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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: Ii. Using Time-Dependent Simulations, Mark F. Spencer Jul 2020

Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: Ii. Using Time-Dependent Simulations, Mark F. Spencer

Faculty Publications

Part II of this two-part paper uses wave-optics simulations to look at the Monte Carlo averages associated with turbulence and time-dependent thermal blooming (TDTB). The goal is to investigate turbulence thermal blooming interaction (TTBI). At wavelengths near 1 μm, TTBI increases the amount of constructive and destructive interference (i.e., scintillation) that results from high-power laser beam propagation through distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations. As a result, we use the spherical-wave Rytov number, the number of wind-clearing periods, and the distortion number to gauge the strength of the simulated turbulence and TDTB. These parameters simply greatly given propagation paths with constant atmospheric ...


Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: I. Using Steady-State Simulations, Mark F. Spencer Jul 2020

Wave-Optics Investigation Of Turbulence Thermal Blooming Interaction: I. Using Steady-State Simulations, Mark F. Spencer

Faculty Publications

Part I of this two-part paper uses wave-optics simulations to look at the Monte Carlo averages associated with turbulence and steady-state thermal blooming (SSTB). The goal is to investigate turbulence thermal blooming interaction (TTBI). At wavelengths near 1 μm, TTBI increases the amount of constructive and destructive interference (i.e., scintillation) that results from high-power laser beam propagation through distributed-volume atmospheric aberrations. As a result, we use the spherical-wave Rytov number and the distortion number to gauge the strength of the simulated turbulence and SSTB. These parameters simplify greatly given propagation paths with constant atmospheric conditions. In addition, we use ...


Implications Of Four-Dimensional Weather Cubes For Improved Cloud-Free Line-Of-Sight Assessments Of Free-Space Optical Communications Link Performance, Steven T. Fiorino, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Jaclyn Schmidt, Brannon Elmore, Kevin J. Keefer Jul 2020

Implications Of Four-Dimensional Weather Cubes For Improved Cloud-Free Line-Of-Sight Assessments Of Free-Space Optical Communications Link Performance, Steven T. Fiorino, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Jaclyn Schmidt, Brannon Elmore, Kevin J. Keefer

Faculty Publications

We advance the benefits of previously reported four-dimensional (4-D) weather cubes toward the creation of high-fidelity cloud-free line-of-sight (CFLOS) beam propagation for realistic assessment of autotracked/dynamically routed free-space optical (FSO) communication datalink concepts. The weather cubes accrue parameterization of optical effects and custom atmospheric resolution through implementation of numerical weather prediction data in the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. 4-D weather cube analyses have recently been expanded to accurately assess system performance (probabilistic climatologies and performance forecasts) at any wavelength/frequency or spectral band in the absence of field tests and employment ...


Turbulence Profiling Using Pupil Plane Wavefront Data Derived Fried Parameter Values For A Dynamically Ranged Rayleigh Beacon, Steven M. Zuraski, Elizabeth Beecher, Jack E. Mccrae, Steven T. Fiorino Jul 2020

Turbulence Profiling Using Pupil Plane Wavefront Data Derived Fried Parameter Values For A Dynamically Ranged Rayleigh Beacon, Steven M. Zuraski, Elizabeth Beecher, Jack E. Mccrae, Steven T. Fiorino

Faculty Publications

Long-range optical imaging applications are typically hindered by atmospheric turbulence. The effect of turbulence on an imaging system can manifest itself as an image blur effect usually quantified by the phase distortions present in the system. The blurring effect can be understood on the basis of the measured strength of atmospheric optical turbulence along the propagation path and its impacts on phase perturbation statistics within the imaging system. One method for obtaining these measurements is by the use of a dynamically ranged Rayleigh beacon system that exploits strategically varied beacon ranges along the propagation path, effectively obtaining estimates of the ...


