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Articles 1 - 30 of 407

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Can Ethanol Affect The Cell Structure - A Dynamic Molecular And Raman Spectroscopy Study, Luis Felipe Carvalho, Laurita Dos Santos, Kate O'Callaghan, Franck Bonnier, Steven Flint, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne Feb 2020

Can Ethanol Affect The Cell Structure - A Dynamic Molecular And Raman Spectroscopy Study, Luis Felipe Carvalho, Laurita Dos Santos, Kate O'Callaghan, Franck Bonnier, Steven Flint, Fiona Lyng, Hugh Byrne

Articles

The role that tobacco consumption plays in the etiology of oral cancer carcinogenesis, and of alcohol consumption acting as a co-factor, have been well established. However, in recent years, the contribution of alcohol consumption alone to oral cancer has been proposed. In fact, a high percentage of patients who develop oral cancer have both habits (tobacco and alcohol consumption), and other small patient groups only consume alcohol or do not have any other identifiable bad habits. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time, using a combination of dynamic molecular modelling and Raman spectroscopy, that ethanol has a ...


Quantitative Analysis Of Human Blood Serum Using Vibrational Spectroscopy., Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Jennifer Mcintyre, Drishya Rajan Parachalil Jan 2020

Quantitative Analysis Of Human Blood Serum Using Vibrational Spectroscopy., Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Jennifer Mcintyre, Drishya Rajan Parachalil

Articles

Analysis of bodily fluids using vibrational spectroscopy has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In particular, infrared spectroscopic screening of blood products, particularly blood serum, for disease diagnostics has been advanced considerably, attracting commercial interests. However, analyses requiring quantification of endogenous constituents or exogenous agents in blood are less well advanced. Recent advances towards this end are reviewed, focussing on infrared and Raman spectroscopic analyses of human blood serum. The importance of spectroscopic analysis in the native aqueous environment is highlighted, and the relative merits of infrared absorption versus Raman spectroscopy are considered, in this context. It is argued that ...


On The Intermediate Long Wave Propagation For Internal Waves In The Presence Of Currents, Joseph Cullen, Rossen Ivanov Jan 2020

On The Intermediate Long Wave Propagation For Internal Waves In The Presence Of Currents, Joseph Cullen, Rossen Ivanov

Articles

A model for the wave motion of an internal wave in the presence of current in the case of intermediate long wave approximation is studied. The lower layer is considerably deeper, with a higher density than the upper layer. The flat surface approximation is assumed. The fluids are incompressible and inviscid. The model equations are obtained from the Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in the presence of a depth-varying current. It is shown that an appropriate scaling leads to the integrable Intermediate Long Wave Equation (ILWE). Two limits of the ILWE leading to the integrable Benjamin-Ono and KdV equations are ...


Swirling Fluid Flow In Flexible, Expandable Elastic Tubes: Variational Approach, Reductions And Integrability, Rossen Ivanov, Vakhtang Putkaradze Jan 2020

Swirling Fluid Flow In Flexible, Expandable Elastic Tubes: Variational Approach, Reductions And Integrability, Rossen Ivanov, Vakhtang Putkaradze

Articles

Many engineering and physiological applications deal with situations when a fluid is moving in flexible tubes with elastic walls. In real-life applications like blood flow, a swirl in the fluid often plays an important role, presenting an additional complexity not described by previous theoretical models. We present a theory for the dynamics of the interaction between elastic tubes and swirling fluid flow. The equations are derived using a variational principle, with the incompressibility constraint of the fluid giving rise to a pressure-like term. In order to connect this work with the previous literature, we consider the case of inextensible and ...


