Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Series

Environmental Sciences

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication

Articles 1 - 30 of 141

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Intercomparison Of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (Suas) Measurements For Atmospheric Science During The Lapse-Rate Campaign, Lindsay Barbieri, Stephan T. Kral, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Jamey D. Jacob, Joachim Reuder, David Brus, Phillip B. Chilson, Christopher Crick, Carrick Detweiler, Abhiram Doddi, Jack Elston, Hosein Foroutan, Javier González-Rocha, Brian R. Greene, Marcelo I. Guzman, Adam L. Houston, Ashraful Islam, Osku Kemppinen, Dale Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Shane D. Ross, Michael P. Sama, David G. Schmale Iii, Travis J. Schuyler, Ajay Shankar, Suzanne W. Smith, Sean Waugh, Cory Dixon, Steve Borenstein, Gijs De Boer May 2019

Intercomparison Of Small Unmanned Aircraft System (Suas) Measurements For Atmospheric Science During The Lapse-Rate Campaign, Lindsay Barbieri, Stephan T. Kral, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Jamey D. Jacob, Joachim Reuder, David Brus, Phillip B. Chilson, Christopher Crick, Carrick Detweiler, Abhiram Doddi, Jack Elston, Hosein Foroutan, Javier González-Rocha, Brian R. Greene, Marcelo I. Guzman, Adam L. Houston, Ashraful Islam, Osku Kemppinen, Dale Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Shane D. Ross, Michael P. Sama, David G. Schmale Iii, Travis J. Schuyler, Ajay Shankar, Suzanne W. Smith, Sean Waugh, Cory Dixon, Steve Borenstein, Gijs De Boer

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) are rapidly transforming atmospheric research. With the advancement of the development and application of these systems, improving knowledge of best practices for accurate measurement is critical for achieving scientific goals. We present results from an intercomparison of atmospheric measurement data from the Lower Atmospheric Process Studies at Elevation—a Remotely piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE) field campaign. We evaluate a total of 38 individual sUAS with 23 unique sensor and platform configurations using a meteorological tower for reference measurements. We assess precision, bias, and time response of sUAS measurements of temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed ...


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak Feb 2019

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts Jan 2019

Volume 11, Jacob Carney, Ryan White, Joseph Hyman, Jenny Raven, Megan Garrett, Ibrahim Kante, Summer Meinhard, Lauren Johnson, William "Editha" Dean Howells, Laura Gottschalk, Christopher Siefke, Pink Powell, Natasha Woodmancy, Katharine Colley, Abbey Mays, Charlotte Potts

Incite: The Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Table of Contents:

Introduction, Dr. Roger A. Byrne, Dean

From the Editor, Dr. Larissa "Kat" Tracy

From the Designers, Rachel English, Rachel Hanson

Synthesis of 3,5-substituted Parabens and their Antimicrobial Properties, Jacob Coarney, Ryan White

Chernobyl: Putting "Perestroika" and "Glasnot" to the Test, Joseph Hyman

Art by Jenny Raven

Watering Down Accessibility: The Issue with Public Access to Alaska's Federal Waterways, Meagan Garrett

Why Has the Democratic Republic of the Congo outsourced its Responsibility to Educate its Citizens? Ibrahim Kante

Art by Summer Meinhard

A Computational Study of Single Molecule Diodes, Lauren Johnson

Satire of the State through ...


A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson Jan 2019

A Demonstration Of The Infrared Activity Of Carbon Dioxide, Philip Sieg, William Berner, Peter Harnish, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

Before they can talk meaningfully about anthropogenic climate change, students need to grasp basic principles of natural planetary climates, for example, the key role of trace atmospheric gases in setting surface temperature. We describe a dramatic demonstration that scales well for large audiences and that requires as little as ten classroom minutes to show the crucial difference between room air and carbon dioxide gas. Beyond its significance for public policy, the demonstration can serve as a springboard to motivate discussion of important physics concepts such as rotation and vibration spectra.