Measurements Of Optical Turbulence Over 149-Km Path, Jack E. Mccrae, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Steven T. Fiorino, Aaron J. Archibald, Joel Meoak, Brannon Elmore, Thomas Kesler, Christopher A. Rice Jul 2020

Measurements Of Optical Turbulence Over 149-Km Path, Jack E. Mccrae, Santasri Bose-Pillai, Steven T. Fiorino, Aaron J. Archibald, Joel Meoak, Brannon Elmore, Thomas Kesler, Christopher A. Rice

Faculty Publications

An experiment was conducted to study turbulence along a 149-km path between the Mauna Loa and Haleakala mountain tops using digital cameras and light-emitting diode (LED) beacons. Much of the path is over the ocean, and a large portion of the path is 3 km above sea level. On the Mauna Loa side, six LED beacons were placed in a roughly linear array with pair spacings from 7 to 62 m. From the Haleakala side, a pair of cameras separated by 83.8 cm observed these beacons. Turbulence along the path induces tilts on the wavefronts, which results in displacements ...


Disorder By Design: A Data-Driven Approach To Amorphous Semiconductors Without Total-Energy Functionals, Dil K. Limbu, Stephen R. Elliott, Raymond Atta-Fynn, Parthapratim Biswas May 2020

Disorder By Design: A Data-Driven Approach To Amorphous Semiconductors Without Total-Energy Functionals, Dil K. Limbu, Stephen R. Elliott, Raymond Atta-Fynn, Parthapratim Biswas

Faculty Publications

X-ray diffraction, Amorphous silicon, Multi-objective optimization, Monte Carlo methods. This paper addresses a difficult inverse problem that involves the reconstruction of a three-dimensional model of tetrahedral amorphous semiconductors via inversion of diffraction data. By posing the material-structure determination as a multiobjective optimization program, it has been shown that the problem can be solved accurately using a few structural constraints, but no total-energy functionals/forces, which describe the local chemistry of amorphous networks. The approach yields highly realistic models of amorphous silicon, with no or only a few coordination defects (≤1%), a narrow bond-angle distribution of width 9–11.5°, and ...


Single-Pulse, Kerr-Effect Mueller Matrix Lidar Polarimeter, Keyser, Christian K., Richard K. Martin, Helena Lopez-Aviles, Khanh Nguyen, Arielle M. Adams, Demetrios Christodoulides Apr 2020

Single-Pulse, Kerr-Effect Mueller Matrix Lidar Polarimeter, Keyser, Christian K., Richard K. Martin, Helena Lopez-Aviles, Khanh Nguyen, Arielle M. Adams, Demetrios Christodoulides

Faculty Publications

We present a novel light detection and ranging (LiDAR) polarimeter that enables measurement of 12 of 16 sample Mueller matrix elements in a single, 10 ns pulse. The new polarization state generator (PSG) leverages Kerr phase modulation in a birefringent optical fiber, creating a probe pulse characterized by temporally varying polarization. Theoretical expressions for the Polarization State Generator (PSG) Stokes vector are derived for birefringent walk-off and no walk-off and incorporated into a time-dependent polarimeter signal model employing multiple polarization state analyzers (PSA). Polarimeter modeling compares the Kerr effect and electro-optic phase modulator–based PSG using a single Polarization State ...


Synthesizing General Electromagnetic Partially Coherent Sources From Random, Correlated Complex Screens, Milo W. Hyde Iv Mar 2020

Synthesizing General Electromagnetic Partially Coherent Sources From Random, Correlated Complex Screens, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We present a method to generate any genuine electromagnetic partially coherent source (PCS) from correlated, stochastic complex screens. The method described here can be directly implemented on existing spatial-light-modulator-based vector beam generators and can be used in any application which utilizes electromagnetic PCSs. Our method is based on the genuine cross-spectral density matrix criterion. Applying that criterion, we show that stochastic vector field realizations (corresponding to a desired electromagnetic PCS) can be generated by passing correlated Gaussian random numbers through “filters” with space-variant transfer functions. We include step-by-step instructions on how to generate the electromagnetic PCS field realizations. As an ...


Kinetic Alfvénwaves Frommagnetotail To The Ionosphere In Global Hybrid Simulation Associated With Fast Flows, Lei Cheng, Yu Lin, J. D. Perez, Jay R. Johnson, Xueyi Wang Feb 2020

Kinetic Alfvénwaves Frommagnetotail To The Ionosphere In Global Hybrid Simulation Associated With Fast Flows, Lei Cheng, Yu Lin, J. D. Perez, Jay R. Johnson, Xueyi Wang

Faculty Publications

We have used the Auburn Global Hybrid Code in 3‐D to study the generation, dynamics, and global structure of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) from the magnetotail to the ionosphere. Our results show that KAWs are generated in magnetic reconnection in the plasma sheet, located around fast flows, and carrying transverse electromagnetic perturbations, parallel Poynting fluxes, parallel currents, and parallel electric field. Overall, shear Alfvénic turbulent spectrum is found in the plasma sheet. The KAWs are shear Alfvén waves possessing short perpendicular wavelength with , where is the perpendicular wave number and the ion Larmor radius. The KAWs are identified by ...


Digital Holography Experiments With Degraded Temporal Coherence, Douglas E. Thornton, Davin Mao, Mark F. Spencer, Christopher A. Rice, Glen P. Perram Jan 2020

Digital Holography Experiments With Degraded Temporal Coherence, Douglas E. Thornton, Davin Mao, Mark F. Spencer, Christopher A. Rice, Glen P. Perram

Faculty Publications

To simulate the effects of multiple-longitudinal modes and rapid fluctuations in center frequency, we use sinusoidal phase modulation and linewidth broadening, respectively. These effects allow us to degrade the temporal coherence of our master-oscillator laser, which we then use to conduct digital holography experiments. In turn, our results show that the coherence efficiency decreases quadratically with fringe visibility and that our measurements agree with our models to within 1.8% for sinusoidal phase modulation and 6.9% for linewidth broadening.


Stochastic Complex Transmittance Screens For Synthesizing General Partially Coherent Sources, Milo W. Hyde Iv Jan 2020

Stochastic Complex Transmittance Screens For Synthesizing General Partially Coherent Sources, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We develop a method to synthesize any partially coherent source (PCS) with a genuine cross-spectral density (CSD) function using complex transmittance screens. Prior work concerning PCS synthesis with complex transmittance screens has focused on generating Schell-model (uniformly correlated) sources. Here, using the necessary and sufficient condition for a genuine CSD function, we derive an expression, in the form of a superposition integral, that produces stochastic complex screen realizations. The sample autocorrelation of the screens is equal to the complex correlation function of the desired PCS. We validate our work by generating, in simulation, three PCSs from the literature—none has ...


Crystal Structure Of Thermus Thermophilus Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase And Determinants Of Thermostability, Fernando Maiello, Gloria Gallo, Camila Coelho, Fernanda Sucharski, Leon Hardy, Martin Würtele Jan 2020

Crystal Structure Of Thermus Thermophilus Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase And Determinants Of Thermostability, Fernando Maiello, Gloria Gallo, Camila Coelho, Fernanda Sucharski, Leon Hardy, Martin Würtele

Faculty Publications

The elucidation of mechanisms behind the thermostability of proteins is extremely important both from the theoretical and applied perspective. Here we report the crystal structure of methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) from Thermus thermophilus HB8, a thermophilic model organism. Molecular dynamics trajectory analysis of this protein at different temperatures (303 K, 333 K and 363 K) was compared with homologous proteins from the less temperature resistant organism Thermoplasma acidophilum and the mesophilic organism Acinetobacter baumannii using several data reduction techniques like principal component analysis (PCA), residue interaction network (RIN) analysis and rotamer analysis. These methods enabled the determination of important residues for ...


Twisted Space-Frequency And Space-Time Partially Coherent Beams, Milo W. Hyde Iv Jan 2020

Twisted Space-Frequency And Space-Time Partially Coherent Beams, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We present partially coherent sources that are statistically twisted in the space-frequency and space-time domains. Beginning with the superposition rule for genuine partially coherent sources, we derive source plane expressions for the cross-spectral density (CSD) and mutual coherence functions (MCFs) for twisted space-frequency and space-time Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams. Using the Fresnel approximation to the free-space Green’s function, we then paraxially propagate the CSD and MCF to any plane z> 0. We discuss the beams’ behavior as they propagate, with particular emphasis on how the beam shape rotates or tumbles versus z. To validate our analysis, we simulate the ...