Silicon Microcantilever Sensors To Detect The Reversible Conformational Change Of A Molecular Switch, Spiropyan, Catherine M. Grogan, George Amarandei, Shauna Lawless, Francis Pedreschi, Fiona Lyng, Fernando Benito-Lopez, Roberto Raiteri, Laisa Florea Jan 2020

Silicon Microcantilever Sensors To Detect The Reversible Conformational Change Of A Molecular Switch, Spiropyan, Catherine M. Grogan, George Amarandei, Shauna Lawless, Francis Pedreschi, Fiona Lyng, Fernando Benito-Lopez, Roberto Raiteri, Laisa Florea

Articles

The high sensitivity of silicon microcantilever sensors has expanded their use in areas ranging from gas sensing to bio-medical applications. Photochromic molecules also represent promising candidates for a large variety of sensing applications. In this work, the operating principles of these two sensing methods are combined in order to detect the reversible conformational change of a molecular switch, spiropyran. Thus, arrays of silicon microcantilever sensors were functionalized with spiropyran on the gold covered side and used as test microcantilevers. The microcantilever deflection response was observed, in five sequential cycles, as the transition from the spiropyran (SP) (CLOSED) to the merocyanine ...


Polyvinyl Alcohol Cryogel Based Vessel Mimicking Material For Modelling The Progression Of Atherosclerosis, Andrew Malone, Sean Cournane, Izabela Naydenova, Andrew J. Fagan, Jacinta Browne Jan 2020

Polyvinyl Alcohol Cryogel Based Vessel Mimicking Material For Modelling The Progression Of Atherosclerosis, Andrew Malone, Sean Cournane, Izabela Naydenova, Andrew J. Fagan, Jacinta Browne

Articles

Purpose

The stiffness of Polyvinyl-alcohol cryogel can be adjusted through application of consecutive freeze-thaw cycles. This material has potential applications in the production of tissue mimicking phantoms in diagnostic ultrasound. The aim of this study was to use PVA-c to produce a range of geometrically and acoustically identical vessel phantoms modelling stages of atherosclerosis which could be verified through mechanical testing, thus allowing for more precision in quantitative in-vitro flow analysis of atherosclerosis.

Methods

A series of anatomically realistic walled renal artery flow phantoms were constructed using PVA-c. In order to ensure precise modelling of atherosclerosis, a modified procedure of ...


Liposomal Encapsulation Of Silver Nanoparticles To Enhance Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity And Modulate Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro, Azeez Yusuf Jan 2020

Liposomal Encapsulation Of Silver Nanoparticles To Enhance Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity And Modulate Induced Inflammatory Responses In Vitro, Azeez Yusuf

Doctoral

High concentrations of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are increasingly present as active ingredient in everyday consumable products for antibacterial purposes causing increased human exposure and high risk of adverse effect development. In this thesis, AgNP were encapsulated in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-based liposome (forming Lipo-AgNP), to enhance intracellular delivery and associated cytotoxicity, and suppress AgNP-induced inflammation. It was noted that as a result of the encapsulation, Lipo-AgNP induced significantly reduced cell viability of THP1 monocytes and THP1 differentiated macrophages (TDM) at a notably lower dose than that of uncoated AgNP. The induced cytotoxicity was shown to result in an increased level ...


Development Of Photopolymer Material With Improved Dynamic Range And Sensitivity, Brian Rogers, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin Sep 2019

Development Of Photopolymer Material With Improved Dynamic Range And Sensitivity, Brian Rogers, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin

Conference Papers

In this study the effect of the concentration of acrylamide and the influence of different initiators in a photopolymer composition for holographic recording of diffraction gratings is investigated. Light manipulating Holographic Optical Elements (HOEs) have a number of characteristics which can be optimised for different roles. However, at the core of these devices is the refractive index modulation that has been created in the material during recording. Typically higher refractive index modulation will enable greater diffraction efficiency. Solar concentrating HOEs can particularly benefit from material that experiences higher refractive index modulation. For a solar concentrator to have a high acceptance ...


An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran Apr 2019

An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran

Articles

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether clinically used ultrasonic contrast agents improved the accuracy of spectral Doppler ultrasound in the detection of low grade (< 50%) renal artery stenosis. Low grade stenoses in the renal artery are notoriously difficult to reliably detect using Doppler ultrasound due to difficulties such as overlying fat and bowel gas.

