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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Multiwavelength Digital Holographic Imaging And Phase Unwrapping Of Protozoa Using Custom Fiji Plug-Ins, David Cohoe, Iulia Hanczarek, J. Kent Wallace, Jay Nadeau Jul 2019

Multiwavelength Digital Holographic Imaging And Phase Unwrapping Of Protozoa Using Custom Fiji Plug-Ins, David Cohoe, Iulia Hanczarek, J. Kent Wallace, Jay Nadeau

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Multiwavelength digital holographic microscopy (DHM) has been used to improve phase reconstructions of digital holograms by reducing 2p phase ambiguities. However, most samples used as test images have been solid or adhered to a surface, making it easy to determine focal planes and correct for chromatic aberration. In this study we apply 3-wavelength off-axis DHM to swimming protozoa containing distinct spectral features such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. We reconstruct the holograms into amplitude and phase images using the angular spectrum method. Methods for noise subtraction, chromatic aberration correction, and image registration are presented for both amplitude and phase. Approaches to ...


On Classification Approaches For Crystallographic Symmetries Of Noisy 2d Periodic Patterns, Peter Moeck May 2019

On Classification Approaches For Crystallographic Symmetries Of Noisy 2d Periodic Patterns, Peter Moeck

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The existing types of classification approaches for the crystallographic symmetries of patterns that are more or less periodic in two dimensions (2D) are reviewed. Their relative performance is evaluated in a qualitative manner. Pseudo-symmetries of different kinds are discussed as they present severe challenges to most classification approaches when noise levels are moderate to high. The author’s information theory based approaches utilize digital images and geometric Akaike Information Criteria. They perform well in the presence of pseudo-symmetries and turn out to be the only ones that allow for fully objective (completely researcher independent) and generalized noise level dependent classifications ...


Viscosities, Diffusion Coefficients, And Mixing Times Of Intrinsic Fluorescent Organic Molecules In Brown Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol And Tests Of The Stokes–Einstein Equation, Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, Allan K. Bertram Feb 2019

Viscosities, Diffusion Coefficients, And Mixing Times Of Intrinsic Fluorescent Organic Molecules In Brown Limonene Secondary Organic Aerosol And Tests Of The Stokes–Einstein Equation, Dagny A. Ullmann, Mallory L. Hinks, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Sergey A. Nizkorodov, Saeid Kamal, Allan K. Bertram

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Viscosities and diffusion rates of organics within secondary organic aerosol (SOA) remain uncertain. Using the bead-mobility technique, we measured viscosities as a function of water activity (aw) of SOA generated by the ozonolysis of limonene followed by browning by exposure to NH3 (referred to as brown limonene SOA or brown LSOA). These measurements together with viscosity measurements reported in the literature show that the viscosity of brown LSOA increases by 3–5 orders of magnitude as the aw decreases from 0.9 to approximately 0.05. In addition, we measured diffusion coefficients of intrinsic fluorescent organic molecules within ...


Photoemission Electron Microscopy To Characterize Slow Light In A Photonic Crystal Line Defect, Theodore Stedmark, Rolf Könenkamp Jan 2019

Photoemission Electron Microscopy To Characterize Slow Light In A Photonic Crystal Line Defect, Theodore Stedmark, Rolf Könenkamp

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Using femtosecond nonlinear photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) we provide a detailed characterization of slow light in a small-size asymmetric photonic crystal structure. We show that PEEM is capable of providing a unique description of the light propagation in such structures by direct imaging of the guided mode. This noninvasive characterization technique allows modal properties such as effective index, phase velocities, and group velocities to be determined. Combining experimental results with finite element method simulation calculations, we study slow light phenomena in a photonic crystal defect mode, and we produce a comprehensive picture of the mechanisms behind it. Our results illustrate ...


