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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Extensive Soot Compaction By Cloud Processing From Laboratory And Field Observations, Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra K Dubey, Allison C Aiken, Rajan K Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B Onasch, Rahul A Zaveri, Barbara V Scarnato, Paulo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni Aug 2019

Extensive Soot Compaction By Cloud Processing From Laboratory And Field Observations, Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra K Dubey, Allison C Aiken, Rajan K Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B Onasch, Rahul A Zaveri, Barbara V Scarnato, Paulo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni

Michigan Tech Publications

Soot particles form during combustion of carbonaceous materials and impact climate and air quality. When freshly emitted, they are typically fractal-like aggregates. After atmospheric aging, they can act as cloud condensation nuclei, and water condensation or evaporation restructure them to more compact aggregates, affecting their optical, aerodynamic, and surface properties. Here we survey the morphology of ambient soot particles from various locations and different environmental and aging conditions. We used electron microscopy and show extensive soot compaction after cloud processing. We further performed laboratory experiments to simulate atmospheric cloud processing under controlled conditions. We find that soot particles sampled after ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Aerosol Mediated Glaciation Of Mixed-Phase Clouds: Steady-State Laboratory Measurements", N. Desai, K. K. Chandrakar, G. Kinney, W. Cantrell, R. A. Shaw Jun 2019

Data Supporting The Paper "Aerosol Mediated Glaciation Of Mixed-Phase Clouds: Steady-State Laboratory Measurements", N. Desai, K. K. Chandrakar, G. Kinney, W. Cantrell, R. A. Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Tailoring Of The Electronic Property Of Zn-Btc Metal–Organic Framework Via Ligand Functionalization: An Ab Initio Investigation, Gemechis Degaga, Ravindra Pandey, Chansi Gupta, Lalit Bharadwaj May 2019

Tailoring Of The Electronic Property Of Zn-Btc Metal–Organic Framework Via Ligand Functionalization: An Ab Initio Investigation, Gemechis Degaga, Ravindra Pandey, Chansi Gupta, Lalit Bharadwaj

Department of Physics Publications

Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous materials of recent interest due to their promising properties for technological applications. In this paper, the structure–property relationships of pristine and functionalized Zn-BTC (Zn3(BTC)2) MOFs are investigated. The results based on density functional theory (DFT) find that MOFs with coordinatively saturated secondary building units (SBU) are metallic, and MOFs with coordinatively unsaturated SBU are semi-conducting. The ligand functionalization with electron acceptor (cyano-) and electron donor (amino-) groups appears to tailor the electronic properties of Zn-BTC MOFs; amino-functionalization led to a significant upward shift of the band-edges whereas cyano-functionalization ...


Turbulence-Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz Apr 2019

Turbulence-Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz

Michigan Tech Publications

The phenomenon of “cloud voids”, i.e., elongated volumes inside a cloud that are devoid of droplets, was observed with laser sheet photography in clouds at a mountain-top station. Two experimental cases, similar in turbulence conditions yet with diverse droplet size distributions and cloud void prevalence, are reported. A theoretical explanation is proposed based on the study of heavy inertial sedimenting particles inside a Burgers vortex. A general conclusion regarding void appearance is drawn from theoretical analysis. Numerical simulations of polydisperse droplet motion with realistic vortex parameters and Mie scattering visual effects accounted for can explain the presence of voids ...


Leidenfrost Pattern Formation And Boiling, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Alexei Krekhov, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Stephan Weiss Apr 2019

Leidenfrost Pattern Formation And Boiling, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Alexei Krekhov, Eberhard Bodenschatz, Stephan Weiss

Department of Physics Publications

We report on Leidenfrost patterns and boiling with compressed sulfur hexafluoride ( SF6). The experiments were carried out in a large aspect ratio Rayleigh–Bénard convection cell, where the distance between the horizontal plates is comparable with the capillary length of the working fluid. Pressures and temperatures were chosen such that the bottom plate was above and the top plate was below the liquid–vapor transition temperature of SF6. As a result, SF6 vapor condenses at the top plate and forms drops that grow in size. Leidenfrost patterns are formed as the drops do not fall but levitate ...


