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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert J. Brecha Dec 2012

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...


Economics Of Nuclear Power And Climate Change Mitigation Policies, Nico Bauer, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer Oct 2012

Economics Of Nuclear Power And Climate Change Mitigation Policies, Nico Bauer, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer

Physics Faculty Publications

The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive ...


Leds And Astronomy, Britny N. Delp, Stephen M. Pompea Aug 2012

Leds And Astronomy, Britny N. Delp, Stephen M. Pompea

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Using a Czerny-Turner spectrometer, 45 different types of outdoor lights were categorized. These spectra were used to determine how useful the light is to human eyes and how dark skies friendly these lights are. Dark skies friendly lighting means that little to no light shines above a right angle to the light, and should emit as little as possible below 500nm (green) wavelengths. The short wavelengths present a problem to astronomers in the form of Rayleigh scattering. The following criterion were used in selecting the best source for urban and rural lighting: color rendition measured by color rendering index (CRI ...


Hrc Enews — 2012 Summer, Megan M. Iudice Jul 2012

Hrc Enews — 2012 Summer, Megan M. Iudice

Publications (HRC)

This issue contains staff accomplishments and announcements, event listings, and a "new faces" listing for new staff, affiliates, and researchers.


Photonic Crystal: Energy-Related Applications, Zhuo Ye, Joong Mok Park, Kristen P. Constant, Tae Guen Kim, Kai-Ming Ho Jun 2012

Photonic Crystal: Energy-Related Applications, Zhuo Ye, Joong Mok Park, Kristen P. Constant, Tae Guen Kim, Kai-Ming Ho

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

We review recent work on photonic-crystal fabrication using soft-lithography techniques. We consider applications of the resulting structures in energy-related areas such as lighting and solar-energy harvesting. In general, our aim is to introduce the reader to the concepts of photonic crystals, describe their history, development, and fabrication techniques and discuss a selection of energy-related applications.


Hrc Enews — 2012 Spring, Megan M. Iudice Apr 2012

Hrc Enews — 2012 Spring, Megan M. Iudice

Publications (HRC)

This issue contains staff accomplishments and announcements, event listings, and a "new faces" listing for new staff, affiliates, and researchers.


Industrial And Agricultural Applications Of Solar Heat, Brian Norton Jan 2012

Industrial And Agricultural Applications Of Solar Heat, Brian Norton

Books/Book chapters

Mankind’s earliest use of solar energy was probably the drying of food crops to aid their preservation. Open sun drying of fruit, vegetables, fish and meats often improved or enhanced particular flavors and textures such that solely because of those attributes many dried products remain in culinary use today, as examples, dried seaweed, sun-dried tomatoes, raisins and dried pistachio nuts. Open sun drying is displaced increasingly by glazed solar dryers that (i) enable equilibrium moisture content to be reached sooner and (ii) avoid losses of the crop to insects and rodents.

A further agricultural application, the greenhouse extended the ...


Hrc Enews — 2012 Winter, Megan M. Iudice Jan 2012

Hrc Enews — 2012 Winter, Megan M. Iudice

Publications (HRC)

This issue contains staff accomplishments and announcements, event listings, and a "new faces" listing for new staff, affiliates, and researchers.


Variable Renewable Energy In Modeling Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer, Patrick Sullivan, Eva Schmid, Nico Bauer, Diana Böttger Jul 2011

Variable Renewable Energy In Modeling Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert J. Brecha, Gunnar Luderer, Patrick Sullivan, Eva Schmid, Nico Bauer, Diana Böttger

Physics Faculty Publications

This paper addresses the issue of how to account for short‐term temporal variability of renewable energy sources and power demand in long‐term climate change mitigation scenarios in energy‐economic models. An approach that captures in a stylized way the major challenges to the integration of variable renewable energy sources into power systems has been developed. As a first application this approach has been introduced to REMIND‐D, a hybrid energy‐economy model of Germany. An approximation of the residual load duration curve is implemented. The approximating function endogenously changes depending on the penetration and mix of variable renewable ...


Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And The Effective Size Of Oil Resources, Robert J. Brecha Jun 2011

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And The Effective Size Of Oil Resources, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

The size of potential fossil fuel resources is an issue of perennial interest and controversy. Fundamentally, there appears to be a conflict in interpretation of available data for both past and future extraction histories. As fossil-fuel prices rose dramatically over the past several years, the question of resources once again became acute. In this paper we concentrate on conventional and non-conventional oil resources and make four main points, with the overarching theme that one can determine an effective oil resource that represents significantly less availability for consumption than usually posited by tallying resources in place.

First, looking at oil production ...


Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock May 2011

Prioritizing Investment In Residential Energy Efficiency And Renewable Energy: A Case Study For The U.S. Midwest, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock

Physics Faculty Publications

Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home ...


Establishing Building Recommissioning Priorities And Potential Energy Savings From Utility Energy Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, Philip Brodrick, Jessica Northridge, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha Jan 2011

Establishing Building Recommissioning Priorities And Potential Energy Savings From Utility Energy Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, Philip Brodrick, Jessica Northridge, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

An energy reduction program for commercial buildings is implemented for a SW Ohio natural gas utility. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that historical utility data for individual building customers, along with knowledge of pertinent building information (square footage, year built, number of floors, height of floors, wall construction type, and use type) available in county auditor databases, could be used to identify the best candidate buildings for recommissioning in terms of energy savings and simple payback. A study is completed for all natural gas customers of a utility in Montgomery and Clinton counties in Ohio. A total ...


Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell Jan 2011

Targeting Residential Energy Reduction For City Utilities Using Historical Electrical Utility Data And Readily Available Building Data, Kevin P. Hallinan, J. Kelly Kissock, Robert J. Brecha, Austin Mitchell

Physics Faculty Publications

Energy use data for the eight-year period 2003–2010 was analyzed for over 1200 single family residences in Village of Yellow Springs, Ohio. Electricity, natural gas, residential building, and weather databases are merged to permit determination of the energy intensity of each home in the village. The energy use intensity for each home is disaggregated into weather independent and weather dependent electric and natural gas use. This use is compared to typical baseline, cooling, and heating energy use for the region. From this comparison, priority homes are identified for energy reduction investment. Collective potential low cost energy reduction is estimated ...


Climate Change: The Fork At The End Of Now, Micha Tomkiewicz Jan 2011

Climate Change: The Fork At The End Of Now, Micha Tomkiewicz

Publications and Research

There are many books on global warming written entirely from a layman's perspective, and there is a great deal of scientific literature on this subject. But few if any books attempt to bridge the science to those who lack a rigorous background in mathematics, physics and chemistry-but who may be working on careers in environmental science and policy. The new text is designed to introduce the field of global climate change from a scientific perspective-but written in a way that is accessible to students with some or little science background. It reviews the basic principles of climatic thermodynamics and ...


Site-Specific Photocatalytic Splitting Of Methanol On Tio2(110), Chuanyao Zhou, Zefeng Ren, Shijing Tan, Zhibo Ma, Xinchun Mao, Dongxu Dai, Hongjun Fan, Xueming Yang, Jerry L. Larue, Russell Cooper, Alec M. Wodtke, Zhou Wang, Zhenyu Li, Bing Wang, Jinlong Yang, Jianguo Hou Sep 2010

Site-Specific Photocatalytic Splitting Of Methanol On Tio2(110), Chuanyao Zhou, Zefeng Ren, Shijing Tan, Zhibo Ma, Xinchun Mao, Dongxu Dai, Hongjun Fan, Xueming Yang, Jerry L. Larue, Russell Cooper, Alec M. Wodtke, Zhou Wang, Zhenyu Li, Bing Wang, Jinlong Yang, Jianguo Hou

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Clean hydrogen production is highly desirable for future energy needs, making the understanding of molecular-level phenomena underlying photocatalytic hydrogen production both fundamentally and practically important. Water splitting on pure TiO2 is inefficient, however, adding sacrificial methanol could significantly enhance the photocatalyzed H2 production. Therefore, understanding the photochemistry of methanol on TiO2 at the molecular level could provide important insights to its photocatalytic activity. Here, we report the first clear evidence of photocatalyzed splitting of methanol on TiO2 derived from time-dependent two-photon photoemission (TD-2PPE) results in combination with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). STM tip induced molecular manipulation ...


An Examination Of The Impact Of Air From China On Summertime Air Quality In Japan Before, During, And After The Beijing Olympics, Gary A. Morris, Hajime Akimoto, Masayuki Takigawa, Jun Hirokawa, Fumio Hasebe, Masatomo Fujiwara, Koji Miyagawa, Nicholay Krotkov, Jacquie Witte, Yugo Kanaya, Nathan Kellams, Ted Pietrzak Mar 2010

An Examination Of The Impact Of Air From China On Summertime Air Quality In Japan Before, During, And After The Beijing Olympics, Gary A. Morris, Hajime Akimoto, Masayuki Takigawa, Jun Hirokawa, Fumio Hasebe, Masatomo Fujiwara, Koji Miyagawa, Nicholay Krotkov, Jacquie Witte, Yugo Kanaya, Nathan Kellams, Ted Pietrzak

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Presentations

During July – September 2008 pollution controls in China associated with the Beijing Olympics led to emissions reductions of up to 43%, as observed by NASA satellite instruments. Pollution from China has an impact on air quality throughout East Asia. In this poster, we examine the impact of China's pollution on Japan through the use of Aura satellite data (2005 – 2009), ozonesonde data (2000 – 2009), and data from air quality surface monitors (2000 – 2009). We also examine the year-to-year variability in meteorological flow regimes through trajectory model simulations of transport to Japan from the areas around Beijing and Shanghai, China ...