Imaging Technologies And Strategies For Detection Of Extant Extraterrestrial Microorganisms, Jay Nadeau, Manuel Bedrossian, Chris Lindensmith Jan 2019

Imaging Technologies And Strategies For Detection Of Extant Extraterrestrial Microorganisms, Jay Nadeau, Manuel Bedrossian, Chris Lindensmith

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

There is no reductionist definition of life, so the way organisms look, behave, and move is the most definitive way to identify extraterrestrial life. Life elsewhere in the Solar System is likely to be microbial, but no microscope capable of imaging prokaryotic life has ever flown on a lander mission to a habitable planet. Nonetheless, high-resolution microscopes have been developed that are appropriate for planetary exploration. Traditional light microscopy, interferometric microscopy, light-field microscopy, scanning probe microscopy, and electron microscopy are all possible techniques for the detection of extant micro-organisms on Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. This article ...


Finite Element Method Analysis Of Whispering Gallery Acoustic Sensing, T. Le, H. Tran, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, C.J. Solano Salinas, Nima Laal, R. Bringas, J. Quispe, F. Segundo, Andres H. La Rosa Dec 2018

Finite Element Method Analysis Of Whispering Gallery Acoustic Sensing, T. Le, H. Tran, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, C.J. Solano Salinas, Nima Laal, R. Bringas, J. Quispe, F. Segundo, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Whispering Gallery Acoustic Sensing (WGAS) has recently been introduced as a sensing feedback mechanism to control the probe-sample separation distance in scanning probe microscopy that uses a quartz tuning fork as a sensor (QTF-SPM). WGAS exploits the SPM supporting frame as a resonant acoustic cavity to monitor the nanometer-sized amplitude of the QTF oscillations. Optimal WGAS sensitivity depends on attaining an exact match between the cavity's frequency peak response and the TF resonance frequency. However, two aspects play against this objective: i) the unpredictable variability of the TF resonance frequency (upon attaching a SPM-probe to one of its tines ...


Combining Atomic Force Microscopy And Shear-Force Acoustic Near-Field Microscopy To Characterize Confined Mesoscopic Fluids, Monte Allen Kozell, Theodore Brockman, Andres H. La Rosa Dec 2018

Combining Atomic Force Microscopy And Shear-Force Acoustic Near-Field Microscopy To Characterize Confined Mesoscopic Fluids, Monte Allen Kozell, Theodore Brockman, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

An atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever is integrated into to a quartz tuning fork (QTF) to probe the viscoelastic properties of mesoscopic fluid layers confined between two solid surfaces under shear. Two procedures to fabricate the AFM/QTF probe are described herein. In the first, a nano-manipulator is used to transport a commercially available afm cantilever from its chip holder to the edge of a QTF tine. In the second, an afm cantilever is fabricated at the edge of the QTF tine itself. In both cases we exploit the capabilities of a dual-beam system (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope ...


Confined Fluid Analyzed With Near-Field Acoustic Detection, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, Theodore Brockman, J. Bai, Andres H. La Rosa Dec 2018

Confined Fluid Analyzed With Near-Field Acoustic Detection, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, Theodore Brockman, J. Bai, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Measurement of the damping and elastic interactions between two solids interfaces (one being the apex of a tapered probe that is attached to one tine of a quartz tuning fork while the other is a flat substrate) under relative lateral oscillatory motion are reported. The solid boundaries are separated by a nanometer sized gap, and emphasis is placed on the role played by the mesoscopic fluid trapped in between. The measurements were implemented using two new acoustic techniques that have been integrated into a tuning fork based scanning probe microscope; the whole metrology system offers sub-nanometer precision for controlling the ...


Instrumentation-Level Improvements In Shear-Force Near-Field Acoustic Microscopy, J. Bai, P. Devulapalli, Theodore Brockman, Andres H. La Rosa Dec 2018

Instrumentation-Level Improvements In Shear-Force Near-Field Acoustic Microscopy, J. Bai, P. Devulapalli, Theodore Brockman, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The recently introduced Shear-force Near-field Acoustic Microscopy (SANM) brings a new sensing mechanism to the scanning probe microscopy family. SANM's ability to simultaneously monitor, in real time, several physical sample's responses presents some challenges for ensuring optimal operation; namely, avoid "cross-talk" among the multiple signals, address the compensation of thermal drift to ensure reproducibility of the measurements, and measuring the typical low-level signals obtained from nanometer-sized tested regions. Here, several improvements relevant to SANM, but valid for SPM in general, are addressed. i) The probe's coarse approach is performed via stepper motors, which are controlled either by ...


