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Full-Text Articles in Physics

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio Jul 2018

Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have excellent infrared (IR) transparency ranging up to 20 μm, large nonlinear refractive indices, and tailorable thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) that have great potential for applications in detectors, sensors, waveguides, imaging devices, photonic waveguides, acousto-optics, and optical devices. Spin and dip coating ChGs from solution is a low-cost, simple, and scalable method for depositing films over a large area. In this study, we utilize the novel approach of spin and dip coating to create thin ChG films of arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and arsenic selenide (As2Se3). To realize the full potential of ...


Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier Aug 2017

Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier

Student Publications

In this paper we aim to explore the dynamics and overall solvability of the Jaynes-Cummings \& Jaynes-Cummings-Like models. As a lens to understand these dynamics, we focused on cases where the parameters of the system were made time-dependent. All previous work on solving the dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings models has relied heavily on the use of differential methods and setting the parameters as time-independent constants which were zero or one. To account for this, we utilized the Wei-Norman method which allowed us to analytical solve the time-dependent Hamiltonian. Through the use of this method, we can understand the more general characteristics ...


Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu Aug 2017

Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu

Student Publications

A Fortran program is set up to solve for the reflectance of XUV light from a rough two dimensional surface, resembling experimental mirrors used to reflect XUV light. Because the roughness of the surface is on the order of magnitude of the wavelength of XUV light, our approach requires a Greene's Function instead of using traditional geometrical optics or physical optics. Our Fortran program calculates the impedance (Z) matrix which requires integration over Greene's Function at non-singular points. The Z matrix helps solve for the induced surface current J(x') at non-singular points. At singular points, the program ...


Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding May 2017

Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding

Honors Projects

This thesis begins with a foundational section on quantum optics. The single-photon detectors used in the first chapter were obtained through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA), which brokered reduced cost for educational use, and the aim of the single-photon work presented in Chapter 1 is to develop modules for use in Illinois Wesleyan's instructional labs beyond the first year of university. Along with the American Association of Physics Teachers, ALPhA encourages capstone-level work, such as Chapter 1 of this honors thesis, which is explicitly designed to play the role of passing on, to a next generation of physics ...


Low-Cost Student Experiments In Optics, Robert Polak, Austin J. Cua, Daniel J. Perez, Mallory Q. Robertson, Justin A. Stuck, Jordan M. Thomas Oct 2014

Low-Cost Student Experiments In Optics, Robert Polak, Austin J. Cua, Daniel J. Perez, Mallory Q. Robertson, Justin A. Stuck, Jordan M. Thomas

Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


The Quest For High Power Lasers: Forcing Mutual Coherence In Broad Area Diode Lasers, Jonathan R. Wurtz Apr 2014

The Quest For High Power Lasers: Forcing Mutual Coherence In Broad Area Diode Lasers, Jonathan R. Wurtz

Student Research Projects

This poster explains efforts to improve spatial beam quality of diode array stacks using an external optical feedback system to force coherence of individual diodes.


Scalar Wave Scattering By Two-Layer Radial Inhomogeneities, Umaporn Nuntaplook, John Adam Jan 2014

Scalar Wave Scattering By Two-Layer Radial Inhomogeneities, Umaporn Nuntaplook, John Adam

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

It is shown that the iteration technique gives a better approximation for the problem with long wavelengths.


Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson Aug 2013

Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a converted 747SP that houses a 2.5 m telescope that observes the sky through an opening in the side of the aircraft. Because it flies at altitudes up to 45,000 feet, SOFIA gets 99.99% transmission in the infrared. Multiple science instruments mount one at a time on the telescope to interpret infrared and visible light from target sources. Ball Infrared Black (BIRB) currently coats everything that the optics sees inside the telescope assembly (TA) cavity in order to eliminate noise from the glow of background sky, aircraft exhaust ...


Computational Renormalization Scheme For Quantum Field Theories, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su, R E. Wagner Jul 2013

Computational Renormalization Scheme For Quantum Field Theories, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su, R E. Wagner

Faculty publications – Physics

We propose an alternative technique for numerically renormalizing quantum field theories based on their Hamiltonian formulation. This method is nonperturbative in nature and, therefore, exact to all orders. It does not require any correlation functions or Feynman diagrams. We illustrate this method for a model Yukawa-like theory describing the interaction of electrons and positrons with model photons in one spatial dimension. We show that, after mass renormalization of the fermionic and bosonic single-particle states, all other states in the Fock space have finite energies, which are independent of the momentum cutoff.


