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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Networks Identify Productive Forum Discussions, Adrienne L. Traxler, A. Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell Sep 2018

Networks Identify Productive Forum Discussions, Adrienne L. Traxler, A. Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Discussion forums provide a channel for students to engage with peers and course material outside of class, accessible even to commuter and nontraditional populations. Forums can build classroom community and aid learning, but students do not always take up these tools. We use network analysis to compare three semesters of forum logs from an introductory calculus-based physics course. The networks show dense structures of collaboration that differ significantly between semesters, even though aggregate participation statistics remain steady. After characterizing network structure for each semester, we correlate students’ centrality—a numeric measure of network position—with final course grade. Finally, we ...


Item-Level Gender Fairness In The Force And Motion Conceptual Evaluation And The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Paul Miller, John Stewart, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rebecca Lindell Jul 2018

Item-Level Gender Fairness In The Force And Motion Conceptual Evaluation And The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Paul Miller, John Stewart, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Gender gaps on the most widely used conceptual inventories created by physics education researchers have been extensively studied. Most of the research exploring the consistent gender gaps has been performed at the student level using the total evaluation score; less research has been performed examining these assessments at the item level and this research has been predominately restricted to the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Many studies have identified subsets of FCI items as unfair to either men or women. An item is fair if men and women of equal ability in conceptual physics score equally on the item. This study ...


Gender Fairness Within The Force Concept Inventory, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rachel Henderson, John Stewart, Gay Stewart, Alexis Papak, Rebecca Lindell Jan 2018

Gender Fairness Within The Force Concept Inventory, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rachel Henderson, John Stewart, Gay Stewart, Alexis Papak, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Research on the test structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has largely ignored gender, and research on FCI gender effects (often reported as “gender gaps”) has seldom interrogated the structure of the test. These rarely crossed streams of research leave open the possibility that the FCI may not be structurally valid across genders, particularly since many reported results come from calculus-based courses where 75% or more of the students are men. We examine the FCI considering both psychometrics and gender disaggregation (while acknowledging this as a binary simplification), and find several problematic questions whose removal decreases the apparent gender ...


Exploring The Gender Gap In The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Gay Stewart, John Stewart, Lynnette Michaluk, Adrienne L. Traxler Jul 2017

Exploring The Gender Gap In The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Gay Stewart, John Stewart, Lynnette Michaluk, Adrienne L. Traxler

Physics Faculty Publications

The “gender gap” on various physics conceptual evaluations has been extensively studied. Men’s average pretest scores on the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation are 13% higher than women’s, and post-test scores are on average 12% higher than women’s. This study analyzed the gender differences within the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) in which the gender gap has been less well studied and is less consistent. In the current study, data collected from 1407 students (77% men, 23% women) in a calculus-based physics course over ten semesters showed that male students outperformed ...


Coursenetworking And Community: Linking Online Discussion Networks And Course Success, Adrienne L. Traxler, Andrew Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell Dec 2016

Coursenetworking And Community: Linking Online Discussion Networks And Course Success, Adrienne L. Traxler, Andrew Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Large introductory science courses are isolating for many students, and reducing this isolation is an important factor for student retention in college. Active learning courses often build community among students as an explicit goal, but many commuter or non-traditional students have limited on-campus time. Online discussion forums provide one tool for engaging students with each other outside of class time. This study uses social network analysis with forum data from an introductory physics course to examine students' positions in the class discussion network and link it to their final course grades. We find that, contrary to expectations, there is no ...


Non-Traditional Students' Conceptual Scores And Network Centrality In Scale-Up Classrooms, Emily N. Sandt, Adrienne L. Traxler Jul 2016

Non-Traditional Students' Conceptual Scores And Network Centrality In Scale-Up Classrooms, Emily N. Sandt, Adrienne L. Traxler

Physics Faculty Publications

As classrooms transition from traditional to cooperative learning environments, questions about the details of these environments effectiveness are posed. Does this model equally benefit all students? How do nontraditional (NT) students' gains in conceptual knowledge compare to those of traditional (Trad) students in these classrooms? Do NT students' social differences (i.e. age, employment status, family life, etc.) affect the amount of learning they do in the course or their tendency to form collaborative ties with other students? In three sections of SCALE-UP introductory calculus-based physics, we collected social network survey data about student connections and used the Force Concept ...


