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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn May 2020

Integrated Photonic Device, Brittney Kuhn

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In computer mediated communication networks, information is typically encoded optically to transmit signals over long distances. At a network node, the optical signal is transformed into the electrical domain, processed electronically, and transformed back to an optical state to reach its destination. Transitioning between optical and electrical encoding of the signal is a potential security weak point, especially for quantum communication links. If information can remain in one state as it travels through the network, then security breaches can be detected and dealt with more easily. Furthermore, keeping the information in one state can reduce power consumption in the network ...


Tip- And Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Nanoscopy For Ultrasensitive Molecular Characterizations, Yilong Luan, Liam Mcdermott, F. Hu, Zhe Fei Mar 2020

Tip- And Plasmon-Enhanced Infrared Nanoscopy For Ultrasensitive Molecular Characterizations, Yilong Luan, Liam Mcdermott, F. Hu, Zhe Fei

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We propose a method for ultrasensitive infrared (IR) vibrational spectroscopy of molecules with nanoscale footprints by combining the tip enhancement of a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and the plasmon enhancement of breathing-mode (BM) plasmon resonances of graphene nanodisks (GNDs). To demonstrate this, we develop a quantitative model that is capable of computing accurately the s-SNOM signals of nanoscale samples. With our modeling, we show that the s-SNOM tip can effectively excite gate-tunable BM plasmonic resonances in GNDs with strong field enhancement and sensitive dependence on the size of GND. Moreover, we demonstrate that the intense electric field of ...


Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin Jan 2020

Special Section Guest Editorial: Machine Learning In Optics, Jonathan Howe, Travis Axtell, Khan Iftekharuddin

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This guest editorial summarizes the Special Section on Machine Learning in Optics.


Slow Light With Interleaved P-N Junction To Enhance Performance Of Integrated Mach-Zehnder Silicon Modulators, Marco Passoni, Dario Gerace, Liam O'Faolain, Lucio Claudio Andreani May 2019

Slow Light With Interleaved P-N Junction To Enhance Performance Of Integrated Mach-Zehnder Silicon Modulators, Marco Passoni, Dario Gerace, Liam O'Faolain, Lucio Claudio Andreani

Cappa Publications

Slow light is a very important concept in nanophotonics, especially in the context of photonic crystals. In this work, we apply our previous design of band-edge slow light in silicon waveguide gratings [M. Passoni et al, Opt. Express 26, 8470 (2018)] to Mach-Zehnder modulators based on the plasma dispersion effect. The key idea is to employ an interleaved p-n junction with the same periodicity as the grating, in order to achieve optimal matching between the electromagnetic field profile and the depletion regions of the p-n junction. The resulting modulation efficiency is strongly improved as compared to common modulators based on ...


Spectroscopy Of Neon For The Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory, H. C. Busch, M. B. Cooper, C. I. Sukenik Jan 2019

Spectroscopy Of Neon For The Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory, H. C. Busch, M. B. Cooper, C. I. Sukenik

Physics Faculty Publications

We describe a spectroscopy experiment, suitable for upper-division laboratory courses, that investigates saturated absorption spectroscopy and polarization spectroscopy in a neon discharge. Both experiments use nearly identical components, allowing students to explore both techniques in a single apparatus. Furthermore, because the wavelength of the laser is in the visible part of the spectrum (640 nm), the experiment is well-suited for students with limited experience in optical alignment. The labs nicely complement a course in atomic or plasma physics, provide students with the opportunity to gain important technical skills in the area of optics and lasers, and can provide an introduction ...