The Distribution Of Ultra-Diffuse And Ultra-Compact Galaxies In The Frontier Fields, Steven Janssens, Roberto Abraham, Jean Brodie, Duncan Forbes, Aaron Romanowsky Dec 2019

The Distribution Of Ultra-Diffuse And Ultra-Compact Galaxies In The Frontier Fields, Steven Janssens, Roberto Abraham, Jean Brodie, Duncan Forbes, Aaron Romanowsky

Faculty Publications

Large low-surface-brightness galaxies have recently been found to be abundant in nearby galaxy clusters. In this paper, we investigate these ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) in the six Hubble Frontier Fields galaxy clusters: A2744, MACS J0416.1−2403, MACS J0717.5+3745, MACS J1149.5+2223, AS1063, and A370. These are the most massive (1–3 × 1015 M ⊙) and distant (0.308 < z < 0.545) systems in which this class of galaxy has yet been discovered. We estimate that the clusters host of the order of ~200–1400 UDGs inside the virial radius (R 200), consistent with the UDG abundance–halo-mass relation found in the local universe, and suggest that UDGs may be formed in clusters. Within each cluster, however, we find that UDGs are not evenly distributed. Instead their projected spatial distributions are lopsided, and they are deficient in the regions of highest mass density as traced by gravitational lensing. While the deficiency of UDGs in central regions is not surprising, the lopsidedness is puzzling. The UDGs, and their lopsided spatial distributions, may be associated with known substructures late in their infall into the clusters, meaning that we find evidence both for formation of UDGs in clusters and for UDGs falling into clusters. We also investigate the ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) residing in the clusters, and find that the spatial distributions of UDGs and UCDs appear anticorrelated. Around 15% of UDGs exhibit either compact nuclei or nearby point sources. Taken together, these observations provide additional evidence for a picture in which at least some UDGs are destroyed in dense cluster environments and leave behind a residue of UCDs.


Comparison Of Charge Storage Properties Of Prussian Blue Analogues Containing Cobalt And Copper, Amanda Rensmo, Jennifer R. Hampton Dec 2019

Comparison Of Charge Storage Properties Of Prussian Blue Analogues Containing Cobalt And Copper, Amanda Rensmo, Jennifer R. Hampton

Faculty Publications

Prussian blue analogues are of great interest as alternative battery materials because of their long life cycle and potential use of earth-abundant elements. In this work, thin film mixed-metal hexacyanoferrates (HCFs) based on NiCo and NiCu alloys were fabricated in an all electrochemical process. The structure and composition of the samples were characterized, along with the charge storage capacity and kinetics of the charge transfer reaction. For both NiCo-HCF and NiCu-HCF samples, the total charge capacity increased with the substitution of Ni with more Co or Cu, and the increase was larger for Cu samples than for Co samples. On ...


Effect Of Ar(3p54p; 2p)+M -> Ar(3p54s; 1s)+M Branching Ratio On Optically Pumped Rare Gas Laser Performance, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, David E. Weeks Nov 2019

Effect Of Ar(3p54p; 2p)+M -> Ar(3p54s; 1s)+M Branching Ratio On Optically Pumped Rare Gas Laser Performance, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, David E. Weeks

Faculty Publications

Optically pumped rare gas laser performance is analyzed as a function of the Ar(3p54p; 2p) + M → Ar(3p54s; 1s) + M branching ratios. Due to the uncertainty in the branching ratios, a sensitivity study is performed to determine the effect on output and absorbed pump laser intensities. The analysis is performed using a radio frequency dielectric barrier discharge as the source of metastable production for a variety of Argon in Helium mixtures over pressures ranging from 200 to 500 Torr. Peak output laser intensities show a factor of 7 increase as the branching ratio is increased ...


Measurement Of Electron Density And Temperature From Laser-Induced Nitrogen Plasma At Elevated Pressure (1–6 Bar), Ashwin P. Rao, Mark Gragston, A Patnaik, Paul Hsu, Michael B. Shattan Nov 2019

Measurement Of Electron Density And Temperature From Laser-Induced Nitrogen Plasma At Elevated Pressure (1–6 Bar), Ashwin P. Rao, Mark Gragston, A Patnaik, Paul Hsu, Michael B. Shattan

Faculty Publications

Laser-induced plasmas experience Stark broadening and shifts of spectral lines carrying spectral signatures of plasma properties. In this paper, we report time-resolved Stark broadening measurements of a nitrogen triplet emission line at 1–6 bar ambient pressure in a pure nitrogen cell. Electron densities are calculated using the Stark broadening for different pressure conditions, which are shown to linearly increase with pressure. Additionally, using a Boltzmann fit for the triplet, the electron temperature is calculated and shown to decrease with increasing pressure. The rate of plasma cooling is observed to increase with pressure. The reported Stark broadening based plasma diagnostics ...


