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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan Sep 2019

Physics And Mathematics Of Graded Quivers, Azeem Hasan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A graded quiver with superpotential is a quiver whose arrows are assigned degrees c ∈ {0, 1, · · · , m}, for some integer m ≥ 0, with relations generated by a superpotential of degree m − 1. For m = 0, 1, 2, 3 they often describe the open string sector of D-brane systems; in particular, they capture the physics of D(5 − 2m)-branes at local Calabi-Yau (CY) (m + 2)- fold singularities in type IIB string theory. We introduce m-dimers, which fully encode the m-graded quivers and their superpotentials, in the case in which the CY (m + 2)-folds are toric. A key result is ...


Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields Sep 2019

Sequential Discrimination Between Non-Orthogonal Quantum States, Dov L. Fields

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The problem of discriminating between non-orthogonal states is one that has generated a lot of interest. This basic formalism is useful in many areas of quantum information. It serves as a fundamental basis for many quantum key distribution schemes, it functions as an integral part of other quantum algorithms, and it is useful in experimental settings where orthogonal states are not always possible to generate. Additionally, the discrimination problem reveals important fundamental properties, and is intrinsically related to entanglement. In this thesis, the focus is on exploring the problem of sequentially discriminating between non-orthogonal states. In the simplest version these ...


The Effect Of Spatial Averaging On Db/Dt Exposure Values For Implanted Medical Devices, Christopher Ap Brown Aug 2019

The Effect Of Spatial Averaging On Db/Dt Exposure Values For Implanted Medical Devices, Christopher Ap Brown

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging modality that has seen continuous growth in the decades since its introduction. In conjunction with this increase in the use of MRI, there has also been a growth in the number of patients having implanted medical devices, such as pacemakers. These devices can have undesirable interactions with the MR system. The safety of these interactions must be guaranteed while ensuring that safety limits are not so conservative that they would preclude too many patients from benefiting from MRI. One factor that could make limits less restrictive is spatial averaging of the fields ...


Strongly Correlated Systems Under High Magnetic Field: A Mixed Landau Levels Description For Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, Sumanta Bandyopadhyay Aug 2019

Strongly Correlated Systems Under High Magnetic Field: A Mixed Landau Levels Description For Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, Sumanta Bandyopadhyay

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Strong correlation among electrons under high magnetic field gives rise to an entirely new arena of emergent physics, namely fractional quantum Hall effect. Such systems have entirely different elementary degrees of freedom and generally, demand non-perturbative approaches to develop a better understanding. In the literature, there are several analytical methodologies and numerical toolkits available to study such a system. Clustering of zeros, parent Hamiltonian, off-diagonal order parameter, parton construction, matrix product states are to be named among a few of those popular methodologies in the existing literature. Most of these methods work well in the lowest Landau level or holomorphic ...


A Search For Boosted Low Mass Resonances Decaying To The Bb̅ Final State And Produced In Association With A Jet At √S = 13 Tev With The Atlas Detector, Matthew Feickert Aug 2019

A Search For Boosted Low Mass Resonances Decaying To The Bb̅ Final State And Produced In Association With A Jet At √S = 13 Tev With The Atlas Detector, Matthew Feickert

Physics Theses and Dissertations

A search in the high momentum regime for new resonances, produced in association with a jet, decaying into a pair of bottom quarks is presented using an integrated luminosity of 80.5 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energy √s = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The search was performed for low mass resonances, including the Standard Model Higgs boson and leptophobic Z' dark matter mediators, in the mass range of 100 GeV to 200 GeV. For the Standard Model Higgs boson, the observed signal strength is μH = 5.8 ± 3.1 (stat ...


Massive Elementary Particles In The Standard Model And Its Supersymmetric Triplet Higgs Extension, Keping Xie Aug 2019

Massive Elementary Particles In The Standard Model And Its Supersymmetric Triplet Higgs Extension, Keping Xie

Physics Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we focus on massive elementary particles in the Standard Model and its supersymmetric triplet Higgs extension.

