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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

Structure Of Parton Quasi-Distributions And Their Moments, A. V. Radyushkin

#### Structure Of Parton Quasi-Distributions And Their Moments, A. V. Radyushkin

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We discuss the structure of the parton quasi-distributions (quasi-PDFs) Q (y, P-3) outside the "canonical" -1 <= y <= 1 support region of the usual parton distribution functions (PDFs). Writing the y(n) moments of Q (y, P-3) in terms of the combined x(n-2l)k(perpendicular to)(2l)-moments of the transverse momentum distribution (TMD). F(x,k(perpendicular to)(2)), we establish a connection between the large-vertical bar y vertical bar behavior of Q (y, P-3) and large-k(perpendicular to)(2) behavior of F(x,k(perpendicular to)(2)). In particular, we show that the 1/k(perpendicular to)(2) hard tail of TMDs in QCD results in a slowly decreasing similar to 1/vertical bar y vertical bar behavior of quasi-PDFs for large vertical bar y vertical bar that produces infinite y(n) moments of Q(y, P-3). We also relate the - 1/vertical bar y vertical bar terms with the lnz(3)(2)-singularities of the Ioffe-time pseudo-distributions m(v, z(3)(2)). Converting the operator product expansion for m(v,z(3)(2)) into a matching relation between the quasi-PDF Q(y, P-3) and the light-cone PDF f (x, mu(2)), we demonstrate that there is no contradiction between the infinite values of the y(n) moments of Q (y, P-3) and finite values of the x(n) moments of f (x, mu(2))

Form Factors Of Two-Hadron States From A Covariant Finite-Volume Formalism, Alessandro Baroni, Raúl Briceño, Maxwell T. Hansen, Felipe G. Ortega-Gama

#### Form Factors Of Two-Hadron States From A Covariant Finite-Volume Formalism, Alessandro Baroni, Raúl Briceño, Maxwell T. Hansen, Felipe G. Ortega-Gama

*Physics Faculty Publications*

In this work we develop a Lorentz-covariant version of the previously derived formalism for relating finite-volume matrix elements to **2 + J → 2** transition amplitudes. We also give various details relevant for the implementation of this formalism in a realistic numerical lattice QCD calculation. Particular focus is given to the role of single-particle form factors in disentangling finite-volume effects from the triangle diagram that arise when **J** couples to one of the two hadrons. This also leads to a new finite-volume function, denoted **G**, the numerical evaluation of which is described in detail. As an example we discuss the determination of ...

High-Brilliance, High-Flux Compact Inverse Compton Light Source, K. E. Deitrick, G. A. Krafft, B. Terzić, J. R. Delayen

#### High-Brilliance, High-Flux Compact Inverse Compton Light Source, K. E. Deitrick, G. A. Krafft, B. Terzić, J. R. Delayen

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The Old Dominion University Compact Light Source (ODU CLS) design concept is presented-a compact Inverse Compton Light Source (ICLS) with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond conventional laboratory-scale sources and greater than other compact ICLS designs. This concept utilizes the physics of inverse Compton scattering of an extremely low emittance electron beam by a laser pulse of rms length of approximately two-thirds of a picosecond (2/3 ps). The accelerator is composed of a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) reentrant gun followed by four double-spoke SRF cavities. After the linac are three quadrupole magnets to focus the electron beam to ...

Probing High-Momentum Protons And Neutrons In Neutron-Rich Nuclei, The Clas Collaboration, L. B. Weinstein, S. Bültmann, D. Bulumulla, G. Charles, G. Dodge, F. Hauenstein, C. E. Hyde, A. Klein, S. Nadeeshani, Y. Prok, Z. W. Zhao

#### Probing High-Momentum Protons And Neutrons In Neutron-Rich Nuclei, The Clas Collaboration, L. B. Weinstein, S. Bültmann, D. Bulumulla, G. Charles, G. Dodge, F. Hauenstein, C. E. Hyde, A. Klein, S. Nadeeshani, Y. Prok, Z. W. Zhao

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The atomic nucleus is one of the densest and most complex quantum-mechanical systems in nature. Nuclei account for nearly all the mass of the visible Universe. The properties of individual nucleons (protons and neutrons) in nuclei can be probed by scattering a high-energy particle from the nucleus and detecting this particle after it scatters, often also detecting an additional knocked-out proton. Analysis of electron- and proton-scattering experiments suggests that some nucleons in nuclei form close-proximity neutron–proton pairs with high nucleon momentum, greater than the nuclear Fermi momentum. However, how excess neutrons in neutron-rich nuclei form such close-proximity pairs remains ...

