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Metallurgy

University of Nevada, Las Vegas

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Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2005

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

There is an active international interest in lead-bismuth eutectic and similar liquid lead systems because of the relevance to the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources.

Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems, there is an additional challenge because the corrosive behaviors of materials in LBE are not well understood. Most of the available information on LBE systems has come from the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found ...


Spectroscopic And Microscopic Investigation Of The Corrosion Of 316/316l Stainless Steel By Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe) At Elevated Temperatures: Importance Of Surface Preparation, Allen L. Johnson, Denise Parsons, Julia Manzerova, Dale L. Perry, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley Jul 2004

Spectroscopic And Microscopic Investigation Of The Corrosion Of 316/316l Stainless Steel By Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe) At Elevated Temperatures: Importance Of Surface Preparation, Allen L. Johnson, Denise Parsons, Julia Manzerova, Dale L. Perry, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The corrosion of steel by lead–bismuth eutectic (LBE) is an important issue in proposed nuclear transmutation schemes. Russian scientists at the IPPE exposed steel samples to oxygen-controlled LBE at temperatures up to 823 K and exposure times up to 3000 h. We have characterized these post-exposure steel samples and unexposed controls, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Previous researchers have investigated the corrosion by LBE of steel of varying composition. In the present work, we compared two samples having the same composition (standard nuclear grade 316/316L) but different surface preparation ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2004

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

There is an active international interest in lead-bismuth eutectic and similar liquid lead systems because of the relevance to the transmutation of nuclear waste, fast reactors, and spallation neutron sources. A successful program in nuclear waste processing that includes transmutation in accelerator-driven systems and fast reactors, would significantly decrease the space requirements for geological repositories.

Materials in these systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, high temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems, there is an additional challenge because the corrosive behaviors of materials in LBE are not well understood. Most of the available information ...


Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Target Material, Mohammad K. Hossain Jan 2004

Stress Corrosion Cracking Of Target Material, Mohammad K. Hossain

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The primary objective of this paper is to evaluate the effect of hydrogen on environment assisted cracking of candidate target materials for transmutation applications. Transmutation refers to transformation of long-lived actinides and fission products from spent nuclear fuels (SNF), and occurs when the nucleus of an atom changes because of natural radioactive decay, nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, neutron capture, or other related processes. Martensitic Alloy EP 823 was selected to be the candidate alloy for this investigation. During the initial phase, the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of this alloy was evaluated in neutral (pH: 6-7) and acidic (pH: 2-3 ...


Identification Of Dynamic Properties Of Materials For The Nuclear Waste Package, Brendan O'Toole, Mohamed Trabia, Amy J. Smiecinski Oct 2003

Identification Of Dynamic Properties Of Materials For The Nuclear Waste Package, Brendan O'Toole, Mohamed Trabia, Amy J. Smiecinski

Publications (YM)

Stainless steel 316L, titanium alloy grade 7, and alloy C22 are currently under consideration as candidate materials for use in various components associated with the spent nuclear fuel package, which must be designed to withstand structural deformation caused by static, thermal, and handling loads. In addition, it has to maintain its integrity in case of accidents, where it may be subjected to high loads over a very short period of time. Mechanical characteristics of these three materials under dynamic loading are not well documented. This paper describes the procedures and results obtained from experiments performed over a range of slow ...


Task 32 Delayed Hydride Cracking Of Spent Fuel Cladding Under Repository Conditions, Ajit K. Roy, Anthony Hechanova, Amy J. Smiecinski Sep 2003

Task 32 Delayed Hydride Cracking Of Spent Fuel Cladding Under Repository Conditions, Ajit K. Roy, Anthony Hechanova, Amy J. Smiecinski

Publications (YM)

The objective of this quality-affecting task is to evaluate the susceptibility of spent nuclear fuel cladding materials (zirconium alloys) to stress corrosion cracking (SCC), delayed hydride cracking (DHC) and localized corrosion (pitting/crevice) in simulated repository environments. During the first year of this project, major efforts were focused on developing the infrastructure for performing the desired testing involving two highly corrosion-resistant alloys namely, zircaloy-2 (Zr-2) and zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) in simulated concentrated acidic water (SAW) and modified SAW (SAWM). Modification of the SAW chemistry was done by adding hydrochloric acid (HC1) to achieve lower pH. The construction of the "Materials Performance ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2003

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/03- 8/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The analysis of mold filling and solidification continues with progress being made for the consideration of these two features within one model. Analysis of the induction heating process of an Induction Skull Melter (ISM) is under study. Efforts are underway to validate the modeling procedure and specific comparisons are being made to previously published work. Few detailed modeling results have been reported by other researchers, making the validations an important part of the overall modeling process. Skin heating depths, power deposition rates, and other process parameters are being evaluated for use in upcoming furnace design simulations. Efforts are beginning on ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper May 2003

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 2/16/03- 5/15/03, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

Progress continues on the analysis of casting and solidification of the melt into molds. Modeling results for constant pressure casting, which is more realistic, have been obtained and produce physically realistic results for flow that starts, flows, and then eventually stops as it enters the mold. Potential mass transfer modeling features (Lammuir’s law for example) are being studied to enhance the capabilities of a mass transfer in a detailed system model. Different parameters are being varied as part of a parametric study to evaluate factors that impact the flow of the melt into the molds. The ability to include ...