From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson Dec 2018

From Photon To Neuron Chapter 17: Rainbows And Other Caustics, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends Part III of the book From Photon to Neuron (Princeton Univ Press 2017). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio Jul 2018

Investigation Of Spin And Dip-Coating Phase Change Chalcogenide Materials As A Novel Technique For Coating And Functionalizing Conformal Optics, Paul Vecchio

Physics and Astronomy Summer Fellows

Chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) have excellent infrared (IR) transparency ranging up to 20 μm, large nonlinear refractive indices, and tailorable thermo-optic coefficients (dn/dT) that have great potential for applications in detectors, sensors, waveguides, imaging devices, photonic waveguides, acousto-optics, and optical devices. Spin and dip coating ChGs from solution is a low-cost, simple, and scalable method for depositing films over a large area. In this study, we utilize the novel approach of spin and dip coating to create thin ChG films of arsenic trisulfide (As2S3) and arsenic selenide (As2Se3). To realize the full potential of ...


Rotation Of Two-Petal Laser Beams In The Near Field Of A Spiral Microaxicon, S. S. Stafeev, Liam O'Faolain, M. V. Kotlyar Jun 2018

Rotation Of Two-Petal Laser Beams In The Near Field Of A Spiral Microaxicon, S. S. Stafeev, Liam O'Faolain, M. V. Kotlyar

Cappa Publications

Using a spiral microaxicon with the topological charge 2 and NA = 0.6 operating at a 532-nm wavelength and fabricated by electron-beam lithography, we experimentally demonstrate the rotation of a two-petal laser beam in the near field (several micrometers away from the axicon surface). The estimated rotation rate is 55 °/mm and linearly dependent on the on-axis distance, with the theoretical rotation rate being 53 °/mm. The experimentally measured rotation rate is found to be linear and coincident with the simulation results only on the on-axis segment from 1.5 to 3 mm. The experimentally measured rotation rate is 66 ...


Tunable Optical Buffer Through An Analogue To Electro-Magnetically Induced Transparency In Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities, Changyu Hu, Sebastian A. Schulz, Alexandros A. Liles, Liam O'Faolain Mar 2018

Tunable Optical Buffer Through An Analogue To Electro-Magnetically Induced Transparency In Coupled Photonic Crystal Cavities, Changyu Hu, Sebastian A. Schulz, Alexandros A. Liles, Liam O'Faolain

Cappa Publications

Tunable on-chip optical delay has long been a key target for the research community, as it is the enabling technology behind delay lines, signal re-timing and other applications vital to optical signal processing. To date the field has been limited by high optical losses associated with slow light or delay structures. Here, we present a novel tunable delay line, based on a coupled cavity system exhibiting an Electromagnetically Induced Transparency-like transmission spectrum, with record low loss, around 15dB/ns. By tuning a single cavity the delay of the complete structure can be tuned over 120ps, with the maximum delay approaching ...


Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu Aug 2017

Reflectance Of Xuv Light On A Two Dimensional Conducting Rough Surface, Chelsea Thangavelu

Student Works

A Fortran program is set up to solve for the reflectance of XUV light from a rough two dimensional surface, resembling experimental mirrors used to reflect XUV light. Because the roughness of the surface is on the order of magnitude of the wavelength of XUV light, our approach requires a Greene's Function instead of using traditional geometrical optics or physical optics. Our Fortran program calculates the impedance (Z) matrix which requires integration over Greene's Function at non-singular points. The Z matrix helps solve for the induced surface current J(x') at non-singular points. At singular points, the program ...


Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier Aug 2017

Exploring The Solvability Of The Jaynes-Cummings And Jaynes-Cummings-Like Models: Implementing Quantum Control, Austen Couvertier

Student Works

In this paper we aim to explore the dynamics and overall solvability of the Jaynes-Cummings \& Jaynes-Cummings-Like models. As a lens to understand these dynamics, we focused on cases where the parameters of the system were made time-dependent. All previous work on solving the dynamics of the Jaynes-Cummings models has relied heavily on the use of differential methods and setting the parameters as time-independent constants which were zero or one. To account for this, we utilized the Wei-Norman method which allowed us to analytical solve the time-dependent Hamiltonian. Through the use of this method, we can understand the more general characteristics ...


Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding May 2017

Studies In Mesoscopics And Quantum Microscopies, Zhenghao Ding, Gabriel C. Spalding

Honors Projects

This thesis begins with a foundational section on quantum optics. The single-photon detectors used in the first chapter were obtained through the Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA), which brokered reduced cost for educational use, and the aim of the single-photon work presented in Chapter 1 is to develop modules for use in Illinois Wesleyan's instructional labs beyond the first year of university. Along with the American Association of Physics Teachers, ALPhA encourages capstone-level work, such as Chapter 1 of this honors thesis, which is explicitly designed to play the role of passing on, to a next generation of physics ...


From Photon To Neuron: Contents And Preface, Philip C. Nelson Jan 2017

From Photon To Neuron: Contents And Preface, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Contents; To the Student; To the Instructor


Low-Cost Student Experiments In Optics, Robert Polak, Austin J. Cua, Daniel J. Perez, Mallory Q. Robertson, Justin A. Stuck, Jordan M. Thomas Oct 2014

Low-Cost Student Experiments In Optics, Robert Polak, Austin J. Cua, Daniel J. Perez, Mallory Q. Robertson, Justin A. Stuck, Jordan M. Thomas

Physics: Faculty Publications and Other Works

No abstract provided.


The Quest For High Power Lasers: Forcing Mutual Coherence In Broad Area Diode Lasers, Jonathan R. Wurtz Apr 2014

The Quest For High Power Lasers: Forcing Mutual Coherence In Broad Area Diode Lasers, Jonathan R. Wurtz

Student Research Projects

This poster explains efforts to improve spatial beam quality of diode array stacks using an external optical feedback system to force coherence of individual diodes.


Scalar Wave Scattering By Two-Layer Radial Inhomogeneities, Umaporn Nuntaplook, John Adam Jan 2014

Scalar Wave Scattering By Two-Layer Radial Inhomogeneities, Umaporn Nuntaplook, John Adam

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

It is shown that the iteration technique gives a better approximation for the problem with long wavelengths.


Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson Aug 2013

Characterization Of Samples For Optimization Of Infrared Stray Light Coatings, Carey L. Baxter, Rebecca Salvemini, Zaheer A. Ali, Patrick Waddell, Greg Perryman, Bob Thompson

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

NASA’s Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a converted 747SP that houses a 2.5 m telescope that observes the sky through an opening in the side of the aircraft. Because it flies at altitudes up to 45,000 feet, SOFIA gets 99.99% transmission in the infrared. Multiple science instruments mount one at a time on the telescope to interpret infrared and visible light from target sources. Ball Infrared Black (BIRB) currently coats everything that the optics sees inside the telescope assembly (TA) cavity in order to eliminate noise from the glow of background sky, aircraft exhaust ...


Computational Renormalization Scheme For Quantum Field Theories, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su, R E. Wagner Jul 2013

Computational Renormalization Scheme For Quantum Field Theories, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su, R E. Wagner

Faculty publications – Physics

We propose an alternative technique for numerically renormalizing quantum field theories based on their Hamiltonian formulation. This method is nonperturbative in nature and, therefore, exact to all orders. It does not require any correlation functions or Feynman diagrams. We illustrate this method for a model Yukawa-like theory describing the interaction of electrons and positrons with model photons in one spatial dimension. We show that, after mass renormalization of the fermionic and bosonic single-particle states, all other states in the Fock space have finite energies, which are independent of the momentum cutoff.


Enhancement Of Electron-Positron Pair Creation Due To Transient Excitation Of Field-Induced Bound States, M Jiang, Q Z. Lv, Z M. Sheng, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Apr 2013

Enhancement Of Electron-Positron Pair Creation Due To Transient Excitation Of Field-Induced Bound States, M Jiang, Q Z. Lv, Z M. Sheng, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs induced by two spatially separated electric fields that vary periodically in time. The results are based on large-scale computer simulations of the time-dependent Dirac equation in reduced spatial dimensions. When the separation of the fields is very large, the pair creation is caused by multiphoton transitions and mainly determined by the frequency of the fields. However, for small spatial separations a coherence effect can be observed that can enhance or reduce the particle yield compared to the case of two infinitely separated fields. If the travel time for a created electron or positron ...


Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal Feb 2013

Optical Down-Conversion In Doped Znse:Tb3+ Nanocrystals, Sandip Das, K. C. Mandal

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Pair Creation For Bosons In Electric And Magnetic Fields, Q Z. Lv, A C. Su, M Jiang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Feb 2013

Pair Creation For Bosons In Electric And Magnetic Fields, Q Z. Lv, A C. Su, M Jiang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

By solving the quantum field theoretical version of the Klein-Gordon equation numerically, we study the creation process for charged boson-antiboson pairs in static electric and magnetic fields. The fields are perpendicular to each other and spatially localized along the same direction, which permits us to study the crucial impact of the magnetic field's spatial extension on dynamics. If its width is comparable to that of the electric field, we find a magnetically induced Lorentz suppression of the pair-creation process. When the width is increased such that the created bosons can revisit the interaction region, we find a region of ...


Suppression Of Pair Creation Due To A Steady Magnetic Field, W Su, M Jiang, Z Q. Lv, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Jul 2012

Suppression Of Pair Creation Due To A Steady Magnetic Field, W Su, M Jiang, Z Q. Lv, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We investigate the electron-positron pair creation process in a supercritical static electric field in the presence of a static magnetic field that is perpendicular. If both fields vary spatially in one direction the dynamics can be reduced to a set of one-dimensional systems. Using a generalized computational quantum field theoretical procedure, we calculate the time dependence of the spatial density for the created electrons. In the presence of the magnetic field, a significant amount of suppression of pair creation is observed in the simulations and confirmed by an analytical analysis for the limits of short-range fields and long interaction times ...


Pair Creation Enhancement Due To Combined External Fields, M Jiang, W Su, Z Q. Lv, X Lu, Y J. Li, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su Mar 2012

Pair Creation Enhancement Due To Combined External Fields, M Jiang, W Su, Z Q. Lv, X Lu, Y J. Li, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs from the vacuum induced by a combination of a static electric field and an alternating field. We find that the overall pair production can be increased by two orders of magnitude compared to the yields associated with each field individually. We examine the interesting case where both fields are spatially localized, permitting us to examine the time evolution of the spatial density for the created particle pairs. We find that there are a variety of competing mechanisms that contribute to the total yield.


Broadband Terahertz Pulse Emission From Zngep2, J. D. Rowley, J. K. Pierce, A. T. Brant, Larry E. Halliburton, Nancy C. Giles, Peter G. Schunemann, A. D. Bristow Feb 2012

Broadband Terahertz Pulse Emission From Zngep2, J. D. Rowley, J. K. Pierce, A. T. Brant, Larry E. Halliburton, Nancy C. Giles, Peter G. Schunemann, A. D. Bristow

Faculty Publications

Optical rectification is demonstrated in (110)-cut ZnGeP2 (ZGP) providing broadband terahertz (THz) generation. The source is compared to both GaP and GaAs over a wavelength range of 1150 nm to 1600 nm and peak intensity range of 0.5 GW/cm2 to 40 GW/cm2. ZGP peak-to-peak field amplitude is larger than in the other materials due to either lower nonlinear absorption or larger second order nonlinearity. This material is well suited for broadband THz generation across a wide range of infrared excitation wavelengths.


Local And Nonlocal Spatial Densities In Quantum Field Theory, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, E V. Stefanovich, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe Feb 2012

Local And Nonlocal Spatial Densities In Quantum Field Theory, R E. Wagner, M R. Ware, E V. Stefanovich, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We use a one-dimensional model system to compare the predictions of two different yardsticks to compute the position of a particle from its quantum field theoretical state. Based on the first yardstick (defined by the Newton-Wigner position operator), the spatial density can be arbitrarily narrow, and its time evolution is superluminal for short time intervals. Furthermore, two spatially distant particles might be able to interact with each other outside the light cone, which is manifested by an asymmetric spreading of the spatial density. The second yardstick (defined by the quantum field operator) does not permit localized states, and the time ...