Methods: A range of anatomically-realistic renal artery phantoms with varying low degrees of stenosis (0, 30 and 50%) were constructed and peak velocity data was measured from within the pre-stenotic and mid-stenotic regions in each phantom, for both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced spectral Doppler data acquisitions. The effect of a 20mm overlying fat layer on the ultrasound beam distortion and phase aberration, and hence on the measured peak velocity data, was also investigated ...


Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou Feb 2019

Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou

Articles

Purpose: This study evaluated the training and assessment role of anthropomorphic breast ultrasound phantoms which simulated both the morphological and sonographic characteristics of breast tissue, including lesions, in a group of radiology residents at a large academic medical center. Methods: This was a prospective study involving 9 residents across all years (2nd–4th year) of a radiology residency program. Baseline assessments of all residents ability to detect and characterize lesions in P-I were carried out, followed by a two-hour teaching session on the same phantom. All residents underwent a post-training, final assessment on P-II to evaluate changes in ...


Magnetic Field Sensor Based On A Tri-Microfiber Coupler Ring In Magnetic Fluid And A Fiber Bragg Grating, Fangfang Wei, Dejun Liu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Gang-Ding Peng, Yuliya Semenova Jan 2019

Magnetic Field Sensor Based On A Tri-Microfiber Coupler Ring In Magnetic Fluid And A Fiber Bragg Grating, Fangfang Wei, Dejun Liu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Gang-Ding Peng, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

In this paper we propose and investigate a novel magnetic field sensor based on a Tri-microfiber coupler combined with magnetic fluid and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a ring. A sensitivity of 1306 pm/mT was experimentally demonstrated in the range of magnetic fields from 0 to 15 mT. The reflection peak in the output spectrum associated with the FBG serves as a reference point allowing to avoid ambiguity in determining the spectral shift induced by the magnetic field. Due to its high sensitivity at low magnetic fields, the proposed structure could be of high interest in low field ...


Sns Optical Fiber Structure Sensor For Direct Detection Of The Phase Transition In C18h38 N-Alkane Material, Wei Han, Marek Rebow, Xiaokang Lian, Dejun Liu, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Yuliya Semenova Jan 2019

Sns Optical Fiber Structure Sensor For Direct Detection Of The Phase Transition In C18h38 N-Alkane Material, Wei Han, Marek Rebow, Xiaokang Lian, Dejun Liu, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

A singlemode-no-core-singlemode (SNS) fiber structure optical sensor for detecting the solid-liquid phase change in a phase change material: C18H38 n-alkane material (n-octadecane) is proposed and demonstrated. The transmission-type sensor probe consists of a short section of no-core fiber sandwiched between two sections of a singlemode fiber. Phase changes in n-octadecane are accompanied by large step-like variations of its refractive index (RI). Such a large discontinuous change of the n-octadecane’s RI during its phase transition, leads to the corresponding step-like change in the transmitted optical power that can reliably indicate the phase change of the sample in the vicinity of ...


Surface Waves Over Currents And Uneven Bottom, Alan Compelli, Rossen Ivanov, Calin I. Martin, Michail D. Todorov Jan 2019

Surface Waves Over Currents And Uneven Bottom, Alan Compelli, Rossen Ivanov, Calin I. Martin, Michail D. Todorov

Articles

The propagation of surface water waves interacting with a current and an uneven bottom is studied. Such a situation is typical for ocean waves where the winds generate currents in the top layer of the ocean. The role of the bottom topography is taken into account since it also influences the local wave and current patterns. Specific scaling of the variables is selected which leads to approximations of Boussinesq and KdV types. The arising KdV equation with variable coefficients, dependent on the bottom topography, is studied numerically when the initial condition is in the form of the one soliton solution ...