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrel W. Pepper, Randy Clarksean Feb 2003

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrel W. Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

UNLV has developed and will continue to develop process models for the analysis of melt casting processes. This work will continue to be performed under the guidance of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) engineers to insure that their knowledge and experience benefits the project. The research to be conducted during year three will center on performing detailed analyses on a conceptual design of an inductively heated skull-crucible casting furnace. Processing conditions will be analyzed, basic models utilized, and detailed heat and mass transfer models will be developed to analyze the most promising processes. The goal of this third year is to ...


Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson Feb 2003

Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the present research is to achieve a basic understanding of corrosion of steels by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Liquid LBE is under consideration in the transmuter as both a spallation target and as a blanket coolant. There have been previous studies of LBE, especially by the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found that the presence of small amounts (ppm) of oxygen in the LBE significantly reduced corrosion. However, a fundamental understanding and verification of its role in the corrosion of steels is still very incomplete ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report November- December 2002 January 2003, John Farley Feb 2003

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report November- December 2002 January 2003, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

We continue to get valuable data from sputter depth profiling of steel samples. We meet weekly to discuss progress. We took depth-profiling data on D9 steel that had been exposed to LBE. This the first time we have examined this type of steel. This is important because it will enable us to separate out two effects and determine their effect on corrosion: composition of the steel vs surface preparation.

We started to plan a small experiments using a crucible of heated LBE, with the research program to be conducted at UNLV, on basic aspects of corrosion in this system. The ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry Jan 2003

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Allen L. Johnson, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Materials for transmuter systems must be able to tolerate high neutron fluxes, great temperatures, and chemical corrosion. For lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) systems, there is an additional challenge in that the corrosive behaviors of materials in LBE are not well understood. Most of the available information on LBE systems has come from the Russians, who have over 80 reactor-years experience with LBE coolant in their Alpha-class submarine reactors. The Russians found that the presence of small amounts of oxygen (on the order of parts per million) in the LBE significantly reduced corrosion. However, a fundamental understanding and verification of its ...


Surface Studies Of Corrosion Of Stainless Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, D. Parsons, J. Manzerova, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2003

Surface Studies Of Corrosion Of Stainless Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, Daniel Koury, Brian D. Hosterman, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, D. Parsons, J. Manzerova, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Why is Lead Bismuth Eutectic Important?

• Changing national security stances have led to reexamination of nuclear waste reprocessing

• Dangerous actinides can be separated and

• Transmuted into safer products, creating a waste form dangerous for only hundreds of years, in addition to the production (up to 1/3 of the original fission energy) of useful energy

• Non-moderating coolants or spallation targets for production of fast neutrons is required for transmutation

• Russian experience with LBE coolants in their nuclear submarine fleet makes LBE an attractive possible transmutation coolant technology

• Corrosion of steel by LBE is an important sticking point in the utilization ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report August September October 2002, John Farley Nov 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report August September October 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

We continued with sputter depth profiling of 316 and 316L steel samples that have been exposed to LBE. We also calibrated the sputter depth profiling using a sample of SiO2 on Si, and the SEM. This is a valuable independent determination of the thickness of oxide layers.

In the laboratory, progress continues using the XPS machine. Experiments have been performed on steel samples using Argon ions to mill away the surface of the sample, thereby making measurements as a function of depth. This "ion beam milling" proceeds slowly through the oxide layer that covers the steel sample. We are ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/02- 8/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Aug 2002

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 5/16/02- 8/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

An important aspect of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program is the development of a casting process by which volatile actinide element (i.e., americium) can be incorporated into metallic alloy fuel pins. The traditional metal fuel casting process uses an inductively heated crucible.

This process works well for the fabrication of metal fuel pins traditionally composed of alloys of uranium and plutonium, but does not work well when highly volatile actinides are included in the melt. The problem occurs both during the extended time period required to superheat the alloy melt as well as when the chamber must be ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report For May-June-July 2002, John Farley Aug 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Quarterly Report For May-June-July 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of this project is to understand the basic science of corrosion in the steel/LBE system.

We are taking more data, typically using the newly installed X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry (XPS) apparatus, and analyzing our existing data. Undergraduate students Denise Parsons and Julia Manzerova have helped a great deal in the analysis of the data. We can obtain the elemental composition as a function of position within the sample. This gives clues to the migration of materials, the composition of the protective oxide layer, and the basic science of the corrosion process. We found dramatic differences between the exposed ...


