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Articles 31 - 60 of 135

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Emergence Of The Fuzzy Horizon Through Gravitational Collapse, Anand Murugan '07, Vatche Sahakian Nov 2006

Emergence Of The Fuzzy Horizon Through Gravitational Collapse, Anand Murugan '07, Vatche Sahakian

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

For a large enough Schwarzschild black hole, the horizon is a region of space where gravitational forces are weak; yet it is also a region leading to numerous puzzles connected to stringy physics. In this work, we analyze the process of gravitational collapse and black hole formation in the context of light-cone M-theory. We find that, as a shell of matter contracts and is about to reveal a black hole horizon, it undergoes a thermodynamic phase transition. This involves the binding of D0 branes into D2’s, and the new phase leads to large membranes of the size of the ...


Certifications Offered By Cost Estimating Organizations, Donald S. Remer, Karen M. Ahle, Kevin J. Alley, John Silny, Karen Hsin Oct 2006

Certifications Offered By Cost Estimating Organizations, Donald S. Remer, Karen M. Ahle, Kevin J. Alley, John Silny, Karen Hsin

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

There has been an increasing trend in professional and engineering circles to place greater emphasis on official credentials. These credentials commonly come in the form of certificates – documented recognition by a professional body that an engineer or other professional has the qualifications and technical knowledge to be a practitioner in that field. These certificates are somewhat analogous to merit badges in scouting – the certification is evidence that the holder has a certain minimum level of competence in the subject area. This review will help you decide what certifications are applicable to you and the requirements to obtain a certification.


Role Of Beat Noise In Limiting The Sensitivity Of Optical Coherence Tomography, Richard C. Haskell, David Liao, Adam E. Pivonka, Tera L. Bell, Brendan R. Haberle, Barbara M. Hoeling, Daniel C. Petersen Jun 2006

Role Of Beat Noise In Limiting The Sensitivity Of Optical Coherence Tomography, Richard C. Haskell, David Liao, Adam E. Pivonka, Tera L. Bell, Brendan R. Haberle, Barbara M. Hoeling, Daniel C. Petersen

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The sensitivity and dynamic range of optical coherence tomography (OCT) are calculated for instruments utilizing two common interferometer configurations and detection schemes. Previous researchers recognized that the performance of dual-balanced OCT instruments is severely limited by beat noise, which is generated by incoherent light backscattered from the sample. However, beat noise has been ignored in previous calculations of Michelson OCT performance. Our measurements of instrument noise confirm the presence of beat noise even in a simple Michelson interferometer configuration with a single photodetector. Including this noise, we calculate the dynamic range as a function of OCT light source power, and ...


Erratum: The Structure Of Alkali Halide Dimers: A Critical Test Of Ionic Models And New Ab Initio Results, T. Törring, S. Biermann, J. Hoeft, Richard J. Mawhorter, Robert J. Cave, C. Szemenyei Feb 2006

Erratum: The Structure Of Alkali Halide Dimers: A Critical Test Of Ionic Models And New Ab Initio Results, T. Törring, S. Biermann, J. Hoeft, Richard J. Mawhorter, Robert J. Cave, C. Szemenyei

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It has come to our attention that some of the ab initio results presented are incorrect due to errors in the Cs and C1 basis sets, and a small error in the binding energy of Rb2F2. The corrected results are presented below for the species that were affected, modifying the results in Table III of the original paper. Only those values which are different from the results of the original Table III are included. Note that some of these results are used for comparison with the ionic models in later tables. In addition, some HF data quoted in Tables V ...


Transverse Priority Phase Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography, Jeff Fingler, Jon Williams, Zahid Yaqoob, Changhuei Yang, Richard C. Haskell, Scott E. Fraser Jan 2006

Transverse Priority Phase Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography, Jeff Fingler, Jon Williams, Zahid Yaqoob, Changhuei Yang, Richard C. Haskell, Scott E. Fraser

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

A variation on the standard time domain optical coherence tomography (TDOCT) system is presented. Using an inexpensive piezoelectric stack to modulate the reference mirror position, the amplitude and phase of the sample reflection is determined without scanning. With the primary scan in the transverse direction, en face and B-scan OCT images can be readily produced with phase information. This project plans to use the dynamic phase information to add an extra level of contrast to the images, based on the motion of the scatterers.


Hairy Strings, Vatche Sahakian Jan 2006

Hairy Strings, Vatche Sahakian

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

Zero modes of the world-sheet spinors of a closed string can source higher order moments of the bulk supergravity fields. In this work, we analyze various configurations of closed strings focusing on the imprints of the quantized spinor vacuum expectation values onto the tails of bulk fields. We identify supersymmetric arrangements for which all multipole charges vanish; while for others, we find that one is left with Neveu-Schwarz–Neveu-Schwarz, and Ramond-Ramond dipole and quadrupole moments. Our analysis is exhaustive with respect to all the bosonic fields of the bulk and to all higher order moments. We comment on the relevance ...


The Motion Of A Thin Liquid Film Driven By Surfactant And Gravity, Michael Shearer, Rachel Levy Jan 2006

The Motion Of A Thin Liquid Film Driven By Surfactant And Gravity, Michael Shearer, Rachel Levy

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We investigate wave solutions of a lubrication model for surfactant-driven flow of a thin liquid film down an inclined plane. We model the flow in one space dimension with a system of nonlinear PDEs of mixed hyperbolic-parabolic type in which the effects of capillarity and surface diffusion are neglected. Numerical solutions reveal distinct patterns of waves that are described analytically by combinations of traveling waves, some with jumps in height and surfactant concentration gradient. The various waves and combinations are strikingly different from what is observed in the case of flow on a horizontal plane. Jump conditions admit new shock ...


Using Ultrasonic Atomization To Produce An Aerosol Of Micron-Scale Particles, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, M. Schubmehl '02, N. Schommer '04, Andrew J. Bernoff, S. Dasnurkar, T. Ditmire Nov 2005

Using Ultrasonic Atomization To Produce An Aerosol Of Micron-Scale Particles, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, M. Schubmehl '02, N. Schommer '04, Andrew J. Bernoff, S. Dasnurkar, T. Ditmire

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A device that uses ultrasonic atomization of a liquid to produce an aerosol of micron-scale droplets is described. This device represents a new approach to producing targets relevant to laser-driven fusion studies, and to rare studies of nonlinear optics in which wavelength-scale targets are irradiated. The device has also made possible tests of fluid dynamics models in a novel phase space. The distribution of droplet sizes produced by the device and the threshold power required for droplet production are shown to follow scaling laws predicted by fluid dynamics.


Harmonic Generation In Thin Films And Multilayers, William S. Kolthammer '04, Dustin Barnard '03, Nicole Carson, Aaron D. Edens '00, Nathan A. Miller '01, Peter N. Saeta Jul 2005

Harmonic Generation In Thin Films And Multilayers, William S. Kolthammer '04, Dustin Barnard '03, Nicole Carson, Aaron D. Edens '00, Nathan A. Miller '01, Peter N. Saeta

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

A general method for computing harmonic generation in reflection and transmission from planar nonmagnetic multilayer structures is described. The method assumes plane waves and treats harmonic generation in the parametric approximation. The method is applied in studying the second- and third-harmonic generation properties of thin crystal silicon layers surrounded by thermal oxide. Most independent components of the nonlinear susceptibility tensor have unique signatures with silicon layer thickness d, allowing their strength to be determined in principle by measuring harmonic generation as a function of d. Surface and bulk contributions to third-harmonic generation are cleanly distinguished, with the bulk signal dominating ...


X-Ray Generation From Metal Targets Coated With Wavelength-Scale Spheres, D. R. Symes, H. A. Sumeruk, I. V. Churina, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Landry, T. Ditmire May 2005

X-Ray Generation From Metal Targets Coated With Wavelength-Scale Spheres, D. R. Symes, H. A. Sumeruk, I. V. Churina, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Landry, T. Ditmire

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X-ray yield measurements from targets coated with wavelength-scale spheres are compared with measurements from polished targets. Evidence for a hotter resonant electron temperature due to field enhancements from Mie resonances in the spheres is investigated.


Selectron Mass Reconstruction And The Resolution Of The Linear Collider Detector, Sharon J. Gerbode, Heath Holguin, Troy Lau, Paul Mooser, Adam Pearlstein, Joe Rose, Bruce Schumm Mar 2005

Selectron Mass Reconstruction And The Resolution Of The Linear Collider Detector, Sharon J. Gerbode, Heath Holguin, Troy Lau, Paul Mooser, Adam Pearlstein, Joe Rose, Bruce Schumm

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

We have used ISAJET and the JAS LCD fast simulation to explore the precision of Snowmass Point SPS1a selectron mass reconstruction for the Silicon Detector concept. Simulating collisions at E_cm = 1 TeV, we have found that most of the information constraining the selectron mass is carried in the forward (|cos(theta)| > 0.8) region. We have also found that, for a beam energy spread of 1% (conventional RF design), detector resolution limitations compromise the selectron mass reconstruction only in the forward region. However, for a beam energy spread of less than 0.2% (superconducting RF design), the detector resolution compromises ...


On The Polarization Of Closed Strings By Ramond-Ramond Fluxes, Vatche Sahakian Oct 2004

On The Polarization Of Closed Strings By Ramond-Ramond Fluxes, Vatche Sahakian

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In the Green-Schwarz formalism, the closed string worldsheet of the IIB theory couples to Ramond-Ramond (RR) fluxes through spinor bilinears. We study the effect of such fluxes by analyzing the supersymmetry transformation of the worldsheet in general backgrounds. We show that, in the presence RR fields, the closed string can get `polarized', as the spinors acquire non-zero vevs in directions correlating with the orientation of close-by D-branes. Reversing the argument, this may allow for worldsheet configurations—with non-trivial spinor structure—that source RR moments.


Immunogold Labeling To Enhance Contrast In Optical Coherence Microscopy Of Tissue Engineered Corneal Constructs, Chris B. Raub, Elizabeth J. Orwin, Richard C. Haskell Sep 2004

Immunogold Labeling To Enhance Contrast In Optical Coherence Microscopy Of Tissue Engineered Corneal Constructs, Chris B. Raub, Elizabeth J. Orwin, Richard C. Haskell

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

Our lab has used an optical coherence microscope (OCM) to assess both the structure of tissue-engineered corneal constructs and their transparency. Currently, we are not able to resolve cells versus collagen matrix material in the images produced. We would like to distinguish cells in order to determine if they are viable while growing in culture and also if they are significantly contributing to the light scattering in the tissue. In order to do this, we are currently investigating the use of immunogold labeling. Gold nanoparticles are high scatterers and can create contrast in images. We have conjugated gold nanoparticles to ...


Visualizing Early Frog Development With Motion-Sensitive 3-D Optical Coherence Microscopy, Richard C. Haskell, Mary E. Williams, Daniel C. Petersen, Barbara M. Hoeling, Andrew J. Schile, J. D. Pennington, M. G. Seetin, J. M. Castelaz, Scott E. Fraser, Cyrus Papan, Hongwu Ren, Johannes F. De Boer, Zhongping Chen Sep 2004

Visualizing Early Frog Development With Motion-Sensitive 3-D Optical Coherence Microscopy, Richard C. Haskell, Mary E. Williams, Daniel C. Petersen, Barbara M. Hoeling, Andrew J. Schile, J. D. Pennington, M. G. Seetin, J. M. Castelaz, Scott E. Fraser, Cyrus Papan, Hongwu Ren, Johannes F. De Boer, Zhongping Chen

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

A motion-sensitive en-face-scanning 3-D optical coherence microscope (OCM) has been designed and constructed to study critical events in the early development of plants and animals. We describe the OCM instrument and present time-lapse movies of frog gastrulation, an early developmental event in which three distinct tissue layers are established that later give rise to all major organ systems. OCM images constructed with fringe-amplitude data show the mesendoderm migrating up along the blastocoel roof, thus forming the inner two tissue layers. Motion-sigma data, measuring the random motion of scatterers, is used to construct complementary images that indicate the presence of Brownian ...


Femtosecond Spectrotemporal Magneto-Optics, J.-Y. Bigot, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, Peter N. Saeta Aug 2004

Femtosecond Spectrotemporal Magneto-Optics, J.-Y. Bigot, L. Guidoni, E. Beaurepaire, Peter N. Saeta

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A new method to measure and analyze the time and spectrally resolved polarimetric response of magnetic materials is presented. It allows us to study the ultrafast magnetization dynamics of a CoPt3 ferromagnetic film. The analysis of the pump-induced rotation and ellipticity detected by a broad spectrum probe beam shows that magneto-optical signals predominantly reflect the spin dynamics in ferromagnets.


An Experimental Study Of Micron-Scale Droplet Aerosols Produced Via Ultrasonic Atomization, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, N. Schommer '04, M. Schubmehl '02, Andrew J. Bernoff, B. Forrest '02 Jun 2004

An Experimental Study Of Micron-Scale Droplet Aerosols Produced Via Ultrasonic Atomization, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, N. Schommer '04, M. Schubmehl '02, Andrew J. Bernoff, B. Forrest '02

All HMC Faculty Publications and Research

In the last 10 years, laser-driven fusion experiments performed on atomic clusters of deuterium have shown a surprisingly high neutron yield per joule of input laser energy. Results indicate that the optimal cluster size for maximizing fusion events should be in the 0.01–μm diameter range, but an appropriate source of droplets of this size does not exist. In an attempt to meet this need, we use ultrasonic atomization to generate micron-scale droplet aerosols of high average density, and we have developed and refined a reliable droplet sizing technique based on Mie scattering. Harmonic excitation of the fluid ...


Double Excitations Within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Linear Response, Neepa T. Maitra, Fan Zhang, Robert J. Cave, Kieron Burke Apr 2004

Double Excitations Within Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Linear Response, Neepa T. Maitra, Fan Zhang, Robert J. Cave, Kieron Burke

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Within the adiabatic approximation, time-dependent density functional theory yields only single excitations. Near states of double excitation character, the exact exchange–correlation kernel has a strong dependence on frequency. We derive the exact frequency-dependent kernel when a double excitation mixes with a single excitation, well separated from the other excitations, in the limit that the electron–electron interaction is weak. Building on this, we construct a nonempirical approximation for the general case, and illustrate our results on a simple model.


Closed Strings In Ramond-Ramond Backgrounds, Vatche Sahakian Apr 2004

Closed Strings In Ramond-Ramond Backgrounds, Vatche Sahakian

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We write the IIB Green-Schwarz action in certain general classes of curved backgrounds threaded with Ramond-Ramond fluxes. The fixing of the kappa symmetry in the light-cone gauge and the use of supergravity Bianchi identities simplify the task. We find an expression that truncates to quartic order in the spacetime spinors and relays interesting information about the vacuum structure of the worldsheet theory. The results are particularly useful in exploring integrable string dynamics in the context of the holographic duality.


Limits To Performance Improvement Provided By Balanced Interferometers And Balanced Detection In Oct/Ocm Instruments, David Liao, Adam E. Pivonka, Brendan R. Haberle, Daniel C. Petersen, Barbara M. Hoeling, Richard C. Haskell Jan 2004

Limits To Performance Improvement Provided By Balanced Interferometers And Balanced Detection In Oct/Ocm Instruments, David Liao, Adam E. Pivonka, Brendan R. Haberle, Daniel C. Petersen, Barbara M. Hoeling, Richard C. Haskell

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We compare the dynamic range of OCT/OCM instruments configured with unbalanced interferometers, e.g., Michelson interferometers, with that of instruments utilizing balanced interferometers and balanced photodetection. We define the dynamic range (DR) as the ratio of the maximum fringe amplitude achieved with a highly reflecting surface to the root-mean-square (rms) noise. Balanced systems achieve a dynamic range 2.5 times higher than that of a Michelson interferometer, enabling an image acquisition speed roughly 6 times faster. This maximum improvement occurs at light source powers of a few milliwatts. At light source powers higher than 30 mW, the advantage in ...