Probe Damage Evaluation In Frequency-Modulation Shear-Force Acoustic Near-Field Microscopy, Theodore Brockman, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, J. Bai, Monte Allen Kozell, Andres H. La Rosa Dec 2018

Probe Damage Evaluation In Frequency-Modulation Shear-Force Acoustic Near-Field Microscopy, Theodore Brockman, Rodolfo Fernandez Rodriguez, J. Bai, Monte Allen Kozell, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Shear-force acoustic near-field microscopy (SANM) and Whispering Gallery Acoustic Sensing have recently been introduced as a tandem system to characterize the viscoelastic response of fluids confined between two solid-boundaries in relative oscillatory lateral motion. SANM uses a) a laterally oscillating tapered probe (attached to a quartz tuning fork QTF) as one of the trapping boundaries, and b) an acoustic sensor (attached to the other flat-substrate boundary) that independently monitors the fluid’s acoustic emission. On the other and, WGAS is another technique that uses an acoustic transducer (attached to the frame holding the probe) to monitor the probe’s lateral ...


High-Performance Self-Powered Uv Detector Based On Sno2-Tio2 Nanomace Arrays, Duo Chen, Lin Wei, Lingpan Meng, Yanxue Chen, Yufeng Tian, Shishen Yan, Liangmo Mei, Jun Jiao Dec 2018

High-Performance Self-Powered Uv Detector Based On Sno2-Tio2 Nanomace Arrays, Duo Chen, Lin Wei, Lingpan Meng, Yanxue Chen, Yufeng Tian, Shishen Yan, Liangmo Mei, Jun Jiao

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Photoelectrochemical cell-typed self-powered UV detectors have attracted intensive research interest due to their low cost, simple fabrication process, and fast response. In this paper, SnO2-TiO2 nanomace arrays composed of SnO2 nanotube trunk and TiO2 nanobranches were prepared using soft chemical methods, and an environment-friendly self-powered UV photodetector using this nanostructure as the photoanode was assembled. Due to the synergistic effect of greatly accelerated electron-hole separation, enhanced surface area, and reduced charge recombination provided by SnO2-TiO2 nanomace array, the nanostructured detector displays an excellent performance over that based on bare SnO2 arrays. The impact of the growing time of TiO2 branches ...


Supercanonical Probability Distributions, John D. Ramshaw Aug 2018

Supercanonical Probability Distributions, John D. Ramshaw

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The canonical probability distribution describes a system in thermal equilibrium with an infinite heat bath. When the bath is finite the distribution is modified. These modifications can be derived by truncating a Taylor-series expansion of the entropy of the heat bath, but their form depends on the expansion parameter chosen. We consider two such expansions, which yield supercanonical (i.e., higher-order canonical) distributions of exponential and power-law form. The latter is identical in form to the "Tsallis distribution," which is therefore a valid asymptotic approximation for an arbitrary finite heat bath, but bears no intrinsic relation to Tsallis entropy.


Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, Mohamed M. Anber, Benjamin J. Kolligs Aug 2018

Entanglement Entropy, Dualities, And Deconfinement In Gauge Theories, Mohamed M. Anber, Benjamin J. Kolligs

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

Computing the entanglement entropy in confining gauge theories is often accompanied by puzzles and ambiguities. In this work we show that compactifying the theory on a small circle S 1/L evades these difficulties. In particular, we study Yang-Mills theory on R3×S 1/L with double-trace deformations or adjoint fermions and hold it at temperatures near the deconfinement transition. This theory is dual to a multi-component (electric-magnetic) Coulomb gas that can be mapped either to an XY-spin model with Zp symmetry-preserving perturbations or dual Sine-Gordon model. The entanglement entropy of the dual SineGordon model exhibits an extremum ...


Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil Jul 2018

Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Core chemical theory is combined with transport processes and local emissions to study the validity of commonly made assumptions regarding steady states to interpret urban and regional ozone data. It is shown that photo-stationary states of NO and NO2 cannot exist in urban areas or polluted regions in addition to the lack of such a state for ozone. Calculations in published papers, which make the assumption of a photo-stationary state for NO and NO2, or ozone, are likely to be inaccurate by unacceptable amounts. The Leighton Ratio is re-interpreted to show how it incorporates both the peroxy radical and transport ...


Enhanced Terahertz Emission From Quantum Dot By Graphene-Coated Nanoparticle, Edin Sijercic, P. T. Leung Jul 2018

Enhanced Terahertz Emission From Quantum Dot By Graphene-Coated Nanoparticle, Edin Sijercic, P. T. Leung

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The terahertz (THz) emission from quantum dots in close proximity to graphene-coated nanoparticles is studied via phenomenological modeling with particular interest in the possibility of enhancement for such emission via the excitation of the graphene plasmons. It is shown that depending on various factors such as the damping factor and the Fermi level of the graphene, as well as the size and core material of the coated particle, such plasmonic-enhanced THz emission is indeed possible. This thus opens up a new pathway to provide intense THz sources for future applications.


The Role Of Surface Vorticity During Unsteady Separation, Matthew Scott Melius, Karen Mulleners, Raul Bayoan Cal Apr 2018

The Role Of Surface Vorticity During Unsteady Separation, Matthew Scott Melius, Karen Mulleners, Raul Bayoan Cal

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Unsteady flow separation in rotationally augmented flow fields plays a significant role in a variety of fundamental flows. Through the use of time-resolved particle image velocimetry, vorticity accumulation and vortex shedding during unsteady separation over a three-dimensional airfoil are examined. The results of the study describe the critical role of surface vorticity accumulation during unsteady separation and reattachment. Through evaluation of the unsteady characteristics of the shear layer, it is demonstrated that the buildup and shedding of surface vorticity directly influence the dynamic changes of the separation point location. The quantitative characterization of surface vorticity and shear layer stability enables ...


Towards Generalized Noise-Level Dependent Crystallographic Symmetry Classifications Of More Or Less Periodic Crystal Patterns, Peter Moeck Apr 2018

Towards Generalized Noise-Level Dependent Crystallographic Symmetry Classifications Of More Or Less Periodic Crystal Patterns, Peter Moeck

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Geometric Akaike Information Criteria (G-AICs) for generalized noise-level dependent crystallographic symmetry classifications of two-dimensional (2D) images that are more or less periodic in either two or one dimensions as well as Akaike weights for multi-model inferences and predictions are reviewed. Such novel classifications do not refer to a single crystallographic symmetry class exclusively in a qualitative and definitive way. Instead, they are quantitative, spread over a range of crystallographic symmetry classes, and provide opportunities for inferences from all classes (within the range) simultaneously. The novel classifications are based on information theory and depend only on information that has been extracted ...


A New Method For Multi-Bit And Qudit Transfer Based On Commensurate Waveguide Arrays, Jovan Petrovic, J. J. P. Veerman Mar 2018

A New Method For Multi-Bit And Qudit Transfer Based On Commensurate Waveguide Arrays, Jovan Petrovic, J. J. P. Veerman

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The faithful state transfer is an important requirement in the construction of classical and quantum computers. While the high-speed transfer is realized by optical-fibre interconnects, its implementation in integrated optical circuits is affected by cross-talk. The cross-talk between densely packed optical waveguides limits the transfer fidelity and distorts the signal in each channel, thus severely impeding the parallel transfer of states such as classical registers, multiple qubits and qudits. Here, we leverage on the suitably engineered cross-talk between waveguides to achieve the parallel transfer on optical chip. Waveguide coupling coefficients are designed to yield commensurate eigenvalues of the array and ...