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman Aug 2018

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil Jul 2018

Steady States And Transport Processes In Urban Ozone Balances, M. A. K. Khalil

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Core chemical theory is combined with transport processes and local emissions to study the validity of commonly made assumptions regarding steady states to interpret urban and regional ozone data. It is shown that photo-stationary states of NO and NO2 cannot exist in urban areas or polluted regions in addition to the lack of such a state for ozone. Calculations in published papers, which make the assumption of a photo-stationary state for NO and NO2, or ozone, are likely to be inaccurate by unacceptable amounts. The Leighton Ratio is re-interpreted to show how it incorporates both the peroxy radical and transport ...


A Comparison Of The Diel Cycle Of Modeled And Measured Latent Heat Flux During The Warm Season In A Colorado Subalpine Forest, Sean P. Burns, Sean C. Swenson, William R. Wieder, David M. Lawrence, Gordon B. Bonan, John F. Knowles, Peter D. Blanken Apr 2018

A Comparison Of The Diel Cycle Of Modeled And Measured Latent Heat Flux During The Warm Season In A Colorado Subalpine Forest, Sean P. Burns, Sean C. Swenson, William R. Wieder, David M. Lawrence, Gordon B. Bonan, John F. Knowles, Peter D. Blanken

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

Precipitation changes the physiological characteristics of an ecosystem. Because land-surface models are often used to project changes in the hydrological cycle, modeling the effect of precipitation on the latent heat flux E is an important aspect of land-surface models. Here we contrast conditionally sampled diel composites of the eddy-covariance fluxes from the Niwot Ridge Subalpine Forest AmeriFlux tower with the Community Land Model (CLM, version 4.5). With respect to measured E during the warm season: for the day following above-average precipitation, E was enhanced at midday by ≈40 W m−2 (relative to dry conditions), and nocturnal E increased ...


Detection And Characterization Of The Tin Dihydride (Snh2 And Snd2) Molecule In The Gas Phase, Tony C. Smith, Dennis J. Clouthier Jan 2018

Detection And Characterization Of The Tin Dihydride (Snh2 And Snd2) Molecule In The Gas Phase, Tony C. Smith, Dennis J. Clouthier

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The SnH2 and SnD2 molecules have been detected for the first time in the gas phase by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and emission spectroscopic techniques through the Ã1B1–X̃1A1 electronic transition. These reactive species were prepared in a pulsed electric discharge jet using (CH3)4Sn or SnH4/SnD4 precursors diluted in high pressure argon. Transitions to the electronic excited state of the jet-cooled molecules were probed with LIF, and the ground state energy levels were measured from single rovibronic level emission spectra. The LIF spectrum of SnD2 afforded ...


Ozone Balances In Urban Saudi Arabia, M. A. K. Khalil, Christopher L. Butenhoff, R.M. Harrison Jan 2018

Ozone Balances In Urban Saudi Arabia, M. A. K. Khalil, Christopher L. Butenhoff, R.M. Harrison

Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Net ozone production rates averaging 130 ppb/h lasting 3–5 h are calculated for five cities of urban Saudi Arabia where hourly ozone and NO2 measurements were taken for a whole year. Concentrations of ozone in the cities are not unusually high at ~40 ppb during the peak 4 h, but are 50–60 ppb at altitude throughout the day. A mass balance of ozone reveals that the locations represented by the sites export ozone during the peak production periods before mid-day at average rates comparable to the net production, but later a substantial import of ozone is required ...


Synergistic Interactions Of H2 And N2 With Molten Gallium In The Presence Of Plasma, Maria L. Carreon, Daniel F. Jaramillo-Cabanzo, Indira Chaudhuri, Madhu Menon, Mahendra K. Sunkara Dec 2017

Synergistic Interactions Of H2 And N2 With Molten Gallium In The Presence Of Plasma, Maria L. Carreon, Daniel F. Jaramillo-Cabanzo, Indira Chaudhuri, Madhu Menon, Mahendra K. Sunkara

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The present study examines the interaction of hydrogen and nitrogen plasmas with gallium in an effort to gain insights into the mechanisms behind the synergetic effect of plasma and a catalytic metal. Absorption/desorption experiments were performed, accompanied by theoretical-computational calculations. Experiments were carried out in a plasma-enhanced, Ga-packed, batch reactor and entailed monitoring the change in pressure at different temperatures. The results indicated a rapid adsorