudder, D. A. Hutchins, G. Hayward

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Laser generated ultrasound is being investigated [1,2] for testing structures made of both conventional metals and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP). Laser interferometers are widely used in such work to detect the normal surface motion caused by ultrasonic pulses. Interferometers offer non-contact, remote and high-fidelity detection, together with a potential to cover large areas rapidly by optical scanning. However their cost is high and only in testing large and/or expensive structures may the cost be justified. A lower cost alternative, but with some compromise on the virtues of an interferometer, would be to use an air transducer as ...


Solid Rocket Motor Nde Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Lowell Burnett, Dale R. Mckay, Erik M. Magnuson, E. J. Vanderheiden Jan 1993

Solid Rocket Motor Nde Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Lowell Burnett, Dale R. Mckay, Erik M. Magnuson, E. J. Vanderheiden

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Solid rocket motors (SRMs) are complex integrated structures. An integral part of an SRM is the adhesive liner, which is used to bond the propellant to the insulator covering the inner surface of the case. In order to ensure SRM performance and reliability, the adhesive liner must be properly cured, of the specified thickness, and free of contamination. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method to ensure that these conditions are met.


Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance As A Non-Destructive Testing Tool, George Williams, Z. M. Saleh, P. Hari Jan 1993

Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance As A Non-Destructive Testing Tool, George Williams, Z. M. Saleh, P. Hari

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Nuclear pure quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a resonance technique that provides distinctly different information from that provided by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In NMR the splitting of the energy levels, and therefore the frequency observed, occurs because of the interaction of the nuclear magnetic moment with an external magnetic field. Information about the system under study comes from perturbations on this magnetic interaction. These perturbations lead to a broadening of the line, or to relaxation effects on the interchange of energy between the spins and the lattice, and among the spins. In NQR the primary interaction is between the electric ...


General Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Nde X-Ray Images, Karl Ulmer, John P. Basart Jan 1993

General Automated Flaw Detection Scheme For Nde X-Ray Images, Karl Ulmer, John P. Basart

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

This paper presents an approach to automated flaw detection (AFD) in an arbitrary X-ray image. The intensities in the digitized radiographic image are modeled as piecewise-smooth surface functions corrupted by noise and flaws. It has been observed that radiographs generated for NDE purposes containing flaws also have a combination of three unwanted features; background trends, geometrical structures, and noise. These features inhibit the performance of automated flaw detection algorithms. The proposed general processing scheme reduces the unwanted features in such a way that candidate flaws within the image can be identified. The proposed scheme is robust and is applicable to ...


Nonspecular Reflection Of Rotationally Symmetric Gaussian Beams From Shaped Fluid-Solid Interfaces, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen Jan 1993

Nonspecular Reflection Of Rotationally Symmetric Gaussian Beams From Shaped Fluid-Solid Interfaces, Smaine Zeroug, Leopold B. Felsen

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Nonspecular reflection, which occurs when an incident beam is phase matched to a leaky wave, is an important tool for fluid-solid interface diagnostics. A recently developed complex ray analysis for modeling nonspecular reflection of two-dimensional Gaussian sheet beams [1,2] is here extended to account for rotationally symmetric three-dimensional (3D) Gaussian beams (GBs) with arbitrary collimation. As in our 2D analysis, we utilize the complex-source-point (CSP) technique by which a conventional point-source-excited field can be converted into a 3D quasi-Gaussian beam field by displacing a real point source to a complex location [3]. When the CSP field excited in the ...


Accuracy Of The Image Technique For Calculating Electro-Magnetic Field Induced At The Surface Of A Ferromagnetic Metal, S. Sadeghi, D. Mirshekar-Syahkal Jan 1993

Accuracy Of The Image Technique For Calculating Electro-Magnetic Field Induced At The Surface Of A Ferromagnetic Metal, S. Sadeghi, D. Mirshekar-Syahkal

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Recently, the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique for the detection and sizing of surface breaking cracks in ferromagnetic metals was introduced [1–5]. In this technique a rectangular coil or a set of U-shaped wires excited by a high frequency ac current produces the eddy current in the area under inspection. The location, depth and width of a crack in the test area are obtained by interpreting the measurements on a tangential component of the magnetic field at the metal surface using a mathematical modeling. The mathematical modeling assumes that in the absence of crack, the magnetic field at ...


Transcatter X-Ray Technique For The Inspection Of Insulated, Oil-Carrying Pipelines, P.-S. Ong, W. L. Anderson, B. D. Cook, R. Subramanyan Jan 1993

Transcatter X-Ray Technique For The Inspection Of Insulated, Oil-Carrying Pipelines, P.-S. Ong, W. L. Anderson, B. D. Cook, R. Subramanyan

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

Pipelines are subjected to corrosion and require periodic inspection. These pipes are generally covered with an insulating material, that is contained within a metal jacket. The removal of the insulating material is costly, and can hazardous if asbestos is the material being removed. Because a large number of pipes need to be inspected, a cost effective technique for the characterization of corrosion under insulation is desirable.


Experiments With Double Microwave Apertures, John Basart, Zhong Zhang Jan 1993

Experiments With Double Microwave Apertures, John Basart, Zhong Zhang

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

One of the significant characterizations of microwave imaging is the spatial resolution. The relative long wavelength of microwaves as compared to ultrasonic waves and x-rays necessarily means that aperture arrays (real-time or synthetic) are required for high-resolution microwave imaging. Certain limitations on resolution apply regardless of how the array is realized. Types of antenna arrays fall into two broad categories: Phased arrays which are usually operated in real time by scanning a beam past an object, and aperture synthesis in which data are collected with one or more antennas and later processed to produce an image. In NDE we are ...