Enhancement Of Electron-Positron Pair Creation Due To Transient Excitation Of Field-Induced Bound States, M Jiang, Q Z. Lv, Z M. Sheng, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Apr 2013

Enhancement Of Electron-Positron Pair Creation Due To Transient Excitation Of Field-Induced Bound States, M Jiang, Q Z. Lv, Z M. Sheng, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs induced by two spatially separated electric fields that vary periodically in time. The results are based on large-scale computer simulations of the time-dependent Dirac equation in reduced spatial dimensions. When the separation of the fields is very large, the pair creation is caused by multiphoton transitions and mainly determined by the frequency of the fields. However, for small spatial separations a coherence effect can be observed that can enhance or reduce the particle yield compared to the case of two infinitely separated fields. If the travel time for a created electron or positron ...


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Feb 2013

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Pair Creation For Bosons In Electric And Magnetic Fields, Q Z. Lv, A C. Su, M Jiang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Feb 2013

Pair Creation For Bosons In Electric And Magnetic Fields, Q Z. Lv, A C. Su, M Jiang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

By solving the quantum field theoretical version of the Klein-Gordon equation numerically, we study the creation process for charged boson-antiboson pairs in static electric and magnetic fields. The fields are perpendicular to each other and spatially localized along the same direction, which permits us to study the crucial impact of the magnetic field's spatial extension on dynamics. If its width is comparable to that of the electric field, we find a magnetically induced Lorentz suppression of the pair-creation process. When the width is increased such that the created bosons can revisit the interaction region, we find a region of ...


Suppression Of Pair Creation Due To A Steady Magnetic Field, W Su, M Jiang, Z Q. Lv, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Jul 2012

Suppression Of Pair Creation Due To A Steady Magnetic Field, W Su, M Jiang, Z Q. Lv, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We investigate the electron-positron pair creation process in a supercritical static electric field in the presence of a static magnetic field that is perpendicular. If both fields vary spatially in one direction the dynamics can be reduced to a set of one-dimensional systems. Using a generalized computational quantum field theoretical procedure, we calculate the time dependence of the spatial density for the created electrons. In the presence of the magnetic field, a significant amount of suppression of pair creation is observed in the simulations and confirmed by an analytical analysis for the limits of short-range fields and long interaction times ...


Pair Creation Enhancement Due To Combined External Fields, M Jiang, W Su, Z Q. Lv, X Lu, Y J. Li, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Mar 2012

Pair Creation Enhancement Due To Combined External Fields, M Jiang, W Su, Z Q. Lv, X Lu, Y J. Li, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs from the vacuum induced by a combination of a static electric field and an alternating field. We find that the overall pair production can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the yields associated with each field individually. We examine the interesting case where both fields are spatially localized, permitting us to examine the time evolution of the spatial density for the created particle pairs. We find that there are a variety of competing mechanisms that contribute to the total yield.


Local And Nonlocal Spatial Densities In Quantum Field Theory, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, E V. Stefanovich, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe Feb 2012

Local And Nonlocal Spatial Densities In Quantum Field Theory, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, E V. Stefanovich, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We use a one-dimensional model system to compare the predictions of two different yardsticks to compute the position of a particle from its quantum field theoretical state. Based on the first yardstick (defined by the Newton-Wigner position operator), the spatial density can be arbitrarily narrow, and its time evolution is superluminal for short time intervals. Furthermore, two spatially distant particles might be able to interact with each other outside the light cone, which is manifested by an asymmetric spreading of the spatial density. The second yardstick (defined by the quantum field operator) does not permit localized states, and the time ...


Causality And Relativistic Localization In One-Dimensional Hamiltonians, R E. Wagner, B T. Shields, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe Jun 2011

Causality And Relativistic Localization In One-Dimensional Hamiltonians, R E. Wagner, B T. Shields, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We compare the relativistic time evolution of an initially localized quantum particle obtained from the relativistic Schrodinger, the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations. By computing the amount of the spatial probability density that evolves outside the light cone we quantify the amount of causality violation for the relativistic Schrodinger Hamiltonian. We comment on the relationship between quantum field theoretical transition amplitudes, commutators of the fields and their bilinear combinations outside the light cone as indicators of a possible causality violation. We point out the relevance of the relativistic localization problem to this discussion and comment on ideas about the supposed ...