Causality And Relativistic Localization In One-Dimensional Hamiltonians, R E. Wagner, B T. Shields, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe Jun 2011

Causality And Relativistic Localization In One-Dimensional Hamiltonians, R E. Wagner, B T. Shields, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, Rainer Grobe

Faculty publications – Physics

We compare the relativistic time evolution of an initially localized quantum particle obtained from the relativistic Schrodinger, the Klein-Gordon and the Dirac equations. By computing the amount of the spatial probability density that evolves outside the light cone we quantify the amount of causality violation for the relativistic Schrodinger Hamiltonian. We comment on the relationship between quantum field theoretical transition amplitudes, commutators of the fields and their bilinear combinations outside the light cone as indicators of a possible causality violation. We point out the relevance of the relativistic localization problem to this discussion and comment on ideas about the supposed ...


Electron-Positron Pair Creation Induced By Quantum-Mechanical Tunneling, M Jiang, W Su, X Lu, Z M. Sheng, Y T. Li, J Zhang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su May 2011

Electron-Positron Pair Creation Induced By Quantum-Mechanical Tunneling, M Jiang, W Su, X Lu, Z M. Sheng, Y T. Li, J Zhang, Rainer Grobe, Qichang Su

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the creation of electron-positron pairs from the vacuum induced by two spatially displaced static electric fields. The strength and spatial width of each localized field is less than required for pair creation. If, however, the separation between the fields is less than the quantum-mechanical tunneling length associated with the corresponding quantum scattering system, the system produces a steady flux of electron-positron pairs. We compute the time dependence of the pair-creation probability by solving the Dirac equation numerically for various external field sequences. For the special case of two very narrow fields we provide an analytical expression for the ...


Blackbody-Radiation Correction To The Polarizability Of Helium, Mariusz Puchalski, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr Apr 2011

Blackbody-Radiation Correction To The Polarizability Of Helium, Mariusz Puchalski, Ulrich D. Jentschura, Peter J. Mohr

Physics Faculty Research & Creative Works

The correction to the polarizability of helium due to blackbody radiation is calculated near room temperature. A precise theoretical determination of the blackbody radiation correction to the polarizability of helium is essential for dielectric gas thermometry and for the determination of the Boltzmann constant. We find that the correction, for not too high temperature, is roughly proportional to a modified hyperpolarizability (two-color hyperpolarizability), which is different from the ordinary hyperpolarizability of helium. Our explicit calculations provide a definite numerical result for the effect and indicate that the effect of blackbody radiation can be excluded as a limiting factor for dielectric ...


Time Dilation In Relativistic Two-Particle Interactions, B T. Shields, Rainer Grobe, E V. Stefanovich, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, M C. Morris Nov 2010

Time Dilation In Relativistic Two-Particle Interactions, B T. Shields, Rainer Grobe, E V. Stefanovich, M R. Ware, Qichang Su, M C. Morris

Faculty publications – Physics

We study the orbits of two interacting particles described by a fully relativistic classical mechanical Hamiltonian. We use two sets of initial conditions. In the first set (dynamics 1) the system's center of mass is at rest. In the second set (dynamics 2) the center of mass evolves with velocity V. If dynamics 1 is observed from a reference frame moving with velocity-V, the principle of relativity requires that all observables must be identical to those of dynamics 2 seen from the laboratory frame. Our numerical simulations demonstrate that kinematic Lorentz space-time transformations fail to transform particle observables between ...


Characterization Of Pollen Particles Using Lidar, Leda Sox Oct 2010

Characterization Of Pollen Particles Using Lidar, Leda Sox

Graduate Student Posters

We have observed pollen in the local troposphere using the depolarization capabilities of a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) system. The polarization characteristics of the received LIDAR signal, along with supplemental pollen forecast data, allowed me to characterize the shape of the pollen particles.