In the first part, we start with a review of electroweak (EW) sector in the Standard Model. Motivated by nonzero neutrino masses, we consider triplet scalars in addition to the Standard Model. The vacuum expectation values of scalar triplets are strongly constrained by the $\rho$ parameter, extracted from electroweak precision measurements. Therefore, we introduce a custodial symmetry to weaken this constraint and obtain the well-known Georgi-Machacek (GM) Model. The GM model still requires fine-tuning to satisfy the $\rho$ parameter constraint. It ...


Development Of A Ground-Based Aerial-Tracking Instrument For Open-Path Spectroscopy To Monitor Atmospheric Constituents, Haden Hodges Aug 2019

Development Of A Ground-Based Aerial-Tracking Instrument For Open-Path Spectroscopy To Monitor Atmospheric Constituents, Haden Hodges

Civil Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

A ground-based aerial-tracking instrument, known as the Ground Tracker, designed to provide spectral data to quantify greenhouse gases is under development. The Ground Tracker includes an Optical System including a high power rifle scope, video camera, and spectrometer used to locate an active light source from the Emitter, and collect spectral data by utilizing an actuating mirror. The implementation of this instrument could be made low cost by utilizing existing weather balloon infrastructure to allow the Emitter to be placed into the lower stratosphere. The recovery of the emitter will be possible by tracking the GPS coordinates. Weather balloon instrument ...


Nonlinear Estimation And Control Methods For Mechanical And Aerospace Systems Under Actuator Uncertainty, Krishna Bhavithavya Kidambi Aug 2019

Nonlinear Estimation And Control Methods For Mechanical And Aerospace Systems Under Actuator Uncertainty, Krishna Bhavithavya Kidambi

Dissertations and Theses

Air flow velocity field control is of crucial importance in aerospace applications to prevent the potentially destabilizing effects of phenomena such as cavity ow oscillations, flow separation, flow-induced limit cycle oscillations (LCO) (flutter), vorticity, and acoustic instabilities. Flow control is also important in aircraft applications to reduce drag in aircraft wings for improved flight performance. Although passive flow control approaches are often utilized due to their simplicity, active flow control (AFC) methods can achieve improved flight performance over a wider range of time-varying operating conditions by automatically adjusting their level of control actuation in response to real-time sensor measurements. Although ...


Possible Schemes For A Single Photon Switch, Hemlin Swaran Rag Aug 2019

Possible Schemes For A Single Photon Switch, Hemlin Swaran Rag

Theses and Dissertations

I consider the effectiveness of a single control photon to route a target photon using two processes: the first one uses the transient excitation of a two-level system and the second one which uses the permanent population transfer in a three-level Λ-system to route the target photon. In the absence of a single control photon and when the system has additional decay channels, I find ways to optimize the success probability of routing with an increasing number of photons in the control field.


Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal Aug 2019

Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the implications of Excitation/Inhibition balance and imbalance on the dynamics of ongoing (spontaneous) neural activity in the cerebral cortex region of the brain.

The first research work addresses the question that why among the continuum of Excitation-Inhibition balance configurations, particular configuration should be favored? We calculate the entropy of neural network dynamics by studying an analytically tractable network of binary neurons. Our main result from this work is that the entropy maximizes at regime which is neither excitation-dominant nor inhibition-dominant but at the boundary of both. Along this boundary we see ...


Classification Of Isometry Algebras Of Solutions Of Einstein's Field Equations, Eugene Hwang Aug 2019

Classification Of Isometry Algebras Of Solutions Of Einstein's Field Equations, Eugene Hwang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since Schwarzschild found the first solution of the Einstein’s equations, more than 800 solutions were found. Solutions of Einstein’s equations are classified according to their Lie algebras of isometries and their isotropy subalgebras. Solutions were taken from the USU electronic library of solutions of Einstein’s field equations and the classification used Maple code developed at USU. This classification adds to the data contained in the library of solutions and provides additional tools for addressing the equivalence problem for solutions to the Einstein field equations. In this thesis, homogeneous spacetimes, hypersurface-homogeneous spacetimes, Robinson-Trautman solutions, and some famous black ...


Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower Aug 2019

Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Proton therapy is a radiotherapy modality that can offer a better physical dose distribution when compared to photon radiotherapy by taking advantage of the Bragg peak, a narrow region of rapid energy loss. Proton therapy is also known to offer an enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photons. In the current clinical standard, RBE is fixed at 1.1 at all points along the proton beam, meaning protons are assumed to require 10% less dose than photons to achieve target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing. However, there is mounting clinical evidence, and a significant number of in ...


Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett Aug 2019

Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Small field dosimetry presents complications and uncertainties that could be circumvented by using detectors which are smaller than the radiation field. This study evaluates the reproducibility and accuracy of TLD micro-cubes for use in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remote auditing quality assurance (QA) for treatment centers participating in clinical trials. This study tested the hypothesis that TLD micro-cubes could be commissioned to evaluate small field dosimetry, and provide reproducibility within 3%, as well as assure agreement between measured dose and calculated doses to within 5%.

The aims of this thesis were to characterize and commission TLD micro-cubes as well as to ...


Development Of A 1-Dimensional Data Assimilation To Determine Temperature And Relative Humidity Combining Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements And A Reanalysis Model, Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage Jul 2019

Development Of A 1-Dimensional Data Assimilation To Determine Temperature And Relative Humidity Combining Raman Lidar Backscatter Measurements And A Reanalysis Model, Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water vapor is the most dominant greenhouse gas in Earth's atmosphere. It is highly variable and its variations strongly depend on changes in temperature. Atmospheric water vapor can be expressed as relative humidity (RH), the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in the mixture to the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over a flat surface of pure water at a given temperature. Liquid water can exist as super-cooled water for temperatures between 0C to -38C. Thus, RH can be measured either relative to water (RHw) or to ice (RHi). RHi measurements are important in the upper tropospheric ...


Electromagnetic Sum Rules And Response Functions From The Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model, Robert Byron Baker Jul 2019

Electromagnetic Sum Rules And Response Functions From The Symmetry-Adapted No-Core Shell Model, Robert Byron Baker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Recent developments in ab initio nuclear structure have provided us with a variety of many-body methods capable of describing nuclei into the medium-mass region of the chart of nuclides. One of these, the symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), capitalizes on inherent symmetries of the nucleus and is uniquely suited to examine the underlying physics of dynamical quantities, such as the response function.

We examine the applicability of the SA-NCSM to calculations of these quantities and assess the quality of its inputs by calculating electromagnetic sum rules and response functions with the Lanczos sum rule method and Lanczos response function method ...


Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis Jul 2019

Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis

LSU Master's Theses

Radioactive isotopes of iodine are produced by nuclear power plants as a byproduct of nuclear fission reactions. If these isotopes are released into the environment, such as during a breach of containment, they constitute a health risk to exposed individuals. To mitigate the risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine, “iodide prophylaxis,” also known as “thyroid blockade,” can be used, usually by administration of potassium iodide (KI). In some areas of the world, KI has been provided to the general public by their governments as a precautionary measure against potential nuclear power plant incidents. However, in the ...


Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan Jul 2019

Investigation Of Fundamental Principles Of Rigid Body Impact Mechanics, Khalid Alluhydan

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

In impact mechanics, the collision between two or more bodies is a common, yet a very challenging problem. Producing analytical solutions that can predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies require consistent modeling of the dynamics of the colliding bodies. This dissertation presents a new method for solving the two and multibody impact problems that can be used to predict the post-collision motion of the colliding bodies. Also, we solve the rigid body collision problem of planar kinematic chains with multiple contacts with external surfaces.

In the first part of this dissertation, we study planar collisions of Balls and ...


Alternative Energy Sources For Fossil Fuel Independence, Matthew Merchant Jun 2019

Alternative Energy Sources For Fossil Fuel Independence, Matthew Merchant

Senior Honors Theses

Fossil fuel dependence has caused a massive increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas levels. These gases pollute the environment and warm the planet, resulting in climate change effects that will soon be irreversible. To prevent this, clean alternative energy sources need to be developed further and used to gain fossil fuel independence in the near future. Possible alternative energy sources to meet this goal are nuclear fission, fusion, solar, hydro, geothermal, and wind. In this paper, the results of an experiment performed to study on the relationship between a solar panel’s angle with the sun and its power production will ...