Interlaboratory Comparison Of Δ13c And Δd Measurements Of Atmospheric Ch4 For Combined Use Of Data Sets From Different Laboratories, Taku Umezawa, Carl Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina Van Der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W.C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, Ingeborg Levin Mar 2018

Interlaboratory Comparison Of Δ13c And Δd Measurements Of Atmospheric Ch4 For Combined Use Of Data Sets From Different Laboratories, Taku Umezawa, Carl Brenninkmeijer, Thomas Röckmann, Carina Van Der Veen, Stanley C. Tyler, Ryo Fujita, Shinji Morimoto, Shuji Aoki, Todd Sowers, Jochen Schmitt, Michael Bock, Jonas Beck, Hubertus Fischer, Sylvia E. Michel, Bruce H. Vaughn, John B. Miller, James W.C. White, Gordon Brailsford, Hinrich Schaefer, Peter Sperlich, Willi A. Brand, Michael Rothe, Thomas Blunier, David Lowry, Rebecca E. Fisher, Euan G. Nisbet, Andrew L. Rice, Peter Bergamaschi, Cordelia Veidt, Ingeborg Levin

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We report results from a worldwide interlaboratory comparison of samples among laboratories that measure (or measured) stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of atmospheric CH413C-CH4 and δD-CH4). The offsets among the laboratories are larger than the measurement reproducibility of individual laboratories. To disentangle plausible measurement offsets, we evaluated and critically assessed a large number of intercomparison results, some of which have been documented previously in the literature. The results indicate significant offsets of δ13C-CH4 and δD- CH4 measurements among data sets reported from different laboratories; the differences among laboratories at ...


A Virtual Lock-In Amplifier, Spectrum Analyzer, Impedance Meter And Semiconductor Analyzer Implemented On An Sr7265 Hardware Target, Jianghua Bai, John L. Freeouf, Andres H. La Rosa Mar 2018

A Virtual Lock-In Amplifier, Spectrum Analyzer, Impedance Meter And Semiconductor Analyzer Implemented On An Sr7265 Hardware Target, Jianghua Bai, John L. Freeouf, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Lock-in amplifiers are used to detect and measure very small AC signals down to the range of nVs. Accurate measurements may be made even when the small signals are buried by noise sources thousands of times larger. With the digital signal processing (DSP) technology involved in modern instrumentation, a lock-in amplifier is more versatile than sensing and recover small signals. Combining the virtual instrumentation technology, we reorganize the functional blocks of a programmable lock-in amplifier and build it as a virtual spectrum analyzer, virtual impedance meter, virtual network analyzer, virtual semiconductor parameter analyzer, signal generator, etc. A 4 layer model ...


Implementing An Spm Controller With Labview, Jianghua Bai, John L. Freeouf, Andres H. La Rosa Mar 2018

Implementing An Spm Controller With Labview, Jianghua Bai, John L. Freeouf, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The purpose of this article is to reduce the barrier of developing a house-made scanning probe microscope(SPM). Here in this paper,we cover all the details of programming an SPM controller with LabVIEW. The main controller has three major sequential portions. They are system initialization portion,scan control and image display portion and system shutdown portion. The most complicated and essential part of the main controller is the scan control and image display portion, which is achieved with various parallel tasks. These tasks are scan area and image size adjusting module, Y-axis scan control module, Xaxis scan and image ...


A Machine Learning Algorithm For Identifying And Tracking Bacteria In Three Dimensions Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, Manuel Bedrossian, Marwan El-Kholy, Daniel Neamati, Jay Nadeau Feb 2018

A Machine Learning Algorithm For Identifying And Tracking Bacteria In Three Dimensions Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, Manuel Bedrossian, Marwan El-Kholy, Daniel Neamati, Jay Nadeau

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) is an emerging technique for three-dimensional imaging of microorganisms due to its high throughput and large depth of field relative to traditional microscopy techniques. While it has shown substantial success for use with eukaryotes, it has proven challenging for bacterial imaging because of low contrast and sources of noise intrinsic to the method (e.g. laser speckle). This paper describes a custom written MATLAB routine using machine-learning algorithms to obtain three-dimensional trajectories of live, lab-grown bacteria as they move within an essentially unrestrained environment with more than 90% precision. A fully annotated version of the software ...