Equatorial Wave–Current Interactions, Adrian Constantin, Rossen Ivanov Jan 2019

Equatorial Wave–Current Interactions, Adrian Constantin, Rossen Ivanov

Articles

We study the nonlinear equations of motion for equatorial wave–current interactions in the physically realistic setting of azimuthal two-dimensional inviscid flows with piecewise constant vorticity in a two-layer fluid with a flat bed and a free surface. We derive a Hamiltonian formulation for the nonlinear governing equations that is adequate for structure-preserving perturbations, at the linear and at the nonlinear level. Linear theory reveals some important features of the dynamics, highlighting differences between the short- and long-wave regimes. The fact that ocean energy is concentrated in the long-wave propagation modes motivates the pursuit of in-depth nonlinear analysis in the ...


Exploring Subcellular Responses Of Prostate Cancer Cells To X-Ray Exposure By Raman Mapping, Maciej Roman, Agnieszka Panek, Hugh J. Byrne, Tomasz P Wrobel, Esen Efeoglu, Czeslawa Paluszkiewicz, Wojciech Maria Kwiatek Jan 2019

Exploring Subcellular Responses Of Prostate Cancer Cells To X-Ray Exposure By Raman Mapping, Maciej Roman, Agnieszka Panek, Hugh J. Byrne, Tomasz P Wrobel, Esen Efeoglu, Czeslawa Paluszkiewicz, Wojciech Maria Kwiatek

Articles

Understanding the response of cancer cells to ionising radiation is a crucial step in modern radiotherapy. Raman microspectroscopy, together with Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) analysis has been shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring biochemical changes of irradiated cells on the subcellular level. However, to date, the majority of Raman studies have been performed using a single spectrum per cell, giving a limited view of the total biochemical response of the cell. In the current study, Raman mapping of the whole cell area was undertaken to ensure a more comprehensive understanding of the changes induced by X-ray radiation ...


Multivariate Statistical Methodologies Used In In-Vitro Raman Spectroscopy: Simulations And Applications For Drug And Nanoparticle Interactions, Mark Edward Keating Jan 2019

Multivariate Statistical Methodologies Used In In-Vitro Raman Spectroscopy: Simulations And Applications For Drug And Nanoparticle Interactions, Mark Edward Keating

Doctoral

Raman spectroscopy is a growing technology in the fields of in-vitro drug and nanoparticle screening. The label free capability provided by vibrational spectroscopy, as well as the ability of the technique to probe the chemical nature of samples, makes it a good candidate for use in these fields. Crucial to the progress of these methods is the development and validation of robust and accurate multivariate statistical analysis protocols. In this thesis, both established and novel methods are examined using both real and simulated datasets. In particular, simulated datasets are used to validate and assess the accuracy of these methods in ...


Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey Oct 2018

Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey

Articles

The in vitro cell culture environment can impact on cell biochemistry and cell cycle. The manifestation of such substrate-induced changes in cell cycle in the Raman microspectroscopic profiles of cell cultures is investigated at the level of nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. HeLa immortalised human cervical cells and HaCaT dermal cells were cultured on three different substrates, conventional polystyrene cell culture dishes, CaF2 slides as a commonly used Raman substrate, and glass slides coated with Collagen Rat Tail, as a mimic of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) environment. A cell cycle study, based on percentage DNA content, as determined using Propidium ...


Significance Of A Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment On Ldpe Biodegradation With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Laurence Scally, Miroslav Gulan, Lars Weigang, Patrick Cullen, Vladimir Milosavljevic Oct 2018

Significance Of A Non-Thermal Plasma Treatment On Ldpe Biodegradation With Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Laurence Scally, Miroslav Gulan, Lars Weigang, Patrick Cullen, Vladimir Milosavljevic

Articles

The use of plastics has spanned across almost all aspects of day to day life. Although their uses are invaluable, they contribute to the generation of a lot of waste products that end up in the environment and end up polluting natural habitats such as forests and the ocean. By treating low-density polyethylene (LDPE) samples with non-thermal plasma in ambient air and with an addition of 4% CO2, the biodegradation of the samples can be increased due to an increase in oxidative species causing better cell adhesion and acceptance on the polymer sample surface. It was, however, found that the ...