Nucleon And Nuclear Structure Through Dilepton Production, I. V. Anikin, N. Baltzell, M. Boer, R. Boussarie, V. M. Braun, S. J. Brodsky, A. Camsonne, W. C. Chang, L. Colaneri, C. E. Hyde

#### Nucleon And Nuclear Structure Through Dilepton Production, I. V. Anikin, N. Baltzell, M. Boer, R. Boussarie, V. M. Braun, S. J. Brodsky, A. Camsonne, W. C. Chang, L. Colaneri, C. E. Hyde

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Transverse momentum distributions and generalized parton distributions provide a comprehensive framework for the three-dimensional imaging of the nucleon and the nucleus experimentally using deeply virtual semi-exclusive and exclusive processes. The advent of combined high luminosity facilities and large acceptance detector capabilities enables experimental investigation of the partonic structure of hadrons with time-like virtual probes, in complement to the rich on-going space-like virtual probe program. The merits and benefits of the dilepton production channel for nuclear structure studies are discussed within the context of the International Workshop on Nucleon and Nuclear Structure through Dilepton Production taking place at the European Center ...

Search For Three-Nucleon Short-Range Correlations In Light Nuclei, Z. Ye, P. Solvignon, D. Nguten, P. Aguilera, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Allada, B. Anderson, D. Anez, L. B. Weinstein

#### Search For Three-Nucleon Short-Range Correlations In Light Nuclei, Z. Ye, P. Solvignon, D. Nguten, P. Aguilera, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Allada, B. Anderson, D. Anez, L. B. Weinstein

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We present new data probing short-range correlations (SRCs) in nuclei through the measurement of electron scattering off high-momentum nucleons in nuclei. The inclusive ^{4}He/^{3}He cross section ratio is observed to be both* x* and Q^{2} independent for 1.5 < *x* < 2, confirming the dominance of two-nucleon short-range correlations. For *x* > 2, our data support the hypothesis that a previous claim of three-nucleon correlation dominance was an artifact caused by the limited resolution of the measurement. While 3N-SRCs appear to have an important contribution, our data show that isolating 3N-SRCs is significantly more complicated than for 2N-SRCs.

Simulation Of Inverse Compton Scattering And Its Implications On The Scattered Linewidth, N. Ranjan, B. Terzić, G. A. Krafft, V. Petrillo, I. Drebot, L. Serafini

#### Simulation Of Inverse Compton Scattering And Its Implications On The Scattered Linewidth, N. Ranjan, B. Terzić, G. A. Krafft, V. Petrillo, I. Drebot, L. Serafini

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Rising interest in inverse Compton sources has increased the need for efficient models that properly quantify the behavior of scattered radiation given a set of interaction parameters. The current state-of-the-art simulations rely on Monte Carlo-based methods, which, while properly expressing scattering behavior in high-probability regions of the produced spectra, may not correctly simulate such behavior in low-probability regions (e.g. tails of spectra). Moreover, sampling may take an inordinate amount of time for the desired accuracy to be achieved. In this paper, we present an analytic derivation of the expression describing the scattered radiation linewidth and propose a model to ...

Rosenbluth Separation Of The Π0 Electroproduction Cross Section Off The Neutron, M. Mazouz, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Allada, K. A. Aniol, V. Bellini, M. Benali, W. Boeglin, P. Bertin, M. Canan, C. E. Hyde, S. Koirala, M. N. H. Rashad

#### Rosenbluth Separation Of The Π0 Electroproduction Cross Section Off The Neutron, M. Mazouz, Z. Ahmed, H. Albataineh, K. Allada, K. A. Aniol, V. Bellini, M. Benali, W. Boeglin, P. Bertin, M. Canan, C. E. Hyde, S. Koirala, M. N. H. Rashad

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We report the first longitudinal-transverse separation of the deeply virtual exclusive *π*^{0} electroproduction cross section off the neutron and coherent deuteron. The corresponding four structure functions dσ_{L}/dt, dσ_{T}/dt, dσ_{LT}/dt, and dσ_{TT}/dt are extracted as a function of the momentum transfer to the recoil system at Q^{2} = 1.75 GeV^{2} and x_{B} = 0.36. The *ed* -> ed*π ^{0}* cross sections are found compatible with the small values expected from theoretical models. The

*en*->

*enπ*cross sections show a dominance from the response to transversely polarized photons, and ...

^{0}Exclusive Η Electroproduction At W > 2 Gev With Clas And Transversity Generalized Parton Distributions, I. Bedlinskiy, V. Kubarovsky, P. Stoler, K. P. Adhikari, Z. Akbar, S. Anefalos Pereira, H. Avakian, J. Ball, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, C. E. Hyde, M. Khachatryan, S E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, B. Torayev, L. B. Weinstein

#### Exclusive Η Electroproduction At W > 2 Gev With Clas And Transversity Generalized Parton Distributions, I. Bedlinskiy, V. Kubarovsky, P. Stoler, K. P. Adhikari, Z. Akbar, S. Anefalos Pereira, H. Avakian, J. Ball, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, C. E. Hyde, M. Khachatryan, S E. Kuhn, Y. Prok, B. Torayev, L. B. Weinstein

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The cross section of the exclusive *η* electroproduction reaction ep -> *e'p*'* η* was measured at Jefferson Laboratory with a 5.75 GeV electron beam and the CLAS detector. Differential cross sections *d*^{4}σ /*dtdQ*^{2} *dx _{B}d* φ

_{η}and structure functions σ

_{U}=σ

_{T}+ εσ

_{L}, σ

_{TT}, and σ

_{LT,}as functions of

*t*, were obtained over a wide range of Q

^{2}and x

_{B}. The

*η*structure functions are compared with those previously measured for π

^{0}at the same kinematics. At low

*t,*both π

^{0}and eta are described reasonably ...

Nonperturbative Evolution Of Parton Quasi-Distributions, A. V. Radyushkin

#### Nonperturbative Evolution Of Parton Quasi-Distributions, A. V. Radyushkin

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Using the formalism of parton virtuality distribution functions (VDFs) we establish a connection between the transverse momentum dependent distributions (TMDs) F(x,k^{2}_{⊥}) and quasi-distributions (PQDs) Q(*y*,*p _{3}*) introduced recently by X. Ji for lattice QCD extraction of parton distributions f(x). We build models for PQDs from the VDF-based models for soft TMDs, and analyze the

*p*dependence of the resulting PQDs. We observe a strong nonperturbative evolution of PQDs for small and moderately large values of

_{3}*p*reflecting the transverse momentum dependence of TMDs. Thus, the study of PQDs on the lattice in ...

_{3}Separated Response Functions In Exclusive, Forward Π± Electroproduction On Deuterium, G. M. Huber, H. P. Blok, A. Klein, L. M. Qin, K. Vansyoc, Jefferson Lab, Fπ Collaboration

#### Separated Response Functions In Exclusive, Forward Π± Electroproduction On Deuterium, G. M. Huber, H. P. Blok, A. Klein, L. M. Qin, K. Vansyoc, Jefferson Lab, Fπ Collaboration

*Physics Faculty Publications*

**Background:** Measurements of forward exclusive meson production at different squared four-momenta of the exchanged virtual photon, Q^{2}, and at different four-momentum transfer, t, can be used to probe QCD's transition from meson-nucleon degrees of freedom at long distances to quark-gluon degrees of freedom at short scales. Ratios of separated response functions in π^{-} and π^{+} electroproduction are particularly informative. The ratio for transverse photons may allow this transition to be more easily observed, while the ratio for longitudinal photons provides a crucial verification of the assumed pole dominance, needed for reliable extraction of the pion form factor from ...

Data Analysis Techniques, Differential Cross Sections, And Spin Density Matrix Elements For The Reaction ᵞP → Φp, K.P. Adhikari, D. Adikaram, M.J. Amaryan, A. Klein, S. Koirala, Clas Collaboration

#### Data Analysis Techniques, Differential Cross Sections, And Spin Density Matrix Elements For The Reaction ᵞP → Φp, K.P. Adhikari, D. Adikaram, M.J. Amaryan, A. Klein, S. Koirala, Clas Collaboration

*Physics Faculty Publications*

High-statistics measurements of differential cross sections and spin density matrix elements for the reaction ᵞp → ϕp have been made using the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. We cover center-of-mass energies (√s) from 1.97 to 2.84 GeV, with an extensive coverage in the ϕ production angle. The high statistics of the data sample made it necessary to carefully account for the interplay between the ϕ natural lineshape and effects of the detector resolution, that are found to be comparable in magnitude. We study both the charged-(ϕ → K^{+} K^{-}) and neutral( ϕ → (K^{O}_{S}K^{O}_{L}) K ...

High-Energy Amplitudes In N= 4 Sym In The Next-To-Leading Order, Ian Balitsky, Giovanni A. Chirilli

#### High-Energy Amplitudes In N= 4 Sym In The Next-To-Leading Order, Ian Balitsky, Giovanni A. Chirilli

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The high-energy behavior of the N = 4 SYM amplitudes in the Regge limit can be calculated order by order in perturbation theory using the high-energy operator expansion in Wilson lines. At large Nc , a typical four-point amplitude is determined by a single BFKL pomeron. The conformal structure of the four-point amplitude is fixed in terms of two functions: pomeron intercept and the coefficient function in front of the pomeron (the product of two residues). The pomeron intercept is universal while the coefficient function depends on the correlator in question. The intercept is known in the first two orders in coupling ...