On The Feasibility Of A Timely Transition To A More Sustainable Energy Future, Micha Tomkiewicz Jan 2010

On The Feasibility Of A Timely Transition To A More Sustainable Energy Future, Micha Tomkiewicz

Publications and Research

The paper uses the framework of the IPAT equation, as applied to CO2 emission, to decompose the various driving forces in the global energy use. Data from recent history are superimposed on projections of SRES IPCC scenarios to determine if enough sustainable capacity can be built to prevent irreversible ecological deterioration. The conclusion from the analysis is that, in agreement with the IPCC 4th report, until about 2030 there are no large differences between a sustainable scenario and the one that resembles “business as usual”. The sharp divergence that follows stems from different estimates in population growth and in the ...


Proposal Narrative, Morton Sternheim, Stephan Schneider Jan 2010

Proposal Narrative, Morton Sternheim, Stephan Schneider

STEM Digital

No abstract provided.


Fractal Location And Anomalous Diffusion Dynamics For Oil Wells From The Ky Geological Survey, Keith Andrew, Karla M. Andrew, Kevin A. Andrew Dec 2009

Fractal Location And Anomalous Diffusion Dynamics For Oil Wells From The Ky Geological Survey, Keith Andrew, Karla M. Andrew, Kevin A. Andrew

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Utilizing data available from the Kentucky Geonet (KYGeonet.ky.gov) the fossil fuel mining locations created by the Kentucky Geological Survey geo-locating oil and gas wells are mapped using ESRI ArcGIS in Kentucky single plain 1602 ft projection. This data was then exported into a spreadsheet showing latitude and longitude for each point to be used for modeling at different scales to determine the fractal dimension of the set. Following the porosity and diffusivity studies of Tarafdar and Roy[1] we extract fractal dimensions of the fossil fuel mining locations and search for evidence of scaling laws for the set ...


Strain Waves, Earthquakes, Slow Earthquakes, And Afterslip In The Framework Of The Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon, V. G. Bykov, Gust Bambakidis May 2009

Strain Waves, Earthquakes, Slow Earthquakes, And Afterslip In The Framework Of The Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon, V. G. Bykov, Gust Bambakidis

Physics Faculty Publications

The one-dimensional Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model, well known from the theory of dislocations in crystal materials, is applied to the simulation of the process of nonelastic stress propagation along transform faults. Dynamic parameters of plate boundary earthquakes as well as slow earthquakes and afterslip are quantitatively described, including propagation velocity along the strike, plate boundary velocity during and after the strike, stress drop, displacement, extent of the rupture zone, and spatiotemporal distribution of stress and strain. The three fundamental speeds of plate movement, earthquake migration, and seismic waves are shown to be connected in framework of the continuum FK model. The ...


Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn Dec 2008

Detection Of An So2 Plume Over Sapporo, Japan From The Eruption Of Mt. Kasatochi Using A Balloon Sounding Technique, Gary A. Morris, Jun Hirokawa, Masatomo Fujiwara, Fumio Hasebe, Keisuke Ishida, Nicholay Krotkov, Mark R. Schoeberl, Walter Komhyr, Barry Lefer, James Flynn

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Presentations

During the month of August 2008, 10 ozonesondes were launched from Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan as part of a study to examine regional pollution during the Olympic period. Seven of these soundings included a second instrument with a filter designed to remove SO2 from the intake air stream. SO2 interferes with the normal chemistry of the electrochemical cell (ECC) method for ozone detection, with the net result being that each molecule of SO2 registers as minus one molecule of O3. Thus the unfiltered sonde reports [O3] - [SO2] while the filtered sonde reports [O3]. Laboratory tests prior to launch indicate ...


Unlv Magazine, Holly Ivy De Vore, Tony Allen, Barbara Cloud, Erin O'Donnell, Matthew K. Jacobsen, Gian Galassi, Michelle Mouton, Afsha Bawany, Shane Bevell Oct 2008

Unlv Magazine, Holly Ivy De Vore, Tony Allen, Barbara Cloud, Erin O'Donnell, Matthew K. Jacobsen, Gian Galassi, Michelle Mouton, Afsha Bawany, Shane Bevell

UNLV Magazine

No abstract provided.


Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert J. Brecha Sep 2008

Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the ...


Implementation Of Uncertainty Propagation In Triton/Keno, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller Jan 2008

Implementation Of Uncertainty Propagation In Triton/Keno, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

Monte Carlo methods are beginning to be used for three dimensional fuel depletion analyses to compute various quantities of interest, including isotopic compositions of used nuclear fuel. The TRITON control module, available in the SCALE 5.1 code system, can perform three-dimensional (3-D) depletion calculations using either the KENO V.a or KENO-VI Monte Carlo transport codes, as well as the two-dimensional (2-D) NEWT discrete ordinates code. To overcome problems such as spatially nonuniform neutron flux and non-uniform statistical uncertainties in computed reaction rates and to improve the fidelity of calculations using Monte Carlo methods, uncertainty propagation is needed for ...


Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller Jan 2008

Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The dimensions and the large amount of shielding required for Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) facilities, advanced radiation shielding, and dose computation techniques are beyond today’s capabilities and will certainly be required. With the Generation IV Nuclear Energy System Initiative, it will become increasingly important to be able to accurately model advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Pressurized Water Reactor facilities, and to calculate dose rates at all locations within a containment (e.g., resulting from radiations from the reactor as well as the from the primary coolant loop) and adjoining structures (e.g., from the spent fuel pool).

The ...


Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Dissolution, Reactor, And Environmental Behavior Of Zro2-Mgo Inert Fuel Matrix, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

This project will examine inert fuels containing ZrO2 and MgO as the inert matrix. Ceramics with this inert matrix, Ce, U and eventually Pu will be synthesized and examined. While the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative focus is on inert fuels with Pu as the fissile component, this task will perform initial laboratory experiments with Ce and U. The initial work with Ce will be performed early in the project with results used as a basis for U studies. Reactor physics calculations will be used to examine suitable quantities of burnable poisons from the candidate elements Gd, Er, or Hf ...


Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski Jan 2008

Impact Of The Synthesis Process On Structure Properties For Afci Fuel Candidates, Kenneth Czerwinski

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

The research objectives are:

• To explore a low-temperature fluoride route to synthesize actinide nitrides. • To characterize actinide nitrides structurally and thermally.

• To use high resolution TEM techniques to explore the microstructure of the radioactive samples.


Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens Jan 2008

Solution-Based Synthesis Of Nitride Fuels, Kenneth Czerwinski, Tyler A. Sullens

Fuels Campaign (TRP)

One of the original synthetic routes devised for the synthesis of U (III)N involved the entire reaction taking place in liquid ammonia. Several experimental reactions were conducted in an attempt to synthesize the UI3(NH3)x and U(NH2)3(NH3)x precursors of U(III) N. Each attempt involved cleaning of the uranium metal to remove the oxide coating of the metal reagent with 3 washes of concentrated nitric acid, each followed by a rinse with liquid ammonia. Success of this cleaning procedure was varied, with a majority of cleaned metal oxidizing rapidly once ...


Quantifying Vertical Mixing In Estuaries, W. Rockwell Geyer, Malcolm E. Scully, David K. Ralston Jan 2008

Quantifying Vertical Mixing In Estuaries, W. Rockwell Geyer, Malcolm E. Scully, David K. Ralston

CCPO Publications

Estuarine turbulence is notable in that both the dissipation rate and the buoyancy frequency extend to much higher values than in other natural environments. The high dissipation rates lead to a distinct inertial subrange in the velocity and scalar spectra, which can be exploited for quantifying the turbulence quantities. However, high buoyancy frequencies lead to small Ozmidov scales, which require high sampling rates and small spatial aperture to resolve the turbulent fluxes. A set of observations in a highly stratified estuary demonstrate the effectiveness of a vessel-mounted turbulence array for resolving turbulent processes, and for relating the turbulence to the ...


Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis: To Support The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller Oct 2007

Monaco/Mavric Evaluation For Facility Shielding And Dose Rate Analysis: To Support The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership, Charlotta Sanders, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

Monte Carlo methods are used to compute fluxes or dose rates over large areas using mesh tallies. For problems that demand that the uncertainty in each mesh cell be less than some set maximum, computation time is controlled by the cell with the largest uncertainty. This issue becomes quite troublesome in deep-penetration problems, and advanced variance reduction techniques are required to obtain reasonable uncertainties over large areas.

In this project the MAVRIC sequence will be evaluated along with the Monte Carlo engine Monaco to investigate its effectiveness and usefulness in facility shielding and dose rate analyses. A previously MCNP-evaluated cask ...