Serialised Holography For Brand Protection And Authentication, Dinesh Vather, Izabela Naydenova, Dervil Cody, Monika Zawadzka, Suzanne Martin, Emilia Mihaylova, Stephen Curran, Paul Duffy, Josune Portillo, Daniel Connell, Stephen Mcdonnell, Vincent Toal Aug 2018

Serialised Holography For Brand Protection And Authentication, Dinesh Vather, Izabela Naydenova, Dervil Cody, Monika Zawadzka, Suzanne Martin, Emilia Mihaylova, Stephen Curran, Paul Duffy, Josune Portillo, Daniel Connell, Stephen Mcdonnell, Vincent Toal

Articles

The problems presented by counterfeit products and documentation are discussed. Limitations of existing holograms for anti-counterfeit applications are described. We describe the advantages of full holographic serialisation and the requirements in terms of materials and techniques for mass production of true serialised holograms. These requirements having been met, we report for the first time the mass production of fully serialised holograms. The novelty of approach consists of the direct use of product manufacturer’s information as the object in a holographic recording system along with a self-processing photopolymer and modular optical system to facilitate mass production of truly serialised volume ...


Advancing Raman Microspectroscopy For Cellular And Subcellular Analysis: Towards In Vitro High Content Spectralomic Analysis, Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Alan Casey, Marcus Maher, Jennifer Mcintyre, Esen Efeoglu, Zeineb Farhane Jun 2018

Advancing Raman Microspectroscopy For Cellular And Subcellular Analysis: Towards In Vitro High Content Spectralomic Analysis, Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Alan Casey, Marcus Maher, Jennifer Mcintyre, Esen Efeoglu, Zeineb Farhane

Articles

In the confocal mode, Raman microspectroscopy can profile the biochemical content of biological cells at a subcellular level, and any changes to it by exogenous agents, such as therapeutic drugs or toxicants. As an exploration of the potential of the technique as a high content, label free analysis technique, this report reviews work to monitor the spectroscopic signatures associated with the uptake and response pathways of commercial chemotherapeutic agents and polymeric nanoparticles by human lung cells. It is demonstrated that the signatures are reproducible and characteristic of the cellular event, and can be used, for example, to identify the mode ...


Multicomponent Analysis Using A Confocal Raman Microscope, Zhengyuan Tang, Sinead J. Barton, Thomas E. Ward, John P. Lowry, Michelle M. Doran, Hugh Byrne, Bryan M. Hennelly Jun 2018

Multicomponent Analysis Using A Confocal Raman Microscope, Zhengyuan Tang, Sinead J. Barton, Thomas E. Ward, John P. Lowry, Michelle M. Doran, Hugh Byrne, Bryan M. Hennelly

Articles

Measuring the concentration of multiple chemical components in a low volume aqueous mixture by Raman spectroscopy has received significant interest in the literature. All of the contributions to date focus on the design of optical systems that facilitate the recording of spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio, by collecting as many Raman scattered photons as possible. In this study, the confocal Raman microscope set-up is investigated for multicomponent analysis. Partial Least Squares Regression is used to quantify physiologically relevant aqueous mixtures of glucose, lactic acid, and urea. The predicted error is 17.81 mg/dL for glucose, 10.6 mg/dL ...


Raman Spectral Analysis For Rapid Screening Of Dengue Infection, Tahir Mahmood, Haq Nawaz, A. Ditta, M.I. Majeed, M.A. Hanif, N. Rashid, H.N. Bhatti, H.F. Nargis, M. Saleem, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne May 2018

Raman Spectral Analysis For Rapid Screening Of Dengue Infection, Tahir Mahmood, Haq Nawaz, A. Ditta, M.I. Majeed, M.A. Hanif, N. Rashid, H.N. Bhatti, H.F. Nargis, M. Saleem, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Infection with the dengue virus is currently clinically detected according to different biomarkers in human blood plasma, commonly measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, including non-structural proteins (Ns1), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, there is little or no mutual correlation between the biomarkers, as demonstrated in this study by a comparison of their levels in samples from 17 patients. As an alternative, the label free, rapid screening technique, Raman spectroscopy has been used for the characterisation/diagnosis of healthy and dengue infected human blood plasma samples. In dengue positive samples, changes in specific Raman spectral bands associated ...


Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin Apr 2018

Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin

Articles

A method for fabricating diffractive holographic optical diffusers is reported, allowing a high degree of control of the resulting diffuser characteristics. The method consists of recording a laser speckle pattern using a single carrier beam, with controlled speckle size and shape, in an acrylamide-based volume photopolymer. The multiple interferences that create the speckle pattern form the hologram. Results are presented verifying the diffusers are volume holographic in nature and the speckle pattern is recorded accurately in the photopolymer. Diffusers recorded by this method are analysed to characterise the optical performance of the diffusers and to illustrate their beam-shaping capabilities, particularly ...


Investigation Of Temperature Response Of Photopolymer Material Used For Holographic Sensor, Muhammad Irfan, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova Mar 2018

Investigation Of Temperature Response Of Photopolymer Material Used For Holographic Sensor, Muhammad Irfan, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova

Conference Papers

Recently, functionalised photopolymer has emerged as a versatile recording material in the field of optical holography due to its novel characteristics and potential use in the development of holographic based sensors, and optical elements. This work describes the temperature response of a newly developed photopolymer, containing of a monomer Nisopropylacrylamide (NIPA) which under photopolymerisation forms a temperature sensitive polymer - Poly(Nisopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA). The photonic sensor was developed by holographic recording of volume phase transmission gratings in a self-processing NIPA-based polymer with a 532 nm laser beam. A 633 nm probe beam was used to monitor real time diffraction efficiency (DE ...


Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova Mar 2018

Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

This paper experimentally demonstrates a method for geometrical profiling of asymmetries in fabricated thin microfiber tapers with waist diameters ranging from ∼10 to ∼50µm with submicron accuracy. The method is based on the analysis of whispering gallery mode resonances excited in cylindrical fiber resonators as a result of evanescent coupling of light propagating through the fiber taper. The submicron accuracy of the proposed method has been verified by SEM studies. The method can be applied as a quality control tool in fabrication of microfiber based devices and sensors or for fine-tuning of microfiber fabrication set-ups.


Application Of Box-Behnken Experimental Design For The Formulation And Optimisation Of Selenomethionine-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Coated With Zein For Oral Delivery., Giuliana Vozza, Minna Danish, Hugh J. Byrne, Jesus Maria Frias, Sinéad M. Ryan Jan 2018

Application Of Box-Behnken Experimental Design For The Formulation And Optimisation Of Selenomethionine-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles Coated With Zein For Oral Delivery., Giuliana Vozza, Minna Danish, Hugh J. Byrne, Jesus Maria Frias, Sinéad M. Ryan

Articles

Selenomethionine is an essential amino acid with a narrow therapeutic index and susceptibility to oxidation. Here it was encapsulated into a nanoparticle composed of chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate for oral delivery. The formulation was optimised using a three-factor Box-Behnken experimental design. The chitosan:tripolyphosphate ratio, chitosan solvent pH, and drug load concentration were independently varied. The dependent variables studied were encapsulation efficiency, particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential. For optimisation, encapsulation efficiency and zeta potential were maximised, particle diameter was set to 300 nm and polydispersity index was minimised. A 0.15 mg/mL concentration of selenomethionine, chitosan solvent ...