Photoexcited Carrier Trapping And Recombination At Fe Centers In Gan, T. K. Uždavinys, S. Marcinkevičius, J. H. Leach, K. R. Evans, David C. Look Jun 2016

Photoexcited Carrier Trapping And Recombination At Fe Centers In Gan, T. K. Uždavinys, S. Marcinkevičius, J. H. Leach, K. R. Evans, David C. Look

Physics Faculty Publications

Fe doped GaN was studied by time- resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The shape of PLtransients at different temperatures and excitation powers allowed discrimination between electron and hole capture to Fe3+ and Fe2+ centers, respectively. Analysis of the internal structure of Fe ions and intra-ion relaxation rates suggests that for high repetition rates of photoexciting laser pulses the electron and hole trapping takes place in the excited state rather than the ground state of Fe ions. Hence, the estimated electron and hole capture coefficients of 5.5 × 10−8 cm3/s and 1.8 × 10−8 cm3/s should be attributed ...


Ultrafast Saturation Of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering And Comparison For Pulse Durations In The Nanosecond To Femtosecond Regime, Anil K. Patnaik, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord Feb 2016

Ultrafast Saturation Of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering And Comparison For Pulse Durations In The Nanosecond To Femtosecond Regime, Anil K. Patnaik, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord

Physics Faculty Publications

The saturation threshold of a probe pulse in an ultrafast electronic-resonance-enhanced (ERE) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) configuration is calculated. We demonstrate that while the underdamping condition is a sufficient condition for saturation of ERE-CARS with the long-pulse excitations, a transient gain must be achieved to saturate the ERE-CARS signal for the ultrafast probe regime. We identify that the area under the probe pulse can be used as a definitive parameter to determine the criterion for a saturation threshold for ultrafast ERE-CARS. From a simplified analytical solution and a detailed numerical calculation based on density-matrix equations, the saturation threshold of ...


Improved Sensitivity Mems Cantilever Sensor For Terahertz Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Ronald A. Coutu Jr., Ivan Medvedev, Douglas T. Petkie Jan 2016

Improved Sensitivity Mems Cantilever Sensor For Terahertz Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Ronald A. Coutu Jr., Ivan Medvedev, Douglas T. Petkie

Physics Faculty Publications

In this paper, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilever sensor was designed, modeled and fabricated to measure the terahertz (THz) radiation induced photoacoustic (PA) response of gases under low vacuum conditions. This work vastly improves cantilever sensitivity over previous efforts, by reducing internal beam stresses, minimizing out of plane beam curvature and optimizing beam damping. In addition, fabrication yield was improved by approximately 50% by filleting the cantilever’s anchor and free end to help reduce high stress areas that occurred during device fabrication and processing. All of the cantilever sensors were fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and tested in a ...


How Does The Connectivity Of Open-Framework Conglomerates Within Multi-Scale Hierarchical Fluvial Architecture Affect Oil-Sweep Efficiency In Waterflooding?, Naum I. Gershenzon, Mohamad Reza Soltanian, Robert W. Ritzi, David F. Dominic, Don Keefer, Eric Shaffer, Brynne Storsved Dec 2015

How Does The Connectivity Of Open-Framework Conglomerates Within Multi-Scale Hierarchical Fluvial Architecture Affect Oil-Sweep Efficiency In Waterflooding?, Naum I. Gershenzon, Mohamad Reza Soltanian, Robert W. Ritzi, David F. Dominic, Don Keefer, Eric Shaffer, Brynne Storsved

Physics Faculty Publications

Understanding multi-phase fluid flow and transport processes within aquifers, candidate reservoirs for CO2 sequestration, and petroleum reservoirs requires understanding a diverse set of geologic properties of the aquifer or reservoir, over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. We focus on multiphase flow dynamics with wetting (e.g., water) and non-wetting (e.g., gas or oil) fluids, with one invading another.


Community Structure In Introductory Physics Course Networks, Adrienne L. Traxler Jul 2015

Community Structure In Introductory Physics Course Networks, Adrienne L. Traxler

Physics Faculty Publications

Student-to-student interactions are foundational to many active learning environments, but are most often studied using qualitative methods. Quantitative network analysis tools complement this picture, allowing researchers to describe the social interactions of whole classrooms as systems. Past results in introductory physics have suggested a sharp division in the formation of social structure between large lecture sections and small studio classroom environments. Extending those results, this study focuses on calculus-based introductory physics courses at a large public university with a heavily commuter and nontraditional student population. Community detection network methods are used to characterize pre- and post-course collaborative structure in several ...