Blowup And Dissipation In A Critical-Case Unstable Thin Film Equation, Thomas P. Witelski, Andrew J. Bernoff, Andrea L. Bertozzi Jan 2004

Blowup And Dissipation In A Critical-Case Unstable Thin Film Equation, Thomas P. Witelski, Andrew J. Bernoff, Andrea L. Bertozzi

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We study the dynamics of dissipation and blow-up in a critical-case unstable thin film equation. The governing equation is a nonlinear fourth-order degenerate parabolic PDE derived from a generalized model for lubrication flows of thin viscous fluid layers on solid surfaces. There is a critical mass for blow-up and a rich set of dynamics including families of similarity solutions for finite-time blow-up and infinite-time spreading. The structure and stability of the steady-states and the compactly-supported similarity solutions is studied.


Holography With Ramond-Ramond Fluxes, Vatche Sahakian Jan 2003

Holography With Ramond-Ramond Fluxes, Vatche Sahakian

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Starting from the non-linear sigma model of the IIB string in the light-cone gauge, we analyze the role of RR fluxes in Holography. We find that the worldsheet theory of states with only left or right moving modes does not see the presence of RR fields threading a geometry. We use this significant simplification to compute part of the strong coupling spectrum of the two dimensional NCOS theory. We also reproduce the action of a closed string in a PP-wave background using this general formalism; and we argue for various strategies to find new systems where the closed string theory ...


Breakdown Of The Slowly Varying Amplitude Approximation: Generation Of Backward Traveling Second Harmonic Light, J. Z. Sanborn '01, C. Hellings '02, Thomas D. Donnelly Jan 2003

Breakdown Of The Slowly Varying Amplitude Approximation: Generation Of Backward Traveling Second Harmonic Light, J. Z. Sanborn '01, C. Hellings '02, Thomas D. Donnelly

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By numerically solving the nonlinear field equations, we simulate second-harmonic generation by laser pulses within a nonlinear medium without making the usual slowly-varying-amplitude approximation, an approximation which may fail when laser pulses of moderate intensity or ultrashort duration are used to drive a nonlinear process. Under these conditions we show that a backward-traveling, second-harmonic wave is created, and that the magnitude of this wave is indicative of the breakdown of the slowly-varying-amplitude approximation. Conditions necessary for experimental detection of this wave are discussed.


Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mode-Locking Optical Fiber Ring Lasers, Kristin M. Spaulding, Darryl H. Yong, Arnold D. Kim, J Nathan Kutz May 2002

Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mode-Locking Optical Fiber Ring Lasers, Kristin M. Spaulding, Darryl H. Yong, Arnold D. Kim, J Nathan Kutz

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We consider a model of a mode-locked fiber ring laser for which the evolution of a propagating pulse in a birefringent optical fiber is periodically perturbed by rotation of the polarization state owing to the presence of a passive polarizer. The stable modes of operation of this laser that correspond to pulse trains with uniform amplitudes are fully classified. Four parameters, i.e., polarization, phase, amplitude, and chirp, are essential for an understanding of the resultant pulse-train uniformity. A reduced set of four coupled nonlinear differential equations that describe the leading-order pulse dynamics is found by use of the variational ...


Women In Physics In The United States, Megan Urry, Sheila Tobias, Kim Budil, Howard Georgi, Kristine Lang, Dongqi Li, Laurie Mcneil, Peter N. Saeta, Jennifer Sokoloski, Sharon Stephenson, Aparna Venkatesan, Yevgeniya Zastavker Jan 2002

Women In Physics In The United States, Megan Urry, Sheila Tobias, Kim Budil, Howard Georgi, Kristine Lang, Dongqi Li, Laurie Mcneil, Peter N. Saeta, Jennifer Sokoloski, Sharon Stephenson, Aparna Venkatesan, Yevgeniya Zastavker

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Presents an overview of the status of women in physics in the U.S. Under-representation of women; Highlights of the report 'Women in Physics, 2000'; Efforts to increase the number of women in the profession; Issues for women activists.