High Sensitivity Temperature Sensor Based On Singlemode-No-Core- Singlemode Fibre Structure And Alcohol, Ke Tiana, Gerald Farrell, Xianfan Wang, Yifan Xin, Yanqiu Du, Wenlei Yang, Haidong Liang, Elfed Lewis, Pengfei Wang Jan 2018

High Sensitivity Temperature Sensor Based On Singlemode-No-Core- Singlemode Fibre Structure And Alcohol, Ke Tiana, Gerald Farrell, Xianfan Wang, Yifan Xin, Yanqiu Du, Wenlei Yang, Haidong Liang, Elfed Lewis, Pengfei Wang

Articles

A high sensitivity temperature sensor based on a singlemode-no-core-singlemode (SNCS) fibre structure and surrounded with alcohol within a silica capillary is described. In this investigation, no-core fibre (NCF) is used as the multimode waveguide and alcohol is chosen as the temperature sensitive medium. By packaging the alcohol solution with a short length of NCF enclosed within a silica capillary, the surrounding temperature can be detected by monitoring the variations of transmission loss at a specific wavelength. The theoretical analysis predicts this temperature sensor can provide high sensitivity, and the experimental results support this. The maximum temperature sensitivity of the sample ...


Nano–Bio Interactions: Nanomedicine And Nanotoxicology, Hugh Byrne, S. Mukherjee, Pratap C. Naha Jan 2018

Nano–Bio Interactions: Nanomedicine And Nanotoxicology, Hugh Byrne, S. Mukherjee, Pratap C. Naha

Articles

The 21st century has truly become the age of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials, design strategies, and processing have already made a significant impact in areas of materials science and electronics, with many commercial applications already being available on the consumer market. However, the ability to manipulate material functions and interactions on a scale of tens of nanometers, e.g., biological subcellular organelles, may yet prove to have the most significant impact on human health and the environment.


Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fibre Structure For Phase Transition Monitoring In Phase Changing Materials, Rahul Kumar, Wei Han, Dejun Liu, Wai Pang Ng, Richard Binns, Krishna Busawon, Yong Qing Fu, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Christopher Underwood, Khamid Mahkmov, Jinhui Yuan, Chongxiu Yu, Huazhong Shu, Xing Ao Li, Tuan Guo, Gerald Farrell, Yuliya Semenova, Qiang Wu Prof. Jan 2018

Singlemode-Multimode-Singlemode Fibre Structure For Phase Transition Monitoring In Phase Changing Materials, Rahul Kumar, Wei Han, Dejun Liu, Wai Pang Ng, Richard Binns, Krishna Busawon, Yong Qing Fu, Zabih Ghassemlooy, Christopher Underwood, Khamid Mahkmov, Jinhui Yuan, Chongxiu Yu, Huazhong Shu, Xing Ao Li, Tuan Guo, Gerald Farrell, Yuliya Semenova, Qiang Wu Prof.

Articles

Abstract. A platinum-coated singlemode-multimode structure is investigated in this paper as an optical fibre sensor (OFS) to monitor the phase transition of a phase change material (PCM). Paraffin wax has been used as an example to demonstrate the sensor’s performance and operation. Most materials have the same temperature but different thermal energy levels during the phase change process, therefore, sole dependency on temperature measurement may lead to an incorrect estimation of the stored energy in PCM. The output spectrum of the reflected light from the OFS is very sensitive to the bend introduced by the PCM where both liquid ...


Optical Fiber Fresnel Reflection Sensor For Direct Detection Of The Solid-Liquid Phase Change In N-Octadecane, Wei Han, Marek Rebow, Dejun Liu, Gerald Farrell, Yuliya Semenova, Qiang Wu Jan 2018

Optical Fiber Fresnel Reflection Sensor For Direct Detection Of The Solid-Liquid Phase Change In N-Octadecane, Wei Han, Marek Rebow, Dejun Liu, Gerald Farrell, Yuliya Semenova, Qiang Wu

Articles

An all optical fiber Fresnel reflection sensor for detecting the solid–liquid phase change in n-octadecane is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensor probe consists of a single-mode fiber with a cleaved end which is immersed in the material sample under test. As the n-octadecane changes from solid to liquid or from liquid to solid, its refractive index (RI) changes resulting in changes of the light power ratio reflected by the probe. Since the RI of n-octadecane during its phase transition changes discontinuously, inflection in the reflected light power ratio dependence indicates the phase change of the sample in the ...