Enriching Gender In Per: A Binary Past And A Complex Future, Adrienne L. Traxler, Ximena C. Cid, Jennifer Blue, Ramón Barthelemy Jul 2015

Enriching Gender In Per: A Binary Past And A Complex Future, Adrienne L. Traxler, Ximena C. Cid, Jennifer Blue, Ramón Barthelemy

Physics Faculty Publications

In this article, we draw on previous reports from physics, science education, and women's studies to propose a more nuanced treatment of gender in physics education research (PER). A growing body of PER examines gender differences in participation, performance, and attitudes toward physics. We have three critiques of this work: (1) it does not question whether the achievements of men are the most appropriate standard, (2) individual experiences and student identities are undervalued, and (3) the binary model of gender is not questioned. Driven by these critiques, we propose a conception of gender that is more up-to-date with other ...


How Does Dissipation Affect The Transition From Static To Dynamic Macroscopic Friction?, Naum I. Gershenzon, Gust Bambakidis, Thomas E. Skinner Apr 2015

How Does Dissipation Affect The Transition From Static To Dynamic Macroscopic Friction?, Naum I. Gershenzon, Gust Bambakidis, Thomas E. Skinner

Physics Faculty Publications

Description of the transitional process from a static to a dynamic frictional regime is a fundamental problem of modern physics. Previously, we developed a model based on the well-known Frenkel-Kontorova model to describe dry macroscopic friction. Here, this model has been modified to include the effect of dissipation in derived relations between the kinematic and dynamic parameters of a transition process. The main (somewhat counterintuitive) result is a demonstration that the rupture (i.e., detachment front) velocity of the slip pulse which arises during the transition does not depend on friction. The only parameter (besides the elastic and plastic properties ...


Scaling Of Geochemical Reaction Rates Via Advective Solute Transport, Allen Hunt, B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, Thomas E. Skinner, R. P. Ewing Jan 2015

Scaling Of Geochemical Reaction Rates Via Advective Solute Transport, Allen Hunt, B. Ghanbarian-Alavijeh, Thomas E. Skinner, R. P. Ewing

Physics Faculty Publications

Transport in porous media is quite complex, and still yields occasional surprises. In geological porous media, the rate at which chemical reactions (e.g., weathering and dissolution) occur is found to diminish by orders of magnitude with increasing time or distance. The temporal rates of laboratory experiments and field observations differ, and extrapolating from laboratory experiments (in months) to field rates (in millions of years) can lead to order-of-magnitude errors. The reactions are transport-limited, but characterizing them using standard solute transport expressions can yield results in agreement with experiment only if spurious assumptions and parameters are introduced. We previously developed ...


Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode With Ultra-Low Haze By Grain Boundary Modification Of Aqueous Solution Fabricated Alumina-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals, Qiong Nian, Michael J. Callahan, David C. Look, Harry Efstathiadis, John Bailey, Gary J. Cheng Jan 2015

Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode With Ultra-Low Haze By Grain Boundary Modification Of Aqueous Solution Fabricated Alumina-Doped Zinc Oxide Nanocrystals, Qiong Nian, Michael J. Callahan, David C. Look, Harry Efstathiadis, John Bailey, Gary J. Cheng

Physics Faculty Publications

Commercial production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) polycrystalline films requires high electrical conductivity with minimal degradation in optical transparency. Aqueous solution deposited TCO films would reduce production costs of TCO films but suffer from low electrical mobility, which severely degrades both electrical conductivity and optical transparency in the visible spectrum. Here, we demonstrated that grain boundary modification by ultra-violet laser crystallization (UVLC) of solution deposited aluminium-doped zinc oxide (AZO) nanocrystals results in high Hall mobility, with a corresponding dramatic improvement in AZO electrical conductance. The AZO films after laser irradiation exhibit electrical mobility up to 18.1 cm2 V ...


