Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Discipline
Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
File Type

Articles 18001 - 18030 of 18161

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Bibliography Of Titles Of Articles In The Field Of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Of Solids, R. G. Barnes May 1958

Bibliography Of Titles Of Articles In The Field Of Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Of Solids, R. G. Barnes

Ames Laboratory ISC Technical Reports

This bibliography lists the titles of literature articles in the field of nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy of solids. This field has been taken to include the area of quadrupolar effects in nuclear magnetic resonance as well as 3 the basic area of nuclear quadrupole resonance in zero magnetic field. Articles published not later than January 1, 1958 have been included. Twenty-one journals are represented, and in addition, eleven books which contain chapters or sections dealing with this subject are included.


Physics, Chapter 2: Motion Of A Particle (Kinematics), Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 2: Motion Of A Particle (Kinematics), Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Normally, when we say an object is at rest, we mean that it is at rest with respect to the surface of the earth; when we say a car is moving at a speed of 40 mi/hr, we imply that the motion is taking place at this speed relative to the road. A boat sailing on the river moves with respect to the river's banks, but it also moves with respect to the flowing water in the river. The lift on the wings of an airplane is generated by the motion of the airplane through the air, but ...


Physics, Chapter 21: Vibrations And Sound, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 21: Vibrations And Sound, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

There are two aspects of sound: one is the physical aspect which involves the physics of the production, propagation, reception, and detection of sound; the other, which is the sensation of sound as perceived by the individual, depends upon physiological and psychological effects. It is not desirable to separate the two aspects of sound completely, but the main emphasis in this book must necessarily be on the physical aspect. In this chapter we shall consider mostly musical sounds. A vocabulary has been developed to describe the sensation experienced when a musical sound is heard. Such terms as the pitch of ...


Physics, Chapter 20: Wave Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 20: Wave Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Wave motion is an important method of transferring energy from one place to another without involving the actual transfer of matter. When a pebble is dropped into a still pool, some of the kinetic energy of the pebble is used to generate the ripples which spread out in all directions over the surface of the pool. When the ripples pass by a floating object, such as a bit of cork, the cork bobs up and down, having acquired its kinetic energy of vibration from the ripple system. The ripples thus serve to deliver some of the energy of the pebble ...


Xx. Meaning In The Physical Sciences, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart Jan 1958

Xx. Meaning In The Physical Sciences, Robert L. Bloom, Basil L. Crapster, Harold L. Dunkelberger, Charles H. Glatfelter, Richard T. Mara, Norman E. Richardson, W. Richard Schubart

Section XX: Meaning in the Physical Sciences

The twentieth century has seen two major revolutions in our theories of physics concerning nature, and these have made us change many of our concepts about the terms in which nature can be described. The new theories born in these revolutions are the theory of relativity and of quantum mechanics. The biological sciences had their revolutions in the nineteenth century, and while remarkable progress has been made since, nothing comparable to that upheaval has occurred in this century. Of the two massive changes in the concepts of the physical sciences, we can discuss but one here. [excerpt]


Physics, Contents, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Contents, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Table of contents


Physics, Chapter 13: Properties Of Matter, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 13: Properties Of Matter, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When a system is subjected to external forces, it generally undergoes a change in size or shape or both. We have thus far touched very lightly on such changes; for example, we have considered the change in length of an elastic spring and the change in volume of a gas when such systems were subjected to varying pressures. The changes produced in a system by the action of external forces depend upon the physical properties of the material of which the system is composed. A study of the properties of matter leads to information which is of practical value to ...


Physics, Chapter 32: Electromagnetic Induction, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 32: Electromagnetic Induction, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When a wire moves through a uniform magnetic field of induction B, in a direction at right angles to the field and to the wire itself, the electric charges within the conductor experience forces due to their motion through this magnetic field. The positive charges are held in place in the conductor by the action of interatomic forces, but the free electrons, usually one or two per atom, are caused to drift to one side of the conductor, thus setting up an electric field E within the conductor which opposes the further drift of electrons. The magnitude of this electric ...


Physics, Appendix B, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Appendix B, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Appendix B


Physics, Chapter 43: X-Rays, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 43: X-Rays, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

The study of the electric discharge through gases led directly to the discovery of x-rays by W. C. Roentgen in 1895. While operating a gas discharge tube, Roentgen observed that a platinum-barium cyanide screen at some distance from the tube fluoresced. He shielded the tube so that no visible radiation could reach the screen, but the fluorescence could still be observed. On interposing various materials between the tube and the screen, he found that the intensity of the fluorescence could be diminished, but that it was not completely obliterated. He interpreted these observations as being due to radiation coming from ...


Physics, Chapter 25: Capacitance And Dielectrics, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 25: Capacitance And Dielectrics, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When an isolated charged conducting sphere bears a charge Q, the potential of the sphere may be computed from the results of Section 23-6 by considering that the electric intensity outside the sphere is as though the entire charge of the sphere were concentrated at its center.