Accurate Lattice Parameters From 2d-Periodic Images For Subsequent Bravais Lattice Type Assignments, Peter Moeck, Paul R. Destefano Jan 2018

Accurate Lattice Parameters From 2d-Periodic Images For Subsequent Bravais Lattice Type Assignments, Peter Moeck, Paul R. Destefano

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Three different algorithms, as implemented in three different computer programs, were put to the task of extracting direct space lattice parameters from four sets of synthetic images that were per design more or less periodic in two dimensions (2D). One of the test images in each set was per design free of noise and, therefore, genuinely 2D periodic so that it adhered perfectly to the constraints of a Bravais lattice type, Laue class, and plane symmetry group. Gaussian noise with a mean of zero and standard deviations of 10 and 50% of the maximal pixel intensity was added to the ...


Ozone Balances In Urban Saudi Arabia, M. A. K. Khalil, Christopher L. Butenhoff, R.M. Harrison Jan 2018

Ozone Balances In Urban Saudi Arabia, M. A. K. Khalil, Christopher L. Butenhoff, R.M. Harrison

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Net ozone production rates averaging 130 ppb/h lasting 3–5 h are calculated for five cities of urban Saudi Arabia where hourly ozone and NO2 measurements were taken for a whole year. Concentrations of ozone in the cities are not unusually high at ~40 ppb during the peak 4 h, but are 50–60 ppb at altitude throughout the day. A mass balance of ozone reveals that the locations represented by the sites export ozone during the peak production periods before mid-day at average rates comparable to the net production, but later a substantial import of ozone is required ...


Entropy Production And Volume Contraction In Thermostated Hamiltonian Dynamics, John D. Ramshaw Nov 2017

Entropy Production And Volume Contraction In Thermostated Hamiltonian Dynamics, John D. Ramshaw

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Patra et al. [Int. J. Bifurcat. Chaos 26, 1650089 (2016)] recently showed that the time-averaged rates of entropy production and phase-space volume contraction are equal for several different molecular dynamics methods used to simulate nonequilibrium steady states in Hamiltonian systems with thermostated temperature gradients. This equality is a plausible statistical analog of the second law of thermodynamics. Here we show that those two rates are identically equal in a wide class of methods in which the thermostat variables z are determined by ordinary differential equations of motion (i.e., methods of the Nosé-Hoover or integral feedback control type). This class ...


Mixing Times Of Organic Molecules Within Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles: A Global Planetary Boundary Layer Perspective, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Allan K. Bertram Nov 2017

Mixing Times Of Organic Molecules Within Secondary Organic Aerosol Particles: A Global Planetary Boundary Layer Perspective, Adrian M. Maclean, Christopher L. Butenhoff, James W. Grayson, Kelley Barsanti, Jose L. Jimenez, Allan K. Bertram

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

When simulating the formation and life cycle of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) with chemical transport models, it is often assumed that organic molecules are well mixed within SOA particles on the timescale of 1 h. While this assumption has been debated vigorously in the literature, the issue remains unresolved in part due to a lack of information on the mixing times within SOA particles as a function of both temperature and relative humidity. Using laboratory data, meteorological fields, and a chemical transport model, we estimated how often mixing times are < 1 h within SOA in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), the region of the atmosphere where SOA concentrations are on average the highest. First, a parameterization for viscosity as a function of temperature and RH was developed for α-pinene SOA using room-temperature and low-temperature viscosity data for α-pinene SOA generated in the laboratory using mass concentrations of ∼ 1000 µg m−3. Based on this parameterization, the mixing times within α-pinene SOA are < 1 h for 98.5 % and 99.9 % of the occurrences in the PBL during January and July, respectively, when concentrations are significant (total organic aerosol concentrations are > 0.5 µg m−3 at the surface). Next, as ...