Investigation Of Plasmon Resonance Tunneling Through Subwavelength Hole Arrays In Highly Doped Conductive Zno Films, Nima Nader, Shivashankar Vangala, Joseph R. Hendrickson, Kevin D. Leedy, David C. Look, Junpeng Guo, Justin W. Cleary Jan 2015

Investigation Of Plasmon Resonance Tunneling Through Subwavelength Hole Arrays In Highly Doped Conductive Zno Films, Nima Nader, Shivashankar Vangala, Joseph R. Hendrickson, Kevin D. Leedy, David C. Look, Junpeng Guo, Justin W. Cleary

Physics Faculty Publications

Experimental results pertaining to plasmon resonance tunneling through a highly conductive zinc oxide (ZnO) layer with subwavelength hole-arrays is investigated in the mid-infrared regime. Gallium-doped ZnO layers are pulsed-laser deposited on a silicon wafer. The ZnO has metallic optical properties with a bulk plasma frequency of 214 THz, which is equivalent to a free space wavelength of 1.4 μm. Hole arrays with different periods and hole shapes are fabricated via a standard photolithography process. Resonant mode tunneling characteristics are experimentally studied for different incident angles and compared with surface plasmontheoretical calculations and finite-difference time-domain simulations. Transmission peaks, higher than ...


Equity Investigation Of Attitudinal Shifts In Introductory Physics, Adrienne L. Traxler, Eric Brewe Jan 2015

Equity Investigation Of Attitudinal Shifts In Introductory Physics, Adrienne L. Traxler, Eric Brewe

Physics Faculty Publications

We report on seven years of attitudinal data using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey from University Modeling Instruction (UMI) sections of introductory physics at Florida International University. University Modeling Instruction is a curricular and pedagogical transformation of introductory university physics that engages students in building and testing conceptual models in an integrated lab and lecture learning environment. This work expands upon previous studies that reported consistently positive attitude shifts in UMI courses; here, we disaggregate the data by gender and ethnicity to look for any disparities in the pattern of favorable shifts. We find that women and students ...


Large Scale Laser Crystallization Of Solution-Based Alumina-Doped Zinc Oxide (Azo) Nanoinks For Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode, Qiong Nian, Michael J. Callahan, Mojib Saei, David C. Look, Harry Efstathiadis, John Bailey, Gary J. Cheng Jan 2015

Large Scale Laser Crystallization Of Solution-Based Alumina-Doped Zinc Oxide (Azo) Nanoinks For Highly Transparent Conductive Electrode, Qiong Nian, Michael J. Callahan, Mojib Saei, David C. Look, Harry Efstathiadis, John Bailey, Gary J. Cheng

Physics Faculty Publications

A new method combining aqueous solution printing with UV Laser crystallization (UVLC) and post annealing is developed to deposit highly transparent and conductive Aluminum doped Zinc Oxide (AZO) films. This technique is able to rapidly produce large area AZO films with better structural and optoelectronic properties than most high vacuum deposition, suggesting a potential large-scale manufacturing technique. The optoelectronic performance improvement attributes to UVLC and forming gas annealing (FMG) induced grain boundary density decrease and electron traps passivation at grain boundaries. The physical model and computational simulation developed in this work could be applied to thermal treatment of many other ...


Multiple Representations And Epistemic Games In Introductory Physics Exam Solutions, Adrienne L. Traxler, Jonathan V. Mahadeo, Daryl Mcpadden, Eric Brewe Jul 2014

Multiple Representations And Epistemic Games In Introductory Physics Exam Solutions, Adrienne L. Traxler, Jonathan V. Mahadeo, Daryl Mcpadden, Eric Brewe

Physics Faculty Publications

Previous analysis of common exam questions in introductory physics at Florida International University has revealed differences in the number and type of epistemic games played by students in their solutions. Separated by course format (lecture/lab, lecture/lab/recitation, or inquiry-based), student work also shows varying use of multiple representational tools. Here we examine representation use in more detail to establish a descriptive picture of representation use across multiple instructors and course formats. We then compare these profiles with the epistemic games played by students, asking whether the same epistemic game shows the same pattern of representational tools across course ...


Field Emission Cathodes Made From Laser Cut Cnt Fibers And Films, Steven B. Fairchild, John Bulmer, Martin Sparkes, John J. Boeckl, Gregory Kozlowski Jun 2014

Field Emission Cathodes Made From Laser Cut Cnt Fibers And Films, Steven B. Fairchild, John Bulmer, Martin Sparkes, John J. Boeckl, Gregory Kozlowski

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2014)

No abstract provided.