The Large M Limit Of Non-Commutative Open Strings At Strong Coupling, Vatche Sahakian Jan 2002

The Large M Limit Of Non-Commutative Open Strings At Strong Coupling, Vatche Sahakian

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Two-dimensional Non-Commutative Open String (NCOS) theory, well-defined perturbatively, may also be studied at strong coupling and for large D-string charge by making use of the Holographic duality. We analyze the zero mode dynamics of a closed string in the appropriate background geometry and map the results onto a sector of strongly coupled NCOS dynamics. We find an elaborate classical picture that shares qualitative similarities with the SL(2,R) WZW model. In the quantum problem, we compute propagators and part of the energy spectrum of the theory; the latter involves interesting variations in the density of states as a function ...


Scroll Waves In The Presence Of Slowly Varying Anisotropy With Application To The Heart, S. Setayeshgar, Andrew J. Bernoff Dec 2001

Scroll Waves In The Presence Of Slowly Varying Anisotropy With Application To The Heart, S. Setayeshgar, Andrew J. Bernoff

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We consider the dynamics of scroll waves in the presence of rotating anisotropy, a model of the left ventricle of the heart in which the orientation of fibers in successive layers of tissue rotates. By choosing a coordinate system aligned with the fiber rotation and studying the phase dynamics of a straight but twisted scroll wave, we derive a Burgers’ equation with forcing associated with the fiber rotation rate. We present asymptotic solutions for scroll twist, verified by numerics, using a realistic fiber distribution profile. We make connection with earlier numerical and analytical work on scroll dynamics.


Distinguishing Surface And Bulk Contributions To Third-Harmonic Generation In Silicon, Peter N. Saeta, Nathan A. Miller '01 Oct 2001

Distinguishing Surface And Bulk Contributions To Third-Harmonic Generation In Silicon, Peter N. Saeta, Nathan A. Miller '01

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We report measurements of third-harmonic generation from ultrathin crystalline silicon layers of gradually varying thickness. Both the angular and thickness dependence of the third-harmonic light generated in transmission at normal incidence are consistent with negligible surface contribution to third-harmonic generation in silicon, even under tight focusing. This work illustrates a method for distinguishing surface and bulk contributions to harmonic generation.


Transformation Of Statistics In Fractional Quantum Hall Systems, John J. Quinn, Arkadiusz Wojs, Jennifer J. Quinn, Arthur T. Benjamin Oct 2001

Transformation Of Statistics In Fractional Quantum Hall Systems, John J. Quinn, Arkadiusz Wojs, Jennifer J. Quinn, Arthur T. Benjamin

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A Fermion to Boson transformation is accomplished by attaching to each Fermion a tube carrying a single quantum of flux oriented opposite to the applied magnetic field. When the mean field approximation is made in Haldane’s spherical geometry, the Fermion angular momentum lF is replaced by lB =lF − 1/2 (N −1). The set of allowed total angular momentum multiplets is identical in the two different pictures. The Fermion and Boson energy spectra in the presence of many body interactions are identical only if the pseudopotential V (interaction energy as a function of pair angular momentum ...


Transcribing Spacetime Data Into Matrices, Vatche Sahakian Jun 2001

Transcribing Spacetime Data Into Matrices, Vatche Sahakian

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In certain supergravity backgrounds, D0 branes may polarize into higher dimensional Dp branes. We study this phenomenon in some generality from the perspective of a local inertial observer and explore polarization effects resulting from tidal-like forces. We find D2 brane droplets made of D0 branes at an extremum of the Born-Infeld action even in scenarios where the RR fields may be zero. These solutions lead us to a local formulation of the UV-IR correspondence. A holographic Planck scale bound on the number of D0 branes plays an important role in the analysis. We focus on the impact of higher order ...


On D0 Brane Polarization By Tidal Forces, Vatche Sahakian May 2001

On D0 Brane Polarization By Tidal Forces, Vatche Sahakian

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Gravitational tidal forces may induce polarization of D0-branes, in analogy to the same effects arising in the context of constant background gauge fields. Such phenomena can teach us about the correspondence between smooth curved spacetime and its underlying non-commutative structure. However, unlike polarization by gauge fields, the gravitational counterpart involves concerns regarding the classical stability of the corresponding polarized states. In this work, we study this issue with respect to the solutions presented in hepth0010237 and find that they are classically unstable. The instability however appears with intricate features with all but a few decay channels being lifted. Through a ...