The Dawn Of Non-Hermitian Optics, Ramy El-Ganainy, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Demetrios Christodoulides, Sahin Ozdemir Mar 2019

The Dawn Of Non-Hermitian Optics, Ramy El-Ganainy, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Demetrios Christodoulides, Sahin Ozdemir

Department of Physics Publications

Recent years have seen a tremendous progress in the theory and experimental implementations of non-Hermitian photonics, including all-lossy optical systems as well as parity-time symmetric systems consisting of both optical loss and gain. This progress has led to a host of new intriguing results in the physics of light–matter interactions with promising potential applications in optical sciences and engineering. In this comment, we present a brief perspective on the developments in this field and discuss possible future research directions that can benefit from the notion of non-Hermitian engineering.


Data Supporting The Paper "Extensive Soot Compaction By Cloud Processing From Laboratory And Field Observations", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn R. Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra Dubey, Allison Aiken, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B. Onasch, Rahul A. Zaveri, Barbara Scarnato, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni Feb 2019

Data Supporting The Paper "Extensive Soot Compaction By Cloud Processing From Laboratory And Field Observations", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, Greg Kinney, Will Cantrell, Raymond Shaw, Lynn R. Mazzoleni, Giulia Girotto, Noopur Sharma, Kyle Gorkowski, Stefania Gilardoni, Stefano Decesari, Maria Cristina Facchini, Nicola Zanca, Giulia Pavese, Francesco Esposito, Manvendra Dubey, Allison Aiken, Rajan K. Chakrabarty, Hans Moosmüller, Timothy B. Onasch, Rahul A. Zaveri, Barbara Scarnato, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Natural Graphite Cuboids, Andrey Korsakov, Olga V. Rezvukhina, John Jaszczak, Dmitriy I. Rezvukhin, Denis Mikhailenko Feb 2019

Natural Graphite Cuboids, Andrey Korsakov, Olga V. Rezvukhina, John Jaszczak, Dmitriy I. Rezvukhin, Denis Mikhailenko

Department of Physics Publications

Graphite cuboids are abundant in ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks and are generally interpreted as products of partial or complete graphitization of pre-existing diamonds. The understanding of the graphite cuboid structure and its formation mechanisms is still very limited compared to nanotubes, cones, and other carbon morphologies. This paper is devoted to the natural occurrences of graphite cuboids in several metamorphic and magmatic rocks, including diamondiferous metamorphic assemblages. The studied cuboids are polycrystalline aggregates composed either of numerous smaller graphite cuboids with smooth surfaces or graphite flakes radiating from a common center. Silicates, oxides, and sulphides are abundant in all the samples ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Scaling Of An Atmospheric Model To Simulate Turbulence And Cloud Microphysics In The Pi Chamber", Subin Thomas, Mikhail S. Ovchinnikov, Fan Yang, Dennis Van Der Voort, Will Cantrell, Steven K. Krueger, Raymond Shaw Feb 2019

Data Supporting The Paper "Scaling Of An Atmospheric Model To Simulate Turbulence And Cloud Microphysics In The Pi Chamber", Subin Thomas, Mikhail S. Ovchinnikov, Fan Yang, Dennis Van Der Voort, Will Cantrell, Steven K. Krueger, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Revisiting The Paleomagnetism Of The Neoarchean Uauá Mafic Dyke Swarm, Brazil: Implications For Archean Supercratons, J. Salminen, E. P. Oliveira, Elisa J. Piispa, Aleksey Smirnov, R. I. F. Trindade Dec 2018

Revisiting The Paleomagnetism Of The Neoarchean Uauá Mafic Dyke Swarm, Brazil: Implications For Archean Supercratons, J. Salminen, E. P. Oliveira, Elisa J. Piispa, Aleksey Smirnov, R. I. F. Trindade

Michigan Tech Publications

The original connections of Archean cratons are becoming traceable due to an increasing amount of paleomagnetic data and refined magmatic barcodes. The Uauá block of the northern São Francisco craton may represent a fragment of a major Archean craton. Here, we report new paleomagnetic data from the 2.62 Ga Uauá tholeiitic mafic dyke swarm of the Uauá block in the northern São Francisco craton, Eastern Brazil. Our paleomagnetic results confirm the earlier results for these units, but our interpretation differs. We suggest that the obtained characteristic remanent magnetization for the 2.62 Ga swarm is of primary origin, supported ...