Synthesis And Characterization: Low-Dimensional Carbon Nanomaterials On 3c-Sic/Si, John J. Boeckl, Weijie Lu, Hong Huang, Casey Strope, Li Wang, Neeraj Mishra, Francesca Iacopi Jun 2014

Synthesis And Characterization: Low-Dimensional Carbon Nanomaterials On 3c-Sic/Si, John J. Boeckl, Weijie Lu, Hong Huang, Casey Strope, Li Wang, Neeraj Mishra, Francesca Iacopi

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2014)

No abstract provided.


Room-Temperature In-Situ Nanostructure Synthesis Using Electron Beam Irradiation, Mark H. Rümmeli Jun 2014

Room-Temperature In-Situ Nanostructure Synthesis Using Electron Beam Irradiation, Mark H. Rümmeli

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2014)

No abstract provided.


Silicon Carbide-Based One-Dimensional Nanostructures Growth: Towards Electronics And Biology Perspectives, Laurence Latu-Romain Jun 2014

Silicon Carbide-Based One-Dimensional Nanostructures Growth: Towards Electronics And Biology Perspectives, Laurence Latu-Romain

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2014)

No abstract provided.


H(D)-Induced Nanotunnels Opening At Sic Sub-Surface And Graphene/Sic Grains Etching As A Path To Pahs' Formation In The Universe, Patrick Soukiassian Jun 2014

H(D)-Induced Nanotunnels Opening At Sic Sub-Surface And Graphene/Sic Grains Etching As A Path To Pahs' Formation In The Universe, Patrick Soukiassian

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2014)

No abstract provided.


The Higgs Boson: Window On The Big Bang, Jim Brau Feb 2014

The Higgs Boson: Window On The Big Bang, Jim Brau

Physics Colloquiums

University of Oregon professor James Brau, Ph.D., guides you through the universe of particle physics. Find out about the Large Hadron Collider and the world’s biggest scientific experiment. Understand “dark matter” and “dark energy.” Consider what today’s collider experiments may reveal in the future about the structure, behavior, and history of the universe.


Special Session 8 Introduction: Fundamentals To Applications In 2d Materials, Gregory Kozlowski, Patrick Soukiassian, John J. Boeckl Jan 2014

Special Session 8 Introduction: Fundamentals To Applications In 2d Materials, Gregory Kozlowski, Patrick Soukiassian, John J. Boeckl

Special Session 8: Fundamentals to Applications in 2D Materials

Provides an overview of the 2015 Special Session 8 meeting as part of the 11th International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids, Munich, Germany, June 22-26, 2015.


The Look-Locker Method In Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Brief, Personal History, David C. Look Jan 2014

The Look-Locker Method In Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Brief, Personal History, David C. Look

Physics Faculty Publications

The “Look-Locker” method of measuring nuclear spin-lattice relaxation times in a single sweep was invented by David C. Look and Donald R. Locker in 1970 and in the last twenty years has become widely used in magnetic resonance imaging. This article is a brief history of the invention from the remembrances of David Look.


Epistemic Games Analysis Of Common Exam Questions Across Course Formats, Jonathan V. Mahadeo, Adrienne L. Traxler, Eric Brewe Jul 2013

Epistemic Games Analysis Of Common Exam Questions Across Course Formats, Jonathan V. Mahadeo, Adrienne L. Traxler, Eric Brewe

Physics Faculty Publications

This study investigates differences in problem-solving performance between three different introductory physics course formats at Florida International University. The course formats--lecture+laboratory (LL), inquiry-based (IQB), and lecture+laboratory+recitation (LLR)--all incorporated two Advanced Placement (AP) questions into their final exams. Students' written responses were evaluated via an AP scoring rubric, and during this scoring, we observed marked differences in solution behavior between the three course formats. To further investigate these differences, we used the framework of epistemic games to analyze student responses. To apply this framework to written work, an epistemic game rubric was created. Application of this rubric ...


Nano-Objects And Nanochemistry By Selective Atom Diffusion At Advanced Semiconductor Surfaces & Interfaces, Patrick Soukiassian Jun 2013

Nano-Objects And Nanochemistry By Selective Atom Diffusion At Advanced Semiconductor Surfaces & Interfaces, Patrick Soukiassian

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2013)

No abstract provided.


Characterisation Of Core@Shell Nanoparticles Using Advanced Electron Microscopy, Andrew Wheatley Jun 2013

Characterisation Of Core@Shell Nanoparticles Using Advanced Electron Microscopy, Andrew Wheatley

Special Session 5: Carbon and Oxide Based Nanostructured Materials (2013)

No abstract provided.