Lorentz- And C P T -Violating Standard Model Extension In Chiral Perturbation Theory, Brett Altschul, Matthias R. Schindler Oct 2019

Lorentz- And C P T -Violating Standard Model Extension In Chiral Perturbation Theory, Brett Altschul, Matthias R. Schindler

Faculty Publications

Lorentz and CPT violation in hadronic physics must be tied to symmetry violations at the underlying quark and gluon level. Chiral perturbation theory provides a method for translating novel operators that may appear in the Lagrange density for color-charged parton fields into equivalent forms for effective theories at the meson and baryon levels. We extend the application of this technique to the study of Lorentzviolating and potentially CPT-violating operators from the minimal standard model extension. For dimension-4 operators, there are nontrivial relations between the coefficients of baryon-level operators related to underlying quark and gluon operators with the same Lorentz structures ...


Generating Electromagnetic Schell-Model Sources Using Complex Screens With Spatially Varying Auto- And Cross-Correlation Functions, Milo W. Hyde Iv Sep 2019

Generating Electromagnetic Schell-Model Sources Using Complex Screens With Spatially Varying Auto- And Cross-Correlation Functions, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

We present a method to generate any physically realizable electromagnetic Schell-model source. Our technique can be directly implemented on existing vector-beam generators that utilize spatial light modulators for coherence control, beam shaping, and relative phasing. This work significantly extends published research on the subject, where control over the partially coherent source’s cross-spectral density matrix was limited. We begin by presenting the statistical optics theory necessary to derive and implement our method. We then apply our technique, both analytically and in simulation, to produce two electromagnetic Schell-model sources from the literature. We demonstrate control over the full cross-spectral density matrices ...


A Method For Automatic Detection Of Tongued And Slurred Note Transitions In Clarinet Playing, Whitney L. Coyle, Jack D. Gabriel Sep 2019

A Method For Automatic Detection Of Tongued And Slurred Note Transitions In Clarinet Playing, Whitney L. Coyle, Jack D. Gabriel

Faculty Publications

This study offers a simple method to characterize two transition types in passages of music in order to automatically distinguish slurred transitions from tongued transitions in musical settings. Data were recorded from musicians playing a clarinet with a sensor-equipped mouthpiece measuring blowing pressure in the mouth and pressure in the mouthpiece. This method allows for comparing transitions in different musical contexts, playing regimes, and between players. The method is highly reliable in automatically detecting transition types in recorded clarinet playing in both simple and more complex passages.


Modeling Energy Dynamics With The Energy-Interaction Diagram, Benedikt Harrer, Cassandra Paul Sep 2019

Modeling Energy Dynamics With The Energy-Interaction Diagram, Benedikt Harrer, Cassandra Paul

Faculty Publications

Energy is an important crosscutting concept in all science disciplines, and energy conservation is widely regarded as one of the most important principles in physics.1–3 Over the years, numerous graphical representations have been proposed that allow learners of physics to visualize energy states and dynamics in a particular situation.3–7 Each diagram highlights different aspects of energy and therefore may represent different conceptualizations of energy. Bar charts,8 for example, foreground the idea of multiple categories of energy to account for the distribution of energy in a system across those energy types. Similarly, pie charts5 highlight relative ...


Near-Field Effects On Partially Coherent Light Scattered By An Aperture, Milo W. Hyde Iv, Michael J. Havrilla Aug 2019

Near-Field Effects On Partially Coherent Light Scattered By An Aperture, Milo W. Hyde Iv, Michael J. Havrilla

Faculty Publications

We investigate how the near field affects partially coherent light scattered from an aperture in an opaque screen. Prior work on this subject has focused on the role of surface plasmons, and how they affect spatial coherence is well documented. Here, we consider other near-field effects that might impact spatial coherence. We do this by examining the statistics of the near-zone field scattered from an aperture in a perfect electric conductor plane—a structure that does not support surface plasmons. We derive the near-field statistics (in particular, cross-spectral density functions) by applying electromagnetic equivalence theorems and the Method of Moments ...


