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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Dislocations And Vacancies In Two-Dimensional Mixed Crystals Of Spheres And Dimers, Sharon J. Gerbode, Desmond C. Ong, Chekesha M. Liddell, Itai Cohen Oct 2010

Dislocations And Vacancies In Two-Dimensional Mixed Crystals Of Spheres And Dimers, Sharon J. Gerbode, Desmond C. Ong, Chekesha M. Liddell, Itai Cohen

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In colloidal crystals of spheres, dislocation motion is unrestricted. On the other hand, recent studies of relaxation in crystals of colloidal dimer particles have demonstrated that the dislocation dynamics in such crystals are reminiscent of glassy systems. The observed glassy dynamics arise as a result of dislocation cages formed by certain dimer orientations. In the current study, we use experiments and simulations to investigate the transition that arises when a pure sphere crystal is doped with an increasing concentration of dimers. Specifically, we focus on both dislocation caging and vacancy motion. Interestingly, we find that any nonzero fraction of dimers ...


Kinematic Evidence For Superfast Locomotory Muscle In Two Species Of Teneriffiid Mites, Grace C. Wu, Jonathan C. Wright, Dwight L. Whitaker, Anna N. Ahn Aug 2010

Kinematic Evidence For Superfast Locomotory Muscle In Two Species Of Teneriffiid Mites, Grace C. Wu, Jonathan C. Wright, Dwight L. Whitaker, Anna N. Ahn

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Locomotory muscles typically operate over a narrow range of contraction frequencies, characterized by the predominant fiber types and functional roles. The highest documented frequencies in the synchronous sound-producing muscles of insects (550 Hz) and toadfish (200 Hz) far exceed the contraction frequencies observed in weight-bearing locomotory muscles, which have maximum documented frequencies below 15-30 Hz. Laws of scaling, however, predict that smaller arthropods may employ stride frequencies exceeding this range. In this study we measured running speed and stride frequency in two undescribed species of teneriffiid mites from the coastal sage scrub of southern California. Relative speeds of both species ...


Glassy Dislocation Dynamics In 2d Colloidal Dimer Crystals, Sharon J. Gerbode, Ugmang Agarwal, Desmond C. Ong, Chekesha M. Liddell, Fernando Escobedo, Itai Cohen Aug 2010

Glassy Dislocation Dynamics In 2d Colloidal Dimer Crystals, Sharon J. Gerbode, Ugmang Agarwal, Desmond C. Ong, Chekesha M. Liddell, Fernando Escobedo, Itai Cohen

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Although glassy relaxation is typically associated with disorder, here we report on a new type of glassy dynamics relating to dislocations within 2D crystals of colloidal dimers. Previous studies have demonstrated that dislocation motion in dimer crystals is restricted by certain particle orientations. Here, we drag an optically trapped particle through such dimer crystals, creating dislocations. We find a two-stage relaxation response where initially dislocations glide until encountering particles that cage their motion. Subsequent relaxation occurs logarithmically slowly through a second process where dislocations hop between caged configurations. Finally, in simulations of sheared dimer crystals, the dislocation mean squared displacement ...


From Surface Operators To Non-Abelian Volume Operators In Puff Field Theory, Vatche Sahakian Jun 2010

From Surface Operators To Non-Abelian Volume Operators In Puff Field Theory, Vatche Sahakian

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Puff field theory (PFT) is a low energy decoupling regime of string theory that still retains the nonlocal attributes of the parent theory—while preserving isotropy for its nonlocal degrees of freedom. It realizes an extended holographic dictionary at strong coupling and dynamical nonlocal states akin to defects or the surface operators of local gauge theories. In this work, we probe the nonlocal features of PFT using D3 branes. We find supersymmetric configurations that end on defects endowed with non-Abelian degrees of freedom. These are 2+1 dimensional defects in the 3+1 dimensional PFT that may be viewed as ...


Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen Jan 2010

Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen

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Epitaxial growth, a bottom-up self-assembly process for creating surface nano- and microstructures, has been extensively studied in the context of atoms. This process, however, is also a promising route to self-assembly of nanometer- and micrometer-scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics of colloidal crystal films with single-particle resolution. We show quantitatively that colloidal epitaxy obeys the same two-dimensional island nucleation and growth laws that govern atomic epitaxy. However, we found that in colloidal ...