Ion Transport Across Biological Membranes By Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Marcin P. Grzelczak, Stephen P. Danks, Robert C. Klipp, Domagoj Belic, Adnana Zaulet, Casper Kunstmann-Olsen, Dan F. Bradley, Tatsuya Tsukuda, Clara ViñAs, Francesc Teixidor, Jonathan J. Abramson, Mathias Brust Nov 2017

Ion Transport Across Biological Membranes By Carborane-Capped Gold Nanoparticles, Marcin P. Grzelczak, Stephen P. Danks, Robert C. Klipp, Domagoj Belic, Adnana Zaulet, Casper Kunstmann-Olsen, Dan F. Bradley, Tatsuya Tsukuda, Clara ViñAs, Francesc Teixidor, Jonathan J. Abramson, Mathias Brust

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Carborane-capped gold nanoparticles (Au/carborane NPs, 2–3 nm) can act as artificial ion transporters across biological membranes. The particles themselves are large hydrophobic anions that have the ability to disperse in aqueous media and to partition over both sides of a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Their presence therefore causes a membrane potential that is determined by the relative concentrations of particles on each side of the membrane according to the Nernst equation. The particles tend to adsorb to both sides of the membrane and can flip across if changes in membrane potential require their repartitioning. Such changes can be made ...


An Analysis Of The Optimal Mix Of Global Energy Resources And The Potential Need For Geoengineering Using The Ceagom Model, John George Anasis, M. A. K. Khalil, George G. Lendaris, Christopher L. Butenhoff, Randall Bluffstone Oct 2017

An Analysis Of The Optimal Mix Of Global Energy Resources And The Potential Need For Geoengineering Using The Ceagom Model, John George Anasis, M. A. K. Khalil, George G. Lendaris, Christopher L. Butenhoff, Randall Bluffstone

Systems Science Faculty Publications and Presentations

Humanity faces tremendous challenges as a result of anthropogenic climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions. The mix of resources deployed in order to meet the energy needs of a growing global population is key to addressing the climate change issue. The goal of this research is to examine the optimal mix of energy resources that should be deployed to meet a forecast global energy demand while still meeting desired climate targets. The research includes the unique feature of examining the role that geoengineering can play in this optimization. The results show that some form of geoengineering is likely to ...


An Spm Stage Driven By 3 Stepper Motors, Jianghua Bai, Andres H. La Rosa Sep 2017

An Spm Stage Driven By 3 Stepper Motors, Jianghua Bai, Andres H. La Rosa

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

A Scanning Probe Microscope (SPM) stage controlled by 3 stepper motors is designed in this project. The SPM stage controlled by 3 steppers is more versatile than a stage controlled by one motor, but the control of the system is more complicated. In this project, we build the stage actions in an Arduino microcontroller. A finite state machine (FSM) is also built in Arduino to communicate with a PC and an RF controller. A special displaying scheme which has 5 states, is also employed to indicate the operation of the stage. Finally, the SPM stage is fully tested and has ...


A Finite Difference Method For Off-Fault Plasticity Throughout The Earthquake Cycle, Brittany A. Erickson, Eric M. Dunham, Arash Khosravifar Aug 2017

A Finite Difference Method For Off-Fault Plasticity Throughout The Earthquake Cycle, Brittany A. Erickson, Eric M. Dunham, Arash Khosravifar

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

We have developed an efficient computational framework for simulating multiple earthquake cycles with off-fault plasticity. The method is developed for the classical antiplane problem of a vertical strike-slip fault governed by rate-and-state friction, with inertial effects captured through the radiationdamping approximation. Both rate-independent plasticity and viscoplasticity are considered, where stresses are constrained by a Drucker-Prager yield condition. The off-fault volume is discretized using finite differences and tectonic loading is imposed by displacing the remote side boundaries at a constant rate. Time-stepping combines an adaptive Runge-Kutta method with an incremental solution process which makes use of an elastoplastic tangent stiffness tensor ...