Electron-Positron Pair Creation Induced By Quantum-Mechanical Tunneling, M Jiang, W Su, X Lu, Z M. Sheng, Y T. Li, J Zhang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su May 2011

Electron-Positron Pair Creation Induced By Quantum-Mechanical Tunneling, M Jiang, W Su, X Lu, Z M. Sheng, Y T. Li, J Zhang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs from the vacuum induced by two spatially displaced static electric fields. The strength and spatial width of each localized field is less than required for pair creation. If, however, the separation between the fields is less than the quantum-mechanical tunneling length associated with the corresponding quantum scattering system, the system produces a steady flux of electron-positron pairs. We compute the time dependence of the pair-creation probability by solving the Dirac equation numerically for various external field sequences. For the special case of two very narrow fields we provide an analytical expression for the ...


Blackbody-Radiation Correction To The Polarizability Of Helium, Mariusz Puchalski, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr Apr 2011

Blackbody-Radiation Correction To The Polarizability Of Helium, Mariusz Puchalski, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The correction to the polarizability of helium due to blackbody radiation is calculated near room temperature. A precise theoretical determination of the blackbody radiation correction to the polarizability of helium is essential for dielectric gas thermometry and for the determination of the Boltzmann constant. We find that the correction, for not too high temperature, is roughly proportional to a modified hyperpolarizability (two-color hyperpolarizability), which is different from the ordinary hyperpolarizability of helium. Our explicit calculations provide a definite numerical result for the effect and indicate that the effect of blackbody radiation can be excluded as a limiting factor for dielectric ...


Time Dilation In Relativistic Two-Particle Interactions, B T. Shields, Rainer Grobe, E V. Stefanovich, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, M C. Morris Nov 2010

Time Dilation In Relativistic Two-Particle Interactions, B T. Shields, Rainer Grobe, E V. Stefanovich, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, M C. Morris

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the orbits of two interacting particles described by a fully relativistic classical mechanical Hamiltonian. We use two sets of initial conditions. In the first set (dynamics 1) the system's center of mass is at rest. In the second set (dynamics 2) the center of mass evolves with velocity V. If dynamics 1 is observed from a reference frame moving with velocity-V, the principle of relativity requires that all observables must be identical to those of dynamics 2 seen from the laboratory frame. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that kinematic Lorentz space-time transformations fail to transform particle observables between ...


Characterization Of Pollen Particles Using Lidar, Leda Sox Oct 2010

Characterization Of Pollen Particles Using Lidar, Leda Sox

Graduate Student Posters

We have observed pollen in the local troposphere using the depolarization capabilities of a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system. The polarization characteristics of the received LIDAR signal, along with supplemental pollen forecast data, allowed me to characterize the shape of the pollen particles.


Space-Time Properties Of A Boson-Dressed Fermion For The Yukawa Model, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe Sep 2010

Space-Time Properties Of A Boson-Dressed Fermion For The Yukawa Model, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We analyze the interaction of fermions and bosons through a one-dimensional Yukawa model. We numerically compute the energy eigenstates that represent a physical fermion, which is a superposition of bare fermionic and bosonic eigenstates of the uncoupled Hamiltonian. It turns out that even fast bare fermions require only low-momentum dressing bosons, which attach themselves to the fast fermion through quantum correlations. We compare the space-time evolution of a physical fermion with that of its bare counterpart and show the importance of using dressed observables. The time evolution of the center of mass as well as the wave packet's spatial ...


Exponential Enhancement Of Field-Induced Pair Creation From The Bosonic Vacuum, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe May 2010

Exponential Enhancement Of Field-Induced Pair Creation From The Bosonic Vacuum, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

Using numerical solutions to quantum field theory, the creation of boson-antiboson pairs from the vacuum under a very strong localized external electric field is explored. The simulations reveal that the initial linear increase of the number of particles turns into an exponential growth. This self-amplification can be understood as the result of the interaction of the previously generated particles with the creation process. While the number of particles keeps increasing, the spatial shape of the (normalized) charge density of the created particles reaches a universal form that can be related to the bound states of the supercritical potential well. We ...


Bosonic Analog Of The Klein Paradox, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe Feb 2010

Bosonic Analog Of The Klein Paradox, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

The standard Klein paradox describes how an incoming electron scatters off a supercritical electrostatic barrier that is so strong that it can generate electron- positron pairs. This fermionic system has been widely discussed in textbooks to illustrate some of the discrepancies between quantum mechanical and quantum field theoretical descriptions for the pair creation process. We compare the fermionic dynamics with that of the corresponding bosonic system. We point out that the direct counterpart of the Pauli exclusion principle (the central mechanism to resolve the fermionic Klein paradox) is stimulated emission, which leads to the resolution of the analogous bosonic paradox.


Pair Creation Rates For One-Dimensional Fermionic And Bosonic Vacua, T Cheng, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe Dec 2009

Pair Creation Rates For One-Dimensional Fermionic And Bosonic Vacua, T Cheng, M R. Ware, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We compare the creation rates for particle-antiparticle pairs produced by a supercritical force field for fermionic and bosonic model systems. The rates obtained from the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations can be computed directly from the quantum-mechanical transmission coefficients describing the scattering of an incoming particle with the supercritical potential barrier. We provide a unified framework that shows that the bosonic rates can exceed the fermionic ones, as one could expect from the Pauli-exclusion principle for the fermion system. This imbalance for small but supercritical forces is associated with the occurrence of negative bosonic transmission coefficients of arbitrary size for the ...


Creation Of Multiple Electron-Positron Pairs In Arbitrary Fields, T Cheng, Q Su, Rainer Grobe Jul 2009

Creation Of Multiple Electron-Positron Pairs In Arbitrary Fields, T Cheng, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We examine the spontaneous breakdown of the matter vacuum triggered by an external force of arbitrary strength and spatial and temporal variations. We derive a nonperturbative framework that permits the computation of the complete time evolution of various multiple electron-positron pair probabilities. These time-dependent probabilities can be computed from a generating function as well as from solutions to a set of ratelike equations with coupling constants determined by the single-particle solutions to the time-dependent Dirac equation. This approach might be of relevance to the planned experiments to observe for the first time the laser-induced breakdown process of the vacuum.


Design Of A Wide Bandwidth Switchable Mirror Based On A Liquid Crystal Etalon, Enkh-Amgalan Dorjgotov, Philip J. Bos, Achintya Bhowmik May 2009

Design Of A Wide Bandwidth Switchable Mirror Based On A Liquid Crystal Etalon, Enkh-Amgalan Dorjgotov, Philip J. Bos, Achintya Bhowmik

Chemical Physics Publications

We propose the design for a switchable mirror with high efficiency and a 30 nm bandwidth. The device is based on a liquid crystal filled etalon. Broad bandwidth is achieved through the use of integrated half-wave layers into the dielectric stack design, while high efficiency is achieved using a polarization independent liquid crystal effect. Potential applications in the area of displays are also presented.


Effective Medium Theory, Rough Surfaces, And Moth’S Eyes, David D. Allred, Zephne Larsen, Joseph Muhlestein, R. Steven Turley, Anthony Willey Jan 2009

Effective Medium Theory, Rough Surfaces, And Moth’S Eyes, David D. Allred, Zephne Larsen, Joseph Muhlestein, R. Steven Turley, Anthony Willey

Faculty Publications

Optics in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) have important applications in microelectronics, microscopy, space physics, and in imaging plasmas. Because of the short wavelengths involved in these applications, it is critical to account for interfacial roughness to accurately predict the reflection and absorption of XUV optics. This paper examines two possible effects of roughness on optical absorption, non-specular reflection and enhanced transmission and compares these to measured experimental data on a rough Y2O3 thin film.


Limitations Of Decomposition-Based Imaging Of Longitudinal Absorber Configurations, S D. Campbell, S D. Grobe, I L. Goodin, Q Su, Rainer Grobe Feb 2008

Limitations Of Decomposition-Based Imaging Of Longitudinal Absorber Configurations, S D. Campbell, S D. Grobe, I L. Goodin, Q Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We examine theoretically and experimentally an imaging scheme that uses the transverse intensity profile of the scattered light to reconstruct the locations of absorbers embedded in a turbid medium. This method is based on an a priori knowledge of the scattered light patterns associated with a single absorber that is located at various positions inside the medium. We discuss the range of validity of this method, and its sensitivity with regard to noise, and propose an algorithm to improve its accuracy.


Decomposition-Based Recovery Of Absorbers In Turbid Media, S D. Campbell, I L. Goodin, S D. Grobe, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe Dec 2007

Decomposition-Based Recovery Of Absorbers In Turbid Media, S D. Campbell, I L. Goodin, S D. Grobe, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We suggest that the concept of the point-spread function traditionally used to predict the blurred image pattern of various light sources embedded inside turbid media can be generalized under certain conditions to predict also the presence and location of spatially localized absorbing inhomogeneities based on shadow point-spread functions associated with each localized absorber in the medium. The combined image obtained from several absorbers can then be decomposed approximately into the arithmetic sums of these individual shadow point-spread functions with suitable weights that can be obtained from multiple-regression analysis. This technique permits the reconstruction of the location of absorbers.