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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen Jan 2010

Direct Measurements Of Island Growth And Step-Edge Barriers In Colloidal Epitaxy, Rajesh Ganapathy, Mark R. Buckley, Sharon J. Gerbode, Itai Cohen

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Epitaxial growth, a bottom-up self-assembly process for creating surface nano- and microstructures, has been extensively studied in the context of atoms. This process, however, is also a promising route to self-assembly of nanometer- and micrometer-scale particles into microstructures that have numerous technological applications. To determine whether atomic epitaxial growth laws are applicable to the epitaxy of larger particles with attractive interactions, we investigated the nucleation and growth dynamics of colloidal crystal films with single-particle resolution. We show quantitatively that colloidal epitaxy obeys the same two-dimensional island nucleation and growth laws that govern atomic epitaxy. However, we found that in colloidal ...


Sum Rules And Universality In Electron-Modulated Acoustic Phonon Interaction In A Free-Standing Semiconductor Plate, Shigeyasu Uno, Darryl H. Yong, Nobuya Mori Jun 2009

Sum Rules And Universality In Electron-Modulated Acoustic Phonon Interaction In A Free-Standing Semiconductor Plate, Shigeyasu Uno, Darryl H. Yong, Nobuya Mori

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Analysis of acoustic phonons modulated due to the surfaces of a free-standing semiconductor plate and their deformation-potential interaction with electrons are presented. The form factor for electron-modulated acoustic phonon interaction is formulated and analyzed in detail. The form factor at zero in-plane phonon wave vector satisfies sum rules regardless of electron wave function. The form factor is larger than that calculated using bulk phonons, leading to a higher scattering rate and lower electron mobility. When properly normalized, the form factors lie on a universal curve regardless of plate thickness and material.


Using Ultrasonic Atomization To Produce An Aerosol Of Micron-Scale Particles, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, M. Schubmehl '02, N. Schommer '04, Andrew J. Bernoff, S. Dasnurkar, T. Ditmire Nov 2005

Using Ultrasonic Atomization To Produce An Aerosol Of Micron-Scale Particles, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, M. Schubmehl '02, N. Schommer '04, Andrew J. Bernoff, S. Dasnurkar, T. Ditmire

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A device that uses ultrasonic atomization of a liquid to produce an aerosol of micron-scale droplets is described. This device represents a new approach to producing targets relevant to laser-driven fusion studies, and to rare studies of nonlinear optics in which wavelength-scale targets are irradiated. The device has also made possible tests of fluid dynamics models in a novel phase space. The distribution of droplet sizes produced by the device and the threshold power required for droplet production are shown to follow scaling laws predicted by fluid dynamics.


Selectron Mass Reconstruction And The Resolution Of The Linear Collider Detector, Sharon J. Gerbode, Heath Holguin, Troy Lau, Paul Mooser, Adam Pearlstein, Joe Rose, Bruce Schumm Mar 2005

Selectron Mass Reconstruction And The Resolution Of The Linear Collider Detector, Sharon J. Gerbode, Heath Holguin, Troy Lau, Paul Mooser, Adam Pearlstein, Joe Rose, Bruce Schumm

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We have used ISAJET and the JAS LCD fast simulation to explore the precision of Snowmass Point SPS1a selectron mass reconstruction for the Silicon Detector concept. Simulating collisions at E_cm = 1 TeV, we have found that most of the information constraining the selectron mass is carried in the forward (|cos(theta)| > 0.8) region. We have also found that, for a beam energy spread of 1% (conventional RF design), detector resolution limitations compromise the selectron mass reconstruction only in the forward region. However, for a beam energy spread of less than 0.2% (superconducting RF design), the detector resolution compromises ...


An Experimental Study Of Micron-Scale Droplet Aerosols Produced Via Ultrasonic Atomization, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, N. Schommer '04, M. Schubmehl '02, Andrew J. Bernoff, B. Forrest '02 Jun 2004

An Experimental Study Of Micron-Scale Droplet Aerosols Produced Via Ultrasonic Atomization, Thomas D. Donnelly, J. Hogan '03, A. Mugler '04, N. Schommer '04, M. Schubmehl '02, Andrew J. Bernoff, B. Forrest '02

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In the last 10 years, laser-driven fusion experiments performed on atomic clusters of deuterium have shown a surprisingly high neutron yield per joule of input laser energy. Results indicate that the optimal cluster size for maximizing fusion events should be in the 0.01–μm diameter range, but an appropriate source of droplets of this size does not exist. In an attempt to meet this need, we use ultrasonic atomization to generate micron-scale droplet aerosols of high average density, and we have developed and refined a reliable droplet sizing technique based on Mie scattering. Harmonic excitation of the fluid ...


Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mode-Locking Optical Fiber Ring Lasers, Kristin M. Spaulding, Darryl H. Yong, Arnold D. Kim, J Nathan Kutz May 2002

Nonlinear Dynamics Of Mode-Locking Optical Fiber Ring Lasers, Kristin M. Spaulding, Darryl H. Yong, Arnold D. Kim, J Nathan Kutz

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We consider a model of a mode-locked fiber ring laser for which the evolution of a propagating pulse in a birefringent optical fiber is periodically perturbed by rotation of the polarization state owing to the presence of a passive polarizer. The stable modes of operation of this laser that correspond to pulse trains with uniform amplitudes are fully classified. Four parameters, i.e., polarization, phase, amplitude, and chirp, are essential for an understanding of the resultant pulse-train uniformity. A reduced set of four coupled nonlinear differential equations that describe the leading-order pulse dynamics is found by use of the variational ...


The Interaction Of Intense Laser Pulses With Atomic Clusters, T. Ditmire, Thomas D. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, M. D. Perry May 1996

The Interaction Of Intense Laser Pulses With Atomic Clusters, T. Ditmire, Thomas D. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, M. D. Perry

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We examine the interaction of intense, femtosecond laser radiation with the large (50–200 Å) clusters produced in pulsed gas jets. Both experiment and simulation show that the plasmas produced during these interactions exhibit electron temperatures far in excess of that predicted by above-threshold ionization theory for a low-density gas. Efficient heating of the clusters by the laser is followed by rapid expansion of the clusters and long-lived x-ray emission from hot, decaying, underdense plasma.


High Order Harmonic Generation In Atom Clusters, Thomas D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, R. W. Falcone Apr 1996

High Order Harmonic Generation In Atom Clusters, Thomas D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, R. W. Falcone

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We report the generation of short-wavelength, high-order harmonics of intense laser radiation from atom clusters. Clusters containing about 103 atoms are produced in a high-pressure gas jet. We show them to be a unique nonlinear medium. Compared with monomer gases they yield a higher appearance intensity for a given harmonic order, stronger nonlinear dependence of harmonic signal on laser intensity, higher-order harmonics, and reduced saturation of the harmonic signal at high laser intensity.


Strong X-Ray Emission From High-Temperature Plasmas Produced By Intense Irradiation Of Clusters, T. Ditmire, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, M. D. Perry Oct 1995

Strong X-Ray Emission From High-Temperature Plasmas Produced By Intense Irradiation Of Clusters, T. Ditmire, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, M. D. Perry

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The interaction of an intense laser pulse with large (∼100Å) clusters present in pulsed gas jets is shown to produce novel plasmas with electron temperatures far in excess of that predicted by above-threshold ionization theory. The enhanced absorption of the laser light by the dense clusters results in the production of high ion charge states via collisional ionization resulting in strong x-ray emission from the hot plasma.


Dynamics Of Optical-Field-Ionized Plasmas For X-Ray Lasers, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone Apr 1995

Dynamics Of Optical-Field-Ionized Plasmas For X-Ray Lasers, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Lee, R. W. Falcone

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The success of recombination-pumped x-ray laser schemes is determined by the kinetics of ions in plasmas with relatively dense, cold-electron distributions. We examine how laser gain in such systems is affected by a multipeaked electron distribution generated by sequential ionization of atoms using high-intensity, ultrashort-pulse lasers. We also investigate the role of heating processes that modify electron energy distributions during the recombination and the accompanying collisional cascade. We find that conditions for the success of these schemes are critically modified by the inclusion of these effects.


Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasma X-Rays From Periodically Modulated Surface Targets, J. C. Gautheir, S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, K. Neuman, Thomas D. Donnelly, M. Hoffer, R. W. Falcone, R. Shepherd, D. Price, B. White Jan 1995

Femtosecond Laser-Produced Plasma X-Rays From Periodically Modulated Surface Targets, J. C. Gautheir, S. Bastiani, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, K. Neuman, Thomas D. Donnelly, M. Hoffer, R. W. Falcone, R. Shepherd, D. Price, B. White

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We have studied theoretically and experimentally the x-ray production above 1 keV from femtosecond laser plasmas generated on periodically modulated surface targets. Laser energy coupling to plasma surface waves has been modeled using a numerical differential method. Almost total absorption of incident laser radiation is predicted for optimized interaction conditions. Silicon gratings have been irradiated by a 120fs Ti:sapphire laser at irradiances in excess of 1016 W/cm2. X-ray intensities above 1.5 keV (K-shell lines) have been measured as a function of the incidence angle. Results show a distinct x-ray emission maximum for the first ...


Tabletop X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. Dasilva, R. A. London, B. J. Macgowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Silks, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, G. L. Strobel May 1994

Tabletop X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Eder, P. Amendt, L. B. Dasilva, R. A. London, B. J. Macgowan, D. L. Matthews, B. M. Penetrante, M. D. Rosen, S. C. Silks, Thomas D. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, G. L. Strobel

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Details of schemes for two tabletop size x‐ray lasers that require a high‐intensity short‐pulse driving laser are discussed. The first is based on rapid recombination following optical‐field ionization. Analytical and numerical calculations of the output properties are presented. Propagation in the confocal geometry is discussed and a solution for x‐ray lasing in Li‐like N at 247 Å is described. Since the calculated gain coefficient depends strongly on the electron temperature, the methods of calculating electron heating following field ionization are discussed. Recent experiments aimed at demonstrating lasing in H‐like Li at 135 Å ...