Winding Around Non-Hermitian Singularities, Qi Zhong, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Demetrios Christodoulides, Ramy El-Ganainy Nov 2018

Winding Around Non-Hermitian Singularities, Qi Zhong, Mercedeh Khajavikhan, Demetrios Christodoulides, Ramy El-Ganainy

Department of Physics Publications

Non-Hermitian singularities are ubiquitous in non-conservative open systems. Owing to their peculiar topology, they can remotely induce observable effects when encircled by closed trajectories in the parameter space. To date, a general formalism for describing this process beyond simple cases is still lacking. Here we develop a general approach for treating this problem by utilizing the power of permutation operators and representation theory. This in turn allows us to reveal a surprising result that has so far escaped attention: loops that enclose the same singularities in the parameter space starting from the same point and traveling in the same direction ...


Fine-Scale Droplet Clustering In Atmospheric Clouds: 3d Radial Distribution Function From Airborne Digital Holography, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw, Alexander Kostinski, Susanne Glienke Nov 2018

Fine-Scale Droplet Clustering In Atmospheric Clouds: 3d Radial Distribution Function From Airborne Digital Holography, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw, Alexander Kostinski, Susanne Glienke

Department of Physics Publications

The extent of droplet clustering in turbulent clouds has remained largely unquantified, and yet is of possible relevance to precipitation formation and radiative transfer. To that end, data gathered by an airborne holographic instrument are used to explore the three-dimensional spatial statistics of cloud droplet positions in homogeneous stratiform boundary-layer clouds. The three-dimensional radial distribution functions g(r) reveal unambiguous evidence of droplet clustering. Three key theoretical predictions are observed: the existence of positive correlations, onset of correlation in the turbulence dissipation range, and monotonic increase of g(r) with decreasing r. This implies that current theory captures the essential ...


Scale Dependence Of Cloud Microphysical Response To Turbulent Entrainment And Mixing, Bipin Kumar, Paul Gotzfried, Neethl Suresh, Jörg Schumacher, Raymond Shaw Oct 2018

Scale Dependence Of Cloud Microphysical Response To Turbulent Entrainment And Mixing, Bipin Kumar, Paul Gotzfried, Neethl Suresh, Jörg Schumacher, Raymond Shaw

Michigan Tech Publications

The dynamics and lifetime of atmospheric clouds are tightly coupled to entrainment and turbulent mixing. This paper presents direct numerical simulations of turbulent mixing followed by droplet evaporation at the cloud‐clear air interface in a meter‐sized volume, with an ensemble of up to almost half a billion individual cloud water droplets. The dependence of the mixing process on domain size reveals that inhomogeneous mixing becomes increasingly important as the domain size is increased. The shape of the droplet size distribution varies strongly with spatial scale, with the appearance of a pronounced negative exponential tail. The increase of relative ...


Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz Oct 2018

Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation, Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz

Department of Physics Publications

The phenomenon of cloud voids, i.e., elongated volumes inside a cloud that are devoid of droplets, was observed with laser sheet photography in clouds at a mountain-top station. Two experimental cases, similar in turbulence conditions yet with diverse droplet size distributions and cloud void prevalence, are reported. A theoretical explanation is proposed based on the study of heavy inertial sedimenting particles inside a Burgers vortex. A general conclusion regarding void appearance is drawn from theoretical analysis. Numerical simulations of polydisperse droplet motion with realistic vortex parameters and Mie scattering visual effects accounted for can explain the presence of voids ...