Humidity And Temperature Boundaries For Biofilm Formation In Yucca Mountain, Terry Ann Else, Penny S. Amy, James Jay, Amy J. Smiecinski May 2002

Humidity And Temperature Boundaries For Biofilm Formation In Yucca Mountain, Terry Ann Else, Penny S. Amy, James Jay, Amy J. Smiecinski

Publications (YM)

To determine the long-term success of the recommended Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, studies of bacterial colonization and biofilm development are needed. Bacteria involved in microbially-influenced corrosion and degradation are known to form biofilms with the potential to impact the integrity of repository packaging and structural materials. Temperature and humidity are environmental factors that can greatly affect biofilm formation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the temperature and humidity conditions that affect biofilm formation. Microcosms, which simulated the repository environment of Yucca Mountain, were placed at temperatures ranging from 30° C to 70° C and in relative humidities ranging ...


Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean Apr 2002

Design And Analysis Of A Process For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides, Yitung Chen, Darrell Pepper, Randy Clarksean

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

UNLV has developed and will continue to develop process models for the analysis of melt casting processes. This work will continue to be performed under the guidance of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) engineers to ensure that their knowledge and experience benefits the project. The research to be conducted during the second year will center on performing detailed analyses on a conceptual design of an inductively heated skull-crucible casting furnace. Processing conditions will be analyzed, basic models utilized, and detailed heat and mass transfer models will be developed to analyze the most promising processes. The goal of this second year is ...


Third Quarter Report, Covering January Through March 2002, John Farley Mar 2002

Third Quarter Report, Covering January Through March 2002, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

Progress from June 2001-November 2001 was presented at the winter meeting of the American Nuclear Society in Reno (November 12-15, 2001), and incorporated into a refereed conference proceeding. A copy of the refereed conference proceeding has been provided to Tony Hechanova. In brief, the paper described the new program to examine the corrosive effects of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) on steels. We employed various types of surface studies (Scanning Electron Microscope [SEM], and X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometry [XPS]) to examine steel samples that had been exposed to LBE for various lengths of time at various temperatures. The goal is to understand the ...


Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper Feb 2002

Design And Analysis For Melt Casting Metallic Fuel Pins Incorporating Volatile Actinides: Quarterly Progress Report 11/16/01- 2/15/02, Yitung Chen, Randy Clarksean, Darrell Pepper

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

An important aspect of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program is the development of a casting process by which volatile actinide element (i.e., americium) can be incorporated into metallic alloy fuel pins. The traditional metal fuel casting process uses an inductively heated crucible.

This process works well for the fabrication of metal fuel pins traditionally composed of alloys of uranium and plutonium, but does not work well when highly volatile actinides are included in the melt. The problem occurs both during the extended time period required to superheat the alloy melt as well as when the chamber must be ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson Jan 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry, Allen L. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

This research program will analyze various steel samples that have been exposed to LBE as part of the national program to develop LBE and transmutation technologies. This information will be paramount in developing engineering efforts to control, avoid, and/or minimize the effect of corrosion of steels by LBE in transmuter and LBE systems. Additionally, this program provides UNLV researchers with hands-on experience that will be crucial in developing the UNLV LBE program, supporting the University’s mission with the ISTC target complex, and the future development of additional facilities to examine LBE systems.

The research group plans to test ...


Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Year 1 Annual Report, John Farley Jan 2002

Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic: Year 1 Annual Report, John Farley

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal is to investigate the corrosion of stainless steel by lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE), which has been proposed for use as a blanket coolant and a spallation target in the transmuter.


Analysis Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry Nov 2001

Analysis Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

We examined stainless samples that were exposed to LBE in experiments conducted by the Russians, under contract to Los Alamos. We examined both corroded and uncorroded samples using the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), the Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDAX) Spectroscopy, and the X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS). We found that the surface of the corroded sample is covered by oxygen-containing compounds, presumably mostly iron oxide. In samples exposed for shorter times or lower temperatures, we found that some areas were covered by an oxide layer, and some areas was uncovered. We found that the level of Cr in the uncovered area is ...


Analysis Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry Aug 2001

Analysis Of Corrosion Of Steel By Lead Bismuth Eutectic, John Farley, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal is to achieve a basic understanding of the corrosion of stainless steel by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE), which has been proposed for use in the transmuter as both a coolant and as a sputtering target.


Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry Jan 2001

Experimental Investigation Of Steel Corrosion In Lead Bismuth Eutectic (Lbe): Characterization, Species Identification, And Chemical Reactions, John Farley, Dale L. Perry

Transmutation Sciences Materials (TRP)

The goal of the present research is to achieve a basic understanding of corrosion of steels by Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE). Liquid LBE is under consideration in the transmuter as both a coolant and a target material. There have been studies of LBE, especially by the Russians, but a fundamental understanding and verification of its role in the corrosion of steels is still very 2 incomplete. Post-experiment testing and analysis will be performed on steel samples that have been in intimate contact with LBE. Chemical alterations and resulting chemical species will be measured at the steel surface. Techniques to be ...