Physics, Chapter 5: Force And Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 5: Force And Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

All of us have many times had the experience of setting a body in motion. If we analyze any of these experiences, we readily recall that in each case some force was required to start the object moving. In throwing a ball, moving a piece of furniture, or pulling a sled, the force needed to start the object moving is supplied by one's muscular effort as a push or a pull. In more complex cases, such as setting a car or an airplane in motion, the analysis, although more complicated, will also show that a force is required to ...


Physics, Chapter 27: Direct-Current Circuits, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 27: Direct-Current Circuits, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When a charged particle traverses a closed path in an electrostatic field in space, the total work done on the particle is zero. The electric field is conservative. Associated with each point in the field, there is a fixed value of the electrical potential.

In a simple circuit consisting of a chemical cell and a resistor, as shown in Figure 27-1, we have seen that the current flows through the resistor from the positive terminal of the cell to the negative terminal of the cell. The positive terminal is at the higher potential, so that the current flows from the ...


Physics, Chapter 44: Stable Nuclei, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 44: Stable Nuclei, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Atomic and nuclear physics are essentially twentieth-century developments, although these had their origins at the close of the nineteenth century. These developments followed two parallel streams, as shown in Figure 44-1, one dealing with the electronic structure of the atom and the other dealing with its nuclear structure. These two streams served to feed each other and were fed by all other branches of physics, but only a few of the more important contributions concerning the nature of radiation, matter, and energy are shown in the figure.


Physics, Chapter 42: Optical Spectra And Atomic Structure, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 42: Optical Spectra And Atomic Structure, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When light passes through a prism spectroscope or a diffraction-grating spectroscope, an optical spectrum is obtained in which the intensity of the radiation may be analyzed as a function of wavelength. The spectrum may be observed visually in the limited wavelength region to which the eye is sensitive; it may be focused on a photographic plate or upon a thermocouple or thermopile. Our knowledge of the structure of atoms and molecules is largely dependent upon the analyses of optical spectra, for these spectra are characteristic of the emitting atoms or molecules. Even before the spectra of atoms were properly understood ...


Physics, Chapter 37: Reflection And Refraction, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 37: Reflection And Refraction, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

In the passage of a beam of light through a medium, some of the radiant energy is absorbed and is transformed into internal energy, while some of it is scattered in all directions. The oscillating electric field associated with the light wave sets some of the electrons of the medium into oscillation, thus giving up some of its energy, and these oscillating electrons subsequently reradiate energy as scattered electromagnetic radiation. Scattering therefore takes place only in the presence of matter. The color of the sky is due to the small amount of scattering of sunlight by the molecules of the ...


Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors And Lenses, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 38: Mirrors And Lenses, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

A spherical mirror consists of a small section of the surface of a sphere with one side of the surface covered with a polished reflecting material, usually silver or aluminum. If the outside, or convex surface, is silvered, we have a convex mirror; if the inside, or concave surface, is silvered, we have a concave mirror, as shown in Figure 38-1. Most mirrors used commercially are made of glass, with the rear surface silvered and then coated with a layer of paint or lacquer for protection. Mirrors for astronomical telescopes (')f other accurate scientific work are provided with a reflective ...


Physics, Chapter 39: Optical Instruments, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 39: Optical Instruments, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

The photographic camera uses a converging lens to form a real, inverted image of an object. The image is focused on a film or plate which is coated with an emulsion containing silver bromide crystals. When a few incident quanta of light are absorbed in a grain of emulsion, the grain becomes activated and developable, and when the plate is developed, the bromine is removed from each activated grain, leaving a clump of silver behind. When the plate is "fixed," the remaining emulsion is removed from the plate, so that the image is made permanent. In most cameras the converging ...


Physics, Chapter 28: Electrical Conduction In Liquids And Solids, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 28: Electrical Conduction In Liquids And Solids, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

We have seen that electrical conduction in solids is associated with the drift of free electrons in the solid, a process which will be examined in greater detail in Section 28-4. A similar mechanism may be used to account for the conduction of electricity in liquid metals. In other liquids electricity is conducted by the migration of positive and negative ions through the liquid.


Physics, Chapter 10: Momentum And Impulse, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 10: Momentum And Impulse, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

An extremely important concept in the development of mechanics is that of momentum. The momentum of a body is defined as the product of its mass by its velocity. We shall use the symbol p to denote the momentum of a body. The momentum of a body is a vector quantity, for it is the product of mass, a scalar, by velocity, a vector. While momentum and kinetic energy are compounded of the same two ingredients, mass and velocity, they are quite different concepts, and one aspect of their difference may be seen in the fact that momentum is a ...


Physics, Chatper 24: Potential, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chatper 24: Potential, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

A positive charge q situated at some point A in an electric field where the intensity is E will experience a force F given by Equation (23-1a) as F = Eq. In general, if this charge q is moved to some other point B in the electric field, an amount of work ΔW will have to be performed. The ratio of the work done ΔW to charge q transferred from point A to point B is called the difference of potential ΔV between these points.