The Use Of Optical Beam Deflection (Obd) Technique In The Thermal Diffusivity Characterization Of Polymer Foils, J. Rantala, Lanhua Wei, P. K. Kuo, J. Jaarinen, M. Luukkala, R. L. Thomas Jan 1993

The Use Of Optical Beam Deflection (Obd) Technique In The Thermal Diffusivity Characterization Of Polymer Foils, J. Rantala, Lanhua Wei, P. K. Kuo, J. Jaarinen, M. Luukkala, R. L. Thomas

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

The rapid progress in development of new materials has also created more demands on their testing and characterization methods. In spite of the wide use of different plastics, there is a lack of methods to measure thermal diffusivity of polymers and other low-diffusivity materials. The diffusivity determination of oriented polymers is of particular interest: the drawing of a polymer foil orients the molecular chains, which strengthens the foil mechanically and also causes anisotropy to thermal conductivity making it higher parallel to the drawing direction than perpendicular to it. Anisotropy ratios as high as 100 have been reported [1]. The diffusivity ...


Reluctance Variation As A Result Of Lift Off For An Ac Magnetic Bridge, William F. Schmidt, Otto H. Zinke Jan 1993

Reluctance Variation As A Result Of Lift Off For An Ac Magnetic Bridge, William F. Schmidt, Otto H. Zinke

Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation

To optimize the sensitivity and minimize lift-off effects of electromagnetic NDE devices requires an understanding of the source and distribution of electromagnetic fields. This understanding is particularly difficult when conductive devices other than the sample are in the vicinity of the field. Such is the case with the modified AC magnetic bridge [1] which has a conducting insert in the vicinity of the gap in proximity to the sample.


Paschen's Law For A Hollow Cathode Discharge, H. Eichhorn, K. H. Schoenbach, T. Tessnow Jan 1993

Paschen's Law For A Hollow Cathode Discharge, H. Eichhorn, K. H. Schoenbach, T. Tessnow

Bioelectrics Publications

An expression for the breakdown voltage of a one‐dimensional hollow cathode discharge has been derived. The breakdown condition which corresponds to Paschen’s law contains, in addition to the first Townsend coefficient, and the secondary electron emission coefficient two parameters which characterize the reflecting action of the electric field and the lifetime of the electrons in the discharge. The breakdown voltage for a hollow cathode discharge in helium was calculated and compared to that of a glow discharge operating under similar conditions.


Temporal Development Of Electric Field Structures In Photoconductive Gaas Switches, K. H. Schoenbach, J. S. Kenney, F.E. Peterkin, R. J. Allen Jan 1993

Temporal Development Of Electric Field Structures In Photoconductive Gaas Switches, K. H. Schoenbach, J. S. Kenney, F.E. Peterkin, R. J. Allen

Bioelectrics Publications

The temporal development of the electric field distribution in semi‐insulating GaAs photoconductive switches operated in the linear and lock‐on mode has been studied. The field structure was obtained by recording a change in the absorption pattern of the switch due to the Franz–Keldysh effect at a wavelength near the band edge of GaAs. In the linear mode, a high field layer develops at the cathode contact after laser activation. With increasing applied voltage, domainlike structures become visible in the anode region and the switch transits into the lock‐on state, a permanent filamentary electrical discharge. Calibration measurements ...


Direct Measurements Of The Transport Of Nonequilibrium Electrons In Gold Films With Different Crystal Structures, T. Juhasz, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, G. O. Smith, C. Suárez, W. E. Bron Jan 1993

Direct Measurements Of The Transport Of Nonequilibrium Electrons In Gold Films With Different Crystal Structures, T. Juhasz, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, G. O. Smith, C. Suárez, W. E. Bron

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The transport of femtosecond-laser-excited nonequilibrium electrons across polycrystalline and single-crystalline gold films has been investigated through time-of-flight measurements. The thicknesses of the films range from 25 to 400 nm. Ballistic electrons as well as electrons interacting with other electrons and/or with the lattice have been observed. The ballistic component dominates the transport in the thinner films, whereas the interactive transport mechanism is dominant at the upper end of the thickness range. A slower effective velocity of the interactive component is observed in the polycrystalline samples, and is assumed to arise from the presence of grain boundaries. The reflection coefficient ...


Effects Of Randomly Rough Surfaces On Ultrasonic Inspection , Mehmet Bilgen Jan 1993

Effects Of Randomly Rough Surfaces On Ultrasonic Inspection , Mehmet Bilgen

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Surface finish of an industrial part affects its ultrasonic inspection and consequently the surfaces are often machined smooth before the evaluation. Ultrasonic inspection through smooth surfaces has been well studied and understood. A theoretical basis has been established for the characterization of interior cracks, voids and inclusions, and vast amount of literature exists. However, much less is known about quantitative ultrasonic inspection of such flaws in parts with rough surfaces, e.g. machine marks or "as-cast" surfaces. A question arises "When can an industrial part with randomly rough surfaces be inspected robustly using ultrasound?" This dissertation is aimed at answering ...


Growth And Characterization Of Polysilicon Films Deposited By Reactive Plasma Beam Epitaxy , Behnam Moradi Jan 1993

Growth And Characterization Of Polysilicon Films Deposited By Reactive Plasma Beam Epitaxy , Behnam Moradi

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Polycrystalline silicon was deposited at low temperatures (400-550°C) by using a new technique, reactive plasma beam epitaxy. The technique consists of using an intense flux of hydrogen radicals, generated by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source to promote nucleation and crystallinity at low temperatures. The film structure could be smoothly changed from polysilicon to amorphous by changing the flux of incoming H radicals on the surface of the sample. The flux of hydrogen radicals can be controlled by changing the deposition pressure, with lower pressures leading to a higher H radical flux and greater degree of crystallinity. The effect ...