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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Note: A Simple Thermal Gradient Annealing Unit For The Treatment Of Thin Films, C. J. Metting, Johnathan K. Bunn, Ellen A. Underwood, Yihao Zhu, G. Koley, T. Crawford, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers Mar 2013

Note: A Simple Thermal Gradient Annealing Unit For The Treatment Of Thin Films, C. J. Metting, Johnathan K. Bunn, Ellen A. Underwood, Yihao Zhu, G. Koley, T. Crawford, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers

Faculty Publications

A gradient annealing cell has been developed for the high-throughput study of thermalannealing effects on thin-film libraries in different environments. The inexpensive gradientannealing unit permits temperature gradients as large as 28 °C/mm and can accommodate samples ranging in length from 13 mm to 51 mm. The system was validated by investigating the effects of annealing temperature on the crystallinity, resistivity, and transparency of tin-doped indium oxide deposited on a glass substrate by magnetron sputtering. The unit developed in this work will permit the rapid optimization of materials properties such as crystallinity, homogeneity, and conductivity across a variety of applications.


Applications Of High Throughput (Combinatorial) Methodologies To Electronic, Magnetic, Optical, And Energy-Related Materials, Martin L. Green, Ichiro Takeuchi, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers Jan 2013

Applications Of High Throughput (Combinatorial) Methodologies To Electronic, Magnetic, Optical, And Energy-Related Materials, Martin L. Green, Ichiro Takeuchi, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers

Faculty Publications

High throughput (combinatorial) materials science methodology is a relatively new research paradigm that offers the promise of rapid and efficient materials screening, optimization, and discovery. The paradigm started in the pharmaceutical industry but was rapidly adopted to accelerate materials research in a wide variety of areas. High throughput experiments are characterized by synthesis of a “library” sample that contains the materials variation of interest (typically composition), and rapid and localized measurement schemes that result in massive data sets. Because the data are collected at the same time on the same “library” sample, they can be highly uniform with respect to ...


Optical Cell For Combinatorial In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Measurements Of Hydrogen Storage Materials At High Pressures And Temperatures, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Wilbur S. Hurst, Sesha S. Srinivasan, James E. Maslar Jan 2011

Optical Cell For Combinatorial In Situ Raman Spectroscopic Measurements Of Hydrogen Storage Materials At High Pressures And Temperatures, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Wilbur S. Hurst, Sesha S. Srinivasan, James E. Maslar

Faculty Publications

An optical cell is described for high-throughput backscattering Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storagematerials at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 823 K. High throughput is obtained by employing a 60 mm diameter × 9 mm thick sapphire window, with a corresponding 50 mm diameter unobstructed optical aperture. To reproducibly seal this relatively large window to the cell body at elevated temperatures and pressures, a gold o-ring is employed. The sample holder-to-window distance is adjustable, making this cell design compatible with optical measurement systems incorporating lenses of significantly different focal lengths, e.g., microscope objectives and single element ...


An Infrared Imaging Method For High-Throughput Combinatorial Investigation Of Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation And New Phase Formation Of Thin Films, H. Oguchi, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, I. Takeuchi, E. J. Heilweil, L. A. Bendersky Jan 2009

An Infrared Imaging Method For High-Throughput Combinatorial Investigation Of Hydrogenation-Dehydrogenation And New Phase Formation Of Thin Films, H. Oguchi, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, I. Takeuchi, E. J. Heilweil, L. A. Bendersky

Faculty Publications

We have developed an infrared imaging setup enabling in situ infrared images to be acquired, and expanded on capabilities of an infrared imaging as a high-throughput screening technique, determination of a critical thickness of a Pd capping layer which significantly blocks infrared emission from below, enhancement of sensitivity to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation by normalizing raw infrared intensity of a Mg thin film to an inert reference, rapid and systematic screening of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation properties of a Mg–Ni composition spread covered by a thickness gradient Pd capping layer, and detection of formation of a Mg2Si phase in ...


The Effect Of Copt Crystallinity And Grain Texturing On Properties Of Exchange-Coupled Fe/Copt Systems, H. Oguchi, A. Zambano, M. Yu, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, D. Banerjee, Y. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. P. Liu, S. E. Lofland, D. Josell, I. Takeuchi Jan 2009

The Effect Of Copt Crystallinity And Grain Texturing On Properties Of Exchange-Coupled Fe/Copt Systems, H. Oguchi, A. Zambano, M. Yu, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, D. Banerjee, Y. Liu, Z. L. Wang, J. P. Liu, S. E. Lofland, D. Josell, I. Takeuchi

Faculty Publications

The effect of the crystallinity and the grain texturing of CoPt hard layers on exchange coupled Fe/CoPt soft/hard magnetic systems was studied using gradient thickness multilayer thin films. We have studied the hard layer structures by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction, and characterized the exchange coupling interaction through magnetization loops obtained by the magneto-optical Kerr effect measurement. We found that exchange coupling strongly depends on the crystalline characteristics of the CoPt hard layer. There is correlation between the mixture of different grain orientations of the CoPt hard layer and coupling efficiency. In particular, interlayer coupling is enhanced ...