Lasers, Noah B. Caro Jun 2019

Lasers, Noah B. Caro

Physics

No abstract provided.


Development Of The T0+ Detector For Alice, Austin E. Guard Jun 2019

Development Of The T0+ Detector For Alice, Austin E. Guard

Physics

The ALICE experiment at CERN is undergoing several major upgrades, one of which is a replacement of the trigger system, which will be composed of a suite of detectors known as the “Fast Interaction Trigger” or FIT. One part of the FIT collaboration team’s objective is the upgrade of the T0 detector, which provides the time stamp for events and acts as a trigger for the rest of the ALICE detectors. The T0+ will detect Cherenkov radiation from charged particles emitted in p-p and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The photodetectors are micro-channel plate photomultiplier tubes ...


Proof Of Concept And Experimental Design For Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor System (R-Lema), Amber Jessica Sucich Jun 2019

Proof Of Concept And Experimental Design For Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption Spectroscopy Sensor System (R-Lema), Amber Jessica Sucich

Physics

As the Earth’s resources are diminishing, it has become clear that the human race needs to find alternative resources and replenish the Earth’s natural reservoir. One way to do this is to consider interstellar objects. Interstellar objects, such as asteroids, offer mineral and other resources with great potential for mining. Before considering mining a rocky body, it is imperative to first know the complete composition of an object. Using the method of traveling to the objects, drilling into them, and bringing back samples is impractical, inefficient, and expensive. This method is also limiting, as only certain target areas ...


Finding And Analyzing U235 And U238 Ternary Fission Events In The Niffte Fissiontpc, Gabriel A. Oman Jun 2019

Finding And Analyzing U235 And U238 Ternary Fission Events In The Niffte Fissiontpc, Gabriel A. Oman

Physics

In this analysis, the differences between ternary and binary fission were explored using data from the NIFFTE Collaboration’s fission time projection chamber (TPC). The ratio of binary-to-ternary events for U-235 and U-238 as a function of neutron kinetic energy in the range of 1-30 MeV is presented. The typical value of the ratio is approximately 105 binary fissions per ternary fission, in agreement with previously published measurements. Future work will involve distinguishing the fissions of the two isotopes to provide more insight into this rare process.


An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons Jun 2019

An Investigation Of The Anomalous Thrust Capabilities Of The Electromagnetic Drive, Hannah J. Simons

Physics

The Electromagnetic Drive (EMDrive) is a propellant-less engine concept hypothesized by aero- space engineer Roger Shawyer. Shawyer’s proposed thruster technology is grounded on the theory of electromagnetic resonant behavior exhibited by a radiofrequency cavity, though the source of any generated thrust is undetermined by current physical laws. NASA Eagleworks Laboratories at John- son Space Center conducted a vacuum test campaign to investigate previously reported anomalous thrust capabilities of such a closed radiofrequency cavity, using a low-thrust torsion pendulum. The team published positive, although small-scaled thrust results in 2017. Following NASA Eagleworks breakthrough result and operating under the assumption that ...


Sensitivity Of The Theoretical Electron Capture Shape And Comparisons To Experiment, Katrina E. Koehler Jun 2019

Sensitivity Of The Theoretical Electron Capture Shape And Comparisons To Experiment, Katrina E. Koehler

Dissertations

The direct neutrino mass is a fundamental physics quantity with far-reaching implications for the physics community. Current experimental limits put the direct neutrino mass at less than 2 eV. The neutrino mass can be explored through an end-point measurement of tritium beta decay, which is currently underway in the KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN). KATRIN has a lower limit of 0.2 eV, at which point there will be either a mass measurement or another upper bound. In either case, an alternative experiment with different systematics is needed to verify the results and/or push the upper bound lower. The ...