Effects Of High-Flux Neutron Beams On He-3 Cells Polarized In Situ With Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping, E. Babcock, S. Boag, M. Becker, W. C. Chen, T. E. Chupp, T. R. Gentile, Gordon L. Jones, A. K. Petukhov, T. Soldner, T. G. Walker

#### Effects Of High-Flux Neutron Beams On He-3 Cells Polarized In Situ With Spin-Exchange Optical Pumping, E. Babcock, S. Boag, M. Becker, W. C. Chen, T. E. Chupp, T. R. Gentile, Gordon L. Jones, A. K. Petukhov, T. Soldner, T. G. Walker

*Articles*

Polarized He-3 produced by spin-exchange optical pumping (SEOP) has potential as a neutron spin filter for polarization and polarization analysis in many neutron-scattering and neutron particle physics applications. The advantage of the SEOP method is its suitability for providing continuous stable polarization over the course of long experiments. However, we have discovered that exposure to high neutron flux leads to additional strong relaxation mechanisms in the optically polarized alkali-metal vapor used to polarize the He-3. At a neutron flux density of 4.7 x 10(9) cm(-2) s(-1), the alkali-metal relaxation rate increased from 100 to 1000 s ...

Unique Electron Polarimeter Analyzing Power Comparison And Precision Spin-Based Energy Measurement, J. M. Grames, C. K. Sinclair, J. Mitchell, E. Chudakov, H. Fenker, A. Freyberger, D. W. Higinbotham, M. Poelker, M. Steigerwald, M. Tiefenback, Vipuli Dharmawardane

#### Unique Electron Polarimeter Analyzing Power Comparison And Precision Spin-Based Energy Measurement, J. M. Grames, C. K. Sinclair, J. Mitchell, E. Chudakov, H. Fenker, A. Freyberger, D. W. Higinbotham, M. Poelker, M. Steigerwald, M. Tiefenback, Vipuli Dharmawardane

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Precision measurements of the relative analyzing powers of five electron beam polarimeters, based on Compton, Moller, and Mott scattering, have been performed using the CEBAF accelerator at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility ( Jefferson Laboratory). A Wien filter in the 100 keV beam line of the injector was used to vary the electron spin orientation exiting the injector. High statistical precision measurements of the scattering asymmetry as a function of the spin orientation were made with each polarimeter. Since each polarimeter receives beam with the same magnitude of polarization, these asymmetry measurements permit a high statistical precision comparison of the ...

Gamma Echo Interpreted As A Phase-Shift Induced Transparency, Gilbert R. Hoy, Jos Odeurs

#### Gamma Echo Interpreted As A Phase-Shift Induced Transparency, Gilbert R. Hoy, Jos Odeurs

*Physics Faculty Publications*

In the gamma-echo technique a radioactive source is moved, with respect to a nuclear-resonant absorber, during the lifetime of first-excited nuclear state. This introduces a phase shift between the source radiation and the radiation from the absorber. If the source is moved abruptly, introducing a pi phase shift, the time-dependent intensity shows a sharp increase in the intensity at that time, the "gamma echo." Using the recently developed one-dimensional quantum-mechanical model, based on the technique developed by Heitler and Harris, the gamma-echo effect is seen to be a phase-shift-induced transparency. A closed-form solution for the time-dependent transmitted intensity has been ...

Sans Polarization Analysis With Nuclear-Spin-Polarized He-3, T. R. Gentile, Gordon L. Jones, A. K. Thompson, J. Barker, C. J. Glinka, B. Hammouda, J. W. Lynn

#### Sans Polarization Analysis With Nuclear-Spin-Polarized He-3, T. R. Gentile, Gordon L. Jones, A. K. Thompson, J. Barker, C. J. Glinka, B. Hammouda, J. W. Lynn

*Articles*

A neutron spin filter based on transmission through nuclear-spin-polarized He-3 gas has been applied to polarization analysis of small angle neutron scattering (SANS). Such spin filters, which are based on the large spin dependence of the absorption of neutrons by He-3, make SANS polarization analysis possible because of their large angular acceptance. In the present experiment, a He-3-based analyzer was employed to separate nuclear scattering into its coherent and spin-incoherent components. Polarized He-3 analyzers were prepared by two different optical pumping methods and installed on the NG3 SANS instrument at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR). Measurements were taken ...