Combinatorial Investigation Of Magnetostriction In Fe-Fa And Fe-Ga-Al, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Dwight Hunter, Corneliu M. Craciunescu, Kyu Sung Jang, Makoto Murakami, James Cullen, Manfred Wuttig, Ichiro Takeuchi, Samuel E. Lofland, Leonid Bendersky, Noble Woo, Robert Bruce Vandover, Toshiya Takahashi, Yasubumi Furuya Jan 2008

Combinatorial Investigation Of Magnetostriction In Fe-Fa And Fe-Ga-Al, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Dwight Hunter, Corneliu M. Craciunescu, Kyu Sung Jang, Makoto Murakami, James Cullen, Manfred Wuttig, Ichiro Takeuchi, Samuel E. Lofland, Leonid Bendersky, Noble Woo, Robert Bruce Vandover, Toshiya Takahashi, Yasubumi Furuya

Faculty Publications

A high-throughput high-sensitivity optical technique for measuringmagnetostriction of thin-film composition-spread samples has been developed. It determines the magnetostriction by measuring the induced deflection of micromachined cantilever unimorph samples. Magnetostrictionmeasurements have been performed on as-deposited Fe–Ga and Fe–Ga–Al thin-film composition spreads. The thin-film Fe–Ga spreads display a similar compositional variation of magnetostriction as bulk. A previously undiscovered peak in magnetostriction at low Ga content was also observed and attributed to a maximum in the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Magnetostrictive mapping of the Fe–Ga–Al ternary system reveals the possibility of substituting up to 8at.%Al in Fe70 ...


High-Throughput Screening Of Shape Memory Alloy Thin-Film Spreads Using Nanoindentation, Arpit Dwivedi, Thomas J. Wyrobek, Oden L. Warren, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Olubenga O. Famodu, Ichiro Takeuchi Jan 2008

High-Throughput Screening Of Shape Memory Alloy Thin-Film Spreads Using Nanoindentation, Arpit Dwivedi, Thomas J. Wyrobek, Oden L. Warren, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Olubenga O. Famodu, Ichiro Takeuchi

Faculty Publications

We have demonstrated the utility of nanoindentation as a rapid characterization tool for mapping shape memoryalloy compositions in combinatorial thin-film libraries. Nanoindentation was performed on Ni–Mn–Al ternary composition spreads. The indentation hardness and the reduced elastic modulus were mapped across a large fraction of the ternary phase diagram. The large shape memoryalloy composition region, located around the Heusler composition (Ni2MnAl), was found to display significant departure in these mechanical properties from the rest of the composition spread. In particular, the modulus and the hardness values are lower for the martensite region than those of the rest ...


Demonstration Of Magnetoelectric Scanning Probe Microscopy, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Liyang Dai, Manfred Wuttig, Ichiro Takeuchi, Eckhard Quandt Jan 2007

Demonstration Of Magnetoelectric Scanning Probe Microscopy, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Liyang Dai, Manfred Wuttig, Ichiro Takeuchi, Eckhard Quandt

Faculty Publications

A near-field room temperature scanning magnetic probe microscope has been developed using a laminated magnetoelectric sensor. The simple trilayer longitudinal-transverse mode sensor, fabricated using Metglas as the magnetostrictive layer and polyvinylidene fluoride as the piezoelectric layer, shows an ac field sensitivity of 467±3μV∕Oe in the measured frequency range of 200Hz–8kHz. The microscope was used to image a 2mm diameter ring carrying an ac current as low as 10−5A. ac fields as small as 3×10−10T have been detected.