Multi-Wavelength Investigation Of Energy Release And Chromospheric Evaporation In Solar Flares, Viacheslav M. Sadykov May 2019

Multi-Wavelength Investigation Of Energy Release And Chromospheric Evaporation In Solar Flares, Viacheslav M. Sadykov

Dissertations

For a comprehensive understanding of the energy release and chromospheric evaporation processes in solar flares it is necessary to perform a combined multi-wavelength analysis using observations from space-based and ground-based observatories, and compare the results with predictions of the radiative hydrodynamic (RHD) flare models. Initially, the case study of spatially-resolved chromospheric evaporation properties for an M\,1.0-class solar flare (SOL2014-06-12T21:12) using data form IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph), HMI/SDO (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory), and VIS/GST (Visible Imaging Spectrometer at Goode Solar Telescope), demonstrate a complicated nature of evaporation and its connection to ...


Rare Event Sampling In Applied Stochastic Dynamical Systems, Yiming Yu May 2019

Rare Event Sampling In Applied Stochastic Dynamical Systems, Yiming Yu

Dissertations

Predicting rare events is a challenging problem in many complex systems arising in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials science. Simulating rare events is often prohibitive in such systems due to their high dimensionality and the numerical cost of their simulation, yet analytical expressions for rare event probabilities are usually not available. This dissertation tackles the problem of approximation of the probability of rare catastrophic events in optical communication systems and spin-torque magnetic nanodevices. With the application of the geometric minimum action method, the probability of pulse position shifts or other parameter changes in a model of an actively mode-locked laser ...


Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven May 2019

Determination Of Scatter Fractions, Albedos, And Tenth Value Layers For Shielding Of Synchrotron Beamline Hutches, Bethany Lynn Broekhoven

LSU Master's Theses

Synchrotron facilities require substantial amounts of shielding to protect facility staff and researchers. To meet mandatory exposure limits, the traditional combination of time, distance, and shielding of the radiation source are utilized. Because of continuous 24-7 operation of most synchrotrons, time is the least useful tool. The experimental stations for synchrotron x-ray beamlines, called hutches, enforce a minimum distance from the source, but shielding provided by hutch walls is still the principal tool for a synchrotron facility. Currently there is no single resource for synchrotron beamline hutch shielding design in the literature; most hutch shielding is designed through either over-simplified ...


Kinematics And Dynamics Of Lead Climbing, Arik B. Espineli May 2019

Kinematics And Dynamics Of Lead Climbing, Arik B. Espineli

Honors Projects

The goal of this research is to gain a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics involved with lead climbing. Digital accelerometers, load sensors, and slow motion cameras were used to conduct both small and large scale testing of different factors of that might effect a climber and belayer during lead climbing. Rope elasticity and belayer movement were the two factors that were looked at for this research. Small scale testing was done using rigid masses, cords with different levels of elasticity, and a pulley system to simulate anchor points. From the small scale testing it was found that a ...


Magnetization Dynamics In Coupled Thin Film Systems, Daniel J. Adams May 2019

Magnetization Dynamics In Coupled Thin Film Systems, Daniel J. Adams

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

A study is presented detailing experimental investigations of magnetization dynamics in nanostructured systems which are coupled magnetically. This work seeks to characterize the anisotropy of such systems through experimental techniques which probe microwave resonant absorption in the materials.

A custom-built experimental setup, designed and assembled in our labs, is explained in detail. This setup allows for angular-dependent ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements in the sample plane through vector network analyzer spectroscopy and is adaptable to two different types of coplanar waveguides. This technique has proven effective for characterization of multiple types of magnetic systems, including multilayered structures as detailed here, with ...


Nonlinear Optical Studies Of Bulk And Thin Film Complex Materials, Joel E. Taylor May 2019

Nonlinear Optical Studies Of Bulk And Thin Film Complex Materials, Joel E. Taylor

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Nonlinear optical studies of bulk and thin film materials provide a vast playground for physical and dynamical characterization. In this thesis, we have implemented experimental methods to probe novel phase transitions in single crystals using rotational anisotropic second harmonic generation (RASHG) and carrier dynamics in thin films with time-resolved pump-probe reflectivity. Furthermore, a novel low temperature ultra-high vacuum system coupled to nonlinear optics has been developed to extend lab capabilities. Doping (Bi1-xSbx)2Se3 with antimony, the surface electronic reconstruction near x=80% was identified with RASHG by deviations in the six-fold and three-fold polarization anisotropic ...