Physics, Chapter 30: Magnetic Fields Of Currents, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 30: Magnetic Fields Of Currents, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

The first evidence for the existence of a magnetic field around an electric current was observed in 1820 by Hans Christian Oersted (1777-1851). He found that a wire carrying current caused a freely pivoted compass needle in its vicinity to be deflected. If the current in a long straight wire is directed from C to D, as shown in Figure 30-1, a compass needle below it, whose initial orientation is shown in dotted lines, will have its north pole deflected to the left and its south pole deflected to the right. If the current in the wire is reversed and ...


Physics, Chapter 33: Magnetic Properties Of Matter, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 33: Magnetic Properties Of Matter, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Matter is composed of atoms consisting of positively charged nuclei and negative electrons. These electrons occur in shells, and the periodic nature of chemical properties of atoms as the atomic weight increases is a reflection of the fact that the chemical behavior of an atom depends largely upon the number of electrons in the outermost shell. In some parts of the periodic table (see Table 5 of Appendix A), electrons occupy places in an outer shell before an inner shell is completely filled; it is then observed that a number of different elements have very similar chemical properties. The same ...


Physics, Chapter 40: Light As A Wave Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 40: Light As A Wave Motion, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Let us recount some of the characteristics of the motion of particles and the propagation of waves, with a view toward analyzing the behavior of light. In accordance with Newton's first law, a particle moves in a straight-line path in the absence of external forces. Thus we might infer, as Newton suggested, that light is composed of particles, and that, in a continuous medium, there is no deflecting force on the light particles. At the interface between two media, light may be propagated in a straight line parallel to the interface. Thus even at an interface there is no ...


Physics, Chapter 9: Hydrodynamics (Fluids In Motion), Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 9: Hydrodynamics (Fluids In Motion), Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

When a liquid flows through a pipe in such a way that it completely fills the pipe, and as much liquid enters one end of the pipe as leaves the other end of the pipe in the same time, then the liquid is said to flow at a steady rate. At any point of the pipe, the flow of the liquid does not change with time. The path of any particle of liquid as it moves through the pipe is called a streamline. We can map the flow of liquid through the pipe by drawing a series of streamlines following ...


Physics, Chapter 7: Work And Energy, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 7: Work And Energy, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

An extremely important concept that has been developed in physics is that of the work done on a body by the action of some external agent which exerts a force on this body and produces motion. For example, whenever someone lifts a body, he does work by exerting a force upward on it and moving it upward. Whenever a steam locomotive pulls a train, a series of processes takes place in the steam engine of the locomotive which enables it to exert a force on the train and move it in the direction of the force. The term work, as ...


Physics, Chapter 41: Polarized Light, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 41: Polarized Light, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

The phenomena of interference and diffraction show that light is propagated as a wave motion, but they do not show whether light is a longitudinal wave or a transverse wave. The fact that the velocity of light is the same as the velocity of radio waves and the radiation of visible light from accelerated electrons, as in a betatron, indicates that light is an electromagnetic wave. We recall from Section 20-9 that a wave can be shown to be transverse if a device can be found which will prevent passage of the wave in one orientation and will allow the ...


Physics, Chapter 29: The Magnetic Field, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 29: The Magnetic Field, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

Natural magnets, called lodestones, have been known since ancient times. The lodestone, a magnetic oxide of iron called magnetite (Fe3O4), was mentioned by Thales of Miletus. By the eleventh century the magnetic compass was known to the Chinese, and in the twelfth century references to the compass were made in Western Europe. The lodestone is capable of attracting pieces of iron and of imparting permanent magnetism to other pieces of iron so that these too could attract iron filings. If an iron bar is magnetized, as the result of being near a piece of lodestone, and is ...


Physics, Chapter 35: Electronics, Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics, Chapter 35: Electronics, Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

The electrons of an atom occupy certain energy levels when the atom is far from other atoms. When a large number of atoms are assembled to form a conducting metallic solid, the energy levels of the valence electrons are displaced in position to form a conduction band, as discussed in Section 28-4. The valence electrons occupy energy levels within the conduction band and are relatively free to drift from atom to atom within the metal. In accordance with a fundamental physical principle, known as the Pauli exclusion principle, only 1 electron may occupy a particular energy level. The conduction electrons ...


Physics [Complete Work], Henry Semat, Robert Katz Jan 1958

Physics [Complete Work], Henry Semat, Robert Katz

Robert Katz Publications

This book is intended for students of science and engineering; it aims to develop both an understanding of the important concepts of physics and some analytical skill in the solutions of problems. The mathematical level of the book is such that it may be used by students who are taking a course in calculus concurrently.

The notations and methods of the calculus are introduced early in the text, beginning with the concept of a derivative in the discussion of motion, and are then extended to more complex problems as the student progresses both in physics and in mathematics. Vector algebra ...