Molecular And Physical Characteristics Of Aerosol At A Remote Free Troposphere Site: Implications For Atmospheric Aging, Simeon Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn Mazzoleni Oct 2018

Molecular And Physical Characteristics Of Aerosol At A Remote Free Troposphere Site: Implications For Atmospheric Aging, Simeon Schum, Bo Zhang, Katja Džepina, Paolo Fialho, Claudio Mazzoleni, Lynn Mazzoleni

Department of Chemistry Publications

Aerosol properties are transformed by atmospheric processes during long-range transport and play a key role in the Earth's radiative balance. To understand the molecular and physical characteristics of free tropospheric aerosol, we studied samples collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located in the marine free troposphere at 2225m above sea level, on Pico Island in the Azores archipelago. The site is ideal for the study of long-range-transported free tropospheric aerosol with minimal local influence. Three aerosol samples with elevated organic carbon concentrations were selected for detailed analysis. FLEXPART retroplumes indicated that two ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation", Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz Oct 2018

Data Supporting The Paper "Turbulence Induced Cloud Voids: Observation And Interpretation", Katarzyna Karpinska, Jonathan F. E. Bodenschatz, Szymon P. Malinowski, Jakub L. Nowak, Steffen Risius, Tina Schmeissner, Raymond Shaw, Holger Siebert, Hengdong Xi, Haitao Xu, Eberhard Bodenschatz

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius, K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, Raymond Shaw Sep 2018

Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius, K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

Cloud optical properties are determined not only by the number density nd and mean radiusof cloud droplets but also by the shape of the droplet size distribution. The change in cloud optical depth with changing nd, due to the change in distribution shape, is known as the dispersion effect. Droplet relative dispersion is defined as d=σr / ṝ . For the first time, a commonly used effective radius parameterization is tested in a controlled laboratory environment by creating a turbulent cloud. Stochastic condensation growth suggests d independent of nd for a nonprecipitating cloud, hence nearly ...


Organization And Oscillations In Simulated Shallow Convective Clouds, Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, Alexander Kostinski, Orit Altaratz Sep 2018

Organization And Oscillations In Simulated Shallow Convective Clouds, Guy Dagan, Ilan Koren, Alexander Kostinski, Orit Altaratz

Department of Physics Publications

Physical insights into processes governing temporal organization and evolution of cloud fields are of great importance for climate research. Here using large eddy simulations with a bin microphysics scheme, we show that warm convective cloud fields exhibit oscillations with two distinct periods (~10 and ~90 min, for the case studied here). The shorter period dominates the nonprecipitating phase, and the longer period is related to the precipitating phase. We show that rain processes affect the domain's thermodynamics, hence forcing the field into a low‐frequency recharge‐discharge cycle of developing cloudiness followed by precipitation‐driven depletion. The end result ...


Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw Sep 2018

Data Supporting The Paper "Dispersion Aerosol Indirect Effect In Turbulent Clouds: Laboratory Measurements Of Effective Radius", K. K. Chandrakar, Will Cantrell, A. Kostinski, R. A. Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

No abstract provided.


Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni Aug 2018

Simulation Data Supporting The Paper "Optical Properties And Radiative Forcing Of Fractal-Like Tar Ball Aggregates From Biomass Burning", Janarjan Bhandari, Swarup China, Giulia Girotto, Barbara Scarnato, Kyle Gorkowski, Allison Aiken, Manvendra Dubey, C. Mazzoleni

Department of Physics Publications

Simulations data supporting the paper "Optical properties and radiative forcing of fractal-like tar ball aggregates from biomass burning," to be submitted to the Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer.


Measurement And Modeling Of The Multiwavelength Optical Properties Of Uncoated Flame-Generated Soot, Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Paulo Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Claudio Mazzoleni, Et. Al. Aug 2018

Measurement And Modeling Of The Multiwavelength Optical Properties Of Uncoated Flame-Generated Soot, Sara D. Forestieri, Taylor M. Helgestad, Andrew T. Lambe, Lindsay Renbaum-Wolff, Paulo Massoli, Eben S. Cross, Claudio Mazzoleni, Et. Al.

Michigan Tech Publications

Optical properties of flame-generated black carbon (BC) containing soot particles were quantified at multiple wavelengths for particles produced using two different flames: a methane diffusion flame and an ethylene premixed flame. Measurements were made for (i) nascent soot particles, (ii) thermally denuded nascent particles, and (iii) particles that were coated and then thermally denuded, leading to the collapse of the initially lacy, fractal-like morphology. The measured mass absorption coefficients (MACs) depended on soot maturity and generation but were similar between flames for similar conditions. For mature soot, here corresponding to particles with volume-equivalent diameters >∼160 nm, the MAC and absorption ...


Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw Aug 2018

Observation Of A Link Between Energy Dissipation Rate And Oscillation Frequency Of The Large-Scale Circulation In Dry And Moist Rayleigh-Bénard Turbulence, Dennis Niedermeier, Kelken Chang, Will Cantrell, Kamal Kant Chandrakar, David Ciochetto, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

In this study both the small- and large-scale flow properties of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection are investigated. Experiments are carried out using the Π chamber (aspect ratio Γ=2) for Rayleigh number range Ra∼108–109 and Prandtl number Pr≈0.7. Furthermore, experiments are run for dry and wet conditions, i.e., top and bottom surfaces of the chamber are dry and wet, respectively. For wet conditions we further distinguish between conditions with and without the presence of sodium chloride aerosol particles which, if supersaturated conditions are achieved, lead to cloud droplet formation. We therefore refer to these ...


Light Absorption By Polar And Non-Polar Aerosol Compounds From Laboratory Biomass Combustion, Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Chiranjiva Bhattarai, Elena Kirillova, Lynn Mazzoleni, Michealene Iaukea-Lum, Adam Watts, Audrey Khlystov Aug 2018

Light Absorption By Polar And Non-Polar Aerosol Compounds From Laboratory Biomass Combustion, Deep Sengupta, Vera Samburova, Chiranjiva Bhattarai, Elena Kirillova, Lynn Mazzoleni, Michealene Iaukea-Lum, Adam Watts, Audrey Khlystov

Department of Chemistry Publications

Fresh and atmospherically aged biomass-burning (BB) aerosol mass is mostly comprised of strongly light-absorbing black carbon (BC) and of organic carbon (OC) with its light-absorbing fraction – brown carbon (BrC). There is a lack of data on the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric BB aerosols, leading to high uncertainties in estimates of the BB impact on air quality and climate, especially for BrC. The polarity of chemical compounds influences their fate in the atmosphere including wet/dry deposition and chemical and physical processing. So far, most of the attention has been given to the water-soluble (polar) fraction of BrC, while ...


A Method For Computing The Three-Dimensional Radial Distribution Function Of Cloud Particles From Holographic Images, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw Jul 2018

A Method For Computing The Three-Dimensional Radial Distribution Function Of Cloud Particles From Holographic Images, Michael L. Larsen, Raymond Shaw

Michigan Tech Publications

Reliable measurements of the three-dimensional radial distribution function for cloud droplets are desired to help characterize microphysical processes that depend on local drop environment. Existing numerical techniques to estimate this three-dimensional radial distribution function are not well suited to in situ or laboratory data gathered from a finite experimental domain. This paper introduces and tests a new method designed to reliably estimate the three-dimensional radial distribution function in contexts in which (i) physical considerations prohibit the use of periodic boundary conditions and (ii) particle positions are measured inside a convex volume that may have a large aspect ratio. The method ...


On The Detection Of Statistical Heterogeneity In Rain Measurements, A. R. Jameson, Michael L. Larsen, A. Kostinski Jul 2018

On The Detection Of Statistical Heterogeneity In Rain Measurements, A. R. Jameson, Michael L. Larsen, A. Kostinski

Department of Physics Publications

The application of the Wiener–Khintchine theorem for translating a readily measured correlation function into the variance spectrum, important for scale analyses and for scaling transformations of data, requires that the data be wide-sense homogeneous (stationary), that is, that the first and second moments of the probability distribution of the variable are the same at all times (stationarity) or at all locations (homogeneity) over the entire observed domain. This work provides a heuristic method independent of statistical models for evaluating whether a set of data in rain is wide-sense stationary (WSS). The alternative, statistical heterogeneity, requires 1) that there be ...