Controlling The Spatial Coherence Of An Optical Source Using A Spatial Filter, Milo W. Hyde Iv Aug 2019

Controlling The Spatial Coherence Of An Optical Source Using A Spatial Filter, Milo W. Hyde Iv

Faculty Publications

This paper presents the theory for controlling the spectral degree of coherence via spatial filtering. Starting with a quasi-homogeneous partially coherent source, the cross-spectral density function of the field at the output of the spatial filter is found by applying Fourier and statistical optics theory. The key relation obtained from this analysis is a closed-form expression for the filter function in terms of the desired output spectral degree of coherence. This theory is verified with Monte Carlo wave-optics simulations of spatial coherence control and beam shaping for potential use in free-space optical communications and directed energy applications. The simulated results ...


Fast And Effective Techniques For Lwir Radiative Transfer Modeling: A Dimension-Reduction Approach, Nicholas M. Westing, Brett J. Borghetti, Kevin C. Gross Aug 2019

Fast And Effective Techniques For Lwir Radiative Transfer Modeling: A Dimension-Reduction Approach, Nicholas M. Westing, Brett J. Borghetti, Kevin C. Gross

Faculty Publications

The increasing spatial and spectral resolution of hyperspectral imagers yields detailed spectroscopy measurements from both space-based and airborne platforms. These detailed measurements allow for material classification, with many recent advancements from the fields of machine learning and deep learning. In many scenarios, the hyperspectral image must first be corrected or compensated for atmospheric effects. Radiative Transfer (RT) computations can provide look up tables (LUTs) to support these corrections. This research investigates a dimension-reduction approach using machine learning methods to create an effective sensor-specific long-wave infrared (LWIR) RT model.


Plasma Spectroscopy Of Titanium Monoxide For Characterization Of Laser Ablation, Todd A. Van Woerkom, Glen P. Perram, Christian G. Parigger, Brian D. Dolasinski, Charles D. Phelps, Patrick A. Berry Aug 2019

Plasma Spectroscopy Of Titanium Monoxide For Characterization Of Laser Ablation, Todd A. Van Woerkom, Glen P. Perram, Christian G. Parigger, Brian D. Dolasinski, Charles D. Phelps, Patrick A. Berry

Faculty Publications

Ablation of titanium wafers in air is accomplished with 60 µs pulsed, 2.94 µm laser radiation. Titanium monoxide spectra are measured in the wavelength range of 500 nm to 750 nm, and molecular signatures include bands of the C3 Δ → X3 Δ α, B3 Π → X3 Δ γ', and A3 Φ → X3 Δ γ transitions. The spatially and temporally averaged spectra appear to be in qualitative agreement with previous temporally resolved studies that employed shorter wavelengths and shorter pulse durations than utilized in this work. The background signals in the current study are possibly due to particulate content in ...


Hyper Wide Field Imaging Of The Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Ic 1613: An Extended Component Of Metal-Poor Stars, Ragadeepika Pucha, Jeffrey Carlin, Beth Willman, Jay Strader, David Sand, Keith Bechtol, Jean Brodie, Denija Crnojević, Duncan Forbes, Christopher Garling, Jonathan Hargis, Annika Peter, Aaron Romanowsky Jul 2019

Hyper Wide Field Imaging Of The Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy Ic 1613: An Extended Component Of Metal-Poor Stars, Ragadeepika Pucha, Jeffrey Carlin, Beth Willman, Jay Strader, David Sand, Keith Bechtol, Jean Brodie, Denija Crnojević, Duncan Forbes, Christopher Garling, Jonathan Hargis, Annika Peter, Aaron Romanowsky

Faculty Publications

Stellar halos offer fossil evidence for hierarchical structure formation. Since halo assembly is predicted to be scale-free, stellar halos around low-mass galaxies constrain properties such as star formation in the accreted subhalos and the formation of dwarf galaxies. However, few observational searches for stellar halos in dwarfs exist. Here we present gi photometry of resolved stars in isolated Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 (M sstarf ~ 108 M ⊙). These Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam observations are the widest and deepest of IC 1613 to date. We measure surface density profiles of young main-sequence, intermediate to old red giant branch, and ancient ...