Rapid Structural Mapping Of Ternary Metallic Alloy Systems Using The Combinatorial Approach And Cluster Analysis, C. J. Long, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, M. Murakami, R. C. Srivastava, I. Takeuchi, V. L. Karen, X. Li Jan 2007

Rapid Structural Mapping Of Ternary Metallic Alloy Systems Using The Combinatorial Approach And Cluster Analysis, C. J. Long, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, M. Murakami, R. C. Srivastava, I. Takeuchi, V. L. Karen, X. Li

Faculty Publications

We are developing a procedure for the quick identification of structural phases in thin film composition spread experiments which map large fractions of compositional phase diagrams of ternary metallic alloy systems. An in-house scanning x-ray microdiffractometer is used to obtain x-ray spectra from 273 different compositions on a single composition spread library. A cluster analysissoftware is then used to sort the spectra into groups in order to rapidly discover the distribution of phases on the ternary diagram. The most representative pattern of each group is then compared to a database of known structures to identify known phases. Using this method ...


Data Management And Visualization Of X-Ray Diffraction Spectra From Thin Film Ternary Composition Spreads, I. Takeuchi, C. J. Long, O. O. Famodu, M. Murakami, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, G. W. Rubloff, M. Stukowski, K. Rajan Jan 2005

Data Management And Visualization Of X-Ray Diffraction Spectra From Thin Film Ternary Composition Spreads, I. Takeuchi, C. J. Long, O. O. Famodu, M. Murakami, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, G. W. Rubloff, M. Stukowski, K. Rajan

Faculty Publications

We discuss techniques for managing and visualizing x-ray diffraction spectrum data for thin film composition spreads which map large fractions of ternary compositional phase diagrams. An in-house x-ray microdiffractometer is used to obtain spectra from over 500 different compositions on an individual spread. The MATLAB software is used to quickly organize the data and create various plots from which one can quickly grasp different information regarding structural and phase changes across the composition spreads. Such exercises are valuable in rapidly assessing the “overall” picture of the structural evolution across phase diagrams before focusing in on specific composition regions for detailed ...


Interphase Exchange Coupling In Fe/Sm-Co Bilayers With Gradient Fe Thickness, Ming-Hui Yu, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Ichiro Takeuchi, Jing Li, Z. L. Wang, J. P. Liu, S. E. Lofland, Somdev Tyagi, J. W. Freeland, D. Giubertoni, M. Bersani, M. Anderle Jan 2005

Interphase Exchange Coupling In Fe/Sm-Co Bilayers With Gradient Fe Thickness, Ming-Hui Yu, Jason R. Hattrick-Simpers, Ichiro Takeuchi, Jing Li, Z. L. Wang, J. P. Liu, S. E. Lofland, Somdev Tyagi, J. W. Freeland, D. Giubertoni, M. Bersani, M. Anderle

Faculty Publications

We have fabricated Fe∕Sm–Co bilayers with gradient Fe thicknesses in order to systematically study the dependence of exchange coupling on the thickness of the Fe layer. The Fe layer was deposited at two different temperatures (150 and 300°C) to study the effect of deposition temperature on the exchange coupling. Magneto-optical Kerr effect and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) have been employed as nondestructive rapid characterization tools to map the magnetic properties of the gradient samples. Systematic enhancement in exchange coupling between the soft layer and the hard layer is observed as the soft layer thickness is decreased ...


Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber May 2004

Growth And Transport Properties Of Complementary Germanium Nanowire Field Effect Transistors, Andrew B. Greytak, Lincoln J. Lauhon, Mark S. Gudiksen, Charles M. Lieber

Faculty Publications

n- and p-type Ge nanowires were synthesized by a multistep process in which axial elongation, via vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) growth, and doping were accomplished in separate chemical vapor deposition steps. Intrinsic, single-crystal, Ge nanowires prepared by Au nanocluster-mediated VLS growth were surface-doped in situ using diborane or phosphine, and then radial growth of an epitaxial Ge shell was used to cap the dopant layer. Field-effect transistors prepared from these Ge nanowires exhibited on currents and transconductances up to 850 µA/µm and 4.9 µA/V, respectively, with device yields of >85%.


A Novel Laboratory Course On Advanced Chemical Engineering Experiments, Jochen A. Lauterbach, S White, X Lui, G M. Bodner, W N. Delgass Oct 1997

A Novel Laboratory Course On Advanced Chemical Engineering Experiments, Jochen A. Lauterbach, S White, X Lui, G M. Bodner, W N. Delgass

Faculty Publications

The chemical engineering curriculum in the United States has trained generations of technical experts who have successfully optimized chemical processes and products once they entered the chemical industry. The U.S. chemical industry, however, has entered a critical stage in which it must be able to create new and differentiated value through technical innovations that arc essential for long-term survival. This innovation process will require new skills that go far beyond the traditional expertise for the optimization of tasks possessed by young chemical engineers. The innovators must be able to identify new opportunities, explore the boundaries of technology, evaluate critical ...