Scaling Of Drizzle Virga Depth With Cloud Thickness For Marine Stratocumulus Clouds, Fan Yang, Edward P. Luke, Pavlos Kollias, Alexander Kostinski, Andrew M. Vogelmann Apr 2018

Scaling Of Drizzle Virga Depth With Cloud Thickness For Marine Stratocumulus Clouds, Fan Yang, Edward P. Luke, Pavlos Kollias, Alexander Kostinski, Andrew M. Vogelmann

Department of Physics Publications

Drizzle is frequently observed in marine stratocumulus clouds and plays a crucial role in cloud lifetime and the radiation budget. Most drizzling stratocumulus clouds form drizzle virga below cloud base, where subcloud scavenging and evaporative cooling are important. We use unique ground‐based cloud radar observations (1) to examine the statistical properties of drizzle frequency and virga depth and (2) to test a simple analytical relationship derived between drizzle virga thickness (Hv) and cloud thickness (Hc). Observations show that 83% of marine stratocumulus clouds are drizzling although only 31% generate surface precipitation. The analytical expression for Hv ...


Electronic And Quantum Transport Properties Of A Graphene-Bn Dot-Ring Hetero-Nanostructure, Max Seel, Ravindra Pandey Apr 2018

Electronic And Quantum Transport Properties Of A Graphene-Bn Dot-Ring Hetero-Nanostructure, Max Seel, Ravindra Pandey

Michigan Tech Publications

Quantum dots, quantum rings, and, most recently, quantum dot-ring nanostructures have been studied for their interesting potential applications in nanoelectronic applications. Here, the electronic properties of a dot-ring hetero-nanostructure consisting of a graphene ring and graphene dot with a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) ring serving as barrier between ring and dot are investigated using density functional theory. Analysis of the character of the wave functions near the Fermi level and of the charge distribution of this dot-ring structure and calculations of the quantum transport properties find asymmetry in the conductance resonances leading to asymmetric I–V characteristics which can be ...


Topological Hybrid Silicon Microlasers, Han Zhao, Pei Mao University Of Pennsylvania, Mohammad H. Teimourpour, Simon Malzard, Ramy El-Ganainy, Henning Schomerus, Liang Feng Mar 2018

Topological Hybrid Silicon Microlasers, Han Zhao, Pei Mao University Of Pennsylvania, Mohammad H. Teimourpour, Simon Malzard, Ramy El-Ganainy, Henning Schomerus, Liang Feng

Department of Physics Publications

Topological physics provides a robust framework for strategically controlling wave confinement and propagation dynamics. However, current implementations have been restricted to the limited design parameter space defined by passive topological structures. Active systems provide a more general framework where different fundamental symmetry paradigms, such as those arising from non-Hermiticity and nonlinear interaction, can generate a new landscape for topological physics and its applications. Here, we bridge this gap and present an experimental investigation of an active topological photonic system, demonstrating a topological hybrid silicon microlaser array respecting the charge-conjugation symmetry. The created new symmetry features favour the lasing of a ...


Power-Law Scaling Of Extreme Dynamics Near Higher-Order Exceptional Points, Q. Zhong, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, M. Khajavikhan, K. G. Makris, Ramy El-Ganainy Feb 2018

Power-Law Scaling Of Extreme Dynamics Near Higher-Order Exceptional Points, Q. Zhong, Demetrios N. Christodoulides, M. Khajavikhan, K. G. Makris, Ramy El-Ganainy

Department of Physics Publications

We investigate the extreme dynamics of non-Hermitian systems near higher-order exceptional points in photonic networks constructed using the bosonic algebra method. We show that strong power oscillations for certain initial conditions can occur as a result of the peculiar eigenspace geometry and its dimensionality collapse near these singularities. By using complementary numerical and analytical approaches, we show that, in the parity-time (PT) phase near exceptional points, the logarithm of the maximum optical power amplification scales linearly with the order of the exceptional point. We focus in our discussion on photonic systems, but we note that our results apply to other ...


Nonthermal Ice Nucleation Observed At Distorted Contact Lines Of Supercooled Water Drops, Fan Yang, Owen Cruikshank, Weilue He, Alexander Kostinski, Raymond Shaw Feb 2018

Nonthermal Ice Nucleation Observed At Distorted Contact Lines Of Supercooled Water Drops, Fan Yang, Owen Cruikshank, Weilue He, Alexander Kostinski, Raymond Shaw

Department of Physics Publications

Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines. Results show that symmetric motion of supercooled water on a vertically oscillating substrate does not freeze ...