Spatially Resolved Stellar Kinematics Of The Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44. I. Observations, Kinematics, And Cold Dark Matter Halo Fits, Pieter Van Dokkum, Asher Wasserman, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Jean Brodie, Charlie Conroy, Duncan Forbes, Christopher Martin, Matt Matuszewski, Aaron Romanowsky, Alexa Villaume Jul 2019

Spatially Resolved Stellar Kinematics Of The Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44. I. Observations, Kinematics, And Cold Dark Matter Halo Fits, Pieter Van Dokkum, Asher Wasserman, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Jean Brodie, Charlie Conroy, Duncan Forbes, Christopher Martin, Matt Matuszewski, Aaron Romanowsky, Alexa Villaume

Faculty Publications

We present spatially resolved stellar kinematics of the well-studied ultra-diffuse galaxy (UDG) Dragonfly 44, as determined from 25.3 hr of observations with the Keck Cosmic Web Imager. The luminosity-weighted dispersion within the half-light radius is ${\sigma }_{1/2}={33}_{-3}^{+3}$ km s−1, lower than what we had inferred before from a DEIMOS spectrum in the Hα region. There is no evidence for rotation, with ${V}_{\max }/\langle \sigma \rangle \lt 0.12$ (90% confidence) along the major axis, in possible conflict with models where UDGs are the high-spin tail of the normal dwarf galaxy ...


3d Plasmonic Design Approach For Efficient Transmissive Huygens Metasurfaces, Bryan M. Adomanis, D. Bruce Burckel, Michael J. Marciniak Jul 2019

3d Plasmonic Design Approach For Efficient Transmissive Huygens Metasurfaces, Bryan M. Adomanis, D. Bruce Burckel, Michael J. Marciniak

Faculty Publications

In this paper we present a design concept for 3D plasmonic scatterers as high- efficiency transmissive metasurface (MS) building blocks. A genetic algorithm (GA) routine partitions the faces of the walls inside an open cavity into a M x N grid of voxels which can be either covered with metal or left bare, and optimizes the distribution of metal coverage needed to generate electric and magnetic modes of equal strength with a targeted phase delay (Φt) at the design wavelength. Even though the electric and magnetic modes can be more complicated than typical low order modes, with their spectral overlap ...


Accelerating Lattice Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations Using Artificial Neural Networks: Application To The Holstein Model, Shaozhi Li, Philip Dee, Ehsan Khatami, Steven Johnston Jul 2019

Accelerating Lattice Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations Using Artificial Neural Networks: Application To The Holstein Model, Shaozhi Li, Philip Dee, Ehsan Khatami, Steven Johnston

Faculty Publications

Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are essential computational approaches with widespread use throughout all areas of science. We present a method for accelerating lattice MC simulations using fully connected and convolutional artificial neural networks that are trained to perform local and global moves in configuration space, respectively. Both networks take local spacetime MC configurations as input features and can, therefore, be trained using samples generated by conventional MC runs on smaller lattices before being utilized for simulations on larger systems. This approach is benchmarked for the case of determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) studies of the two-dimensional Holstein model. We find ...


Effect Of Strain On Charge Density Wave Order In The Holstein Model, Benjami Cohen-Stead, Natanael Costa, Ehsan Khatami, Richard Scalettar Jul 2019

Effect Of Strain On Charge Density Wave Order In The Holstein Model, Benjami Cohen-Stead, Natanael Costa, Ehsan Khatami, Richard Scalettar

Faculty Publications

We investigate charge ordering in the Holstein model in the presence of anisotropic hopping, tx,ty=1-δ,1+δ, as a model of the effect of strain on charge-density-wave (CDW) materials. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the CDW transition temperature is relatively insensitive to moderate anisotropy δ 0.3, but begins to decrease more rapidly at δ 0.4. However, the density correlations, as well as the kinetic energies parallel and perpendicular to the compressional axis, change significantly for moderate δ. Accompanying mean-field theory calculations show a similar qualitative structure, with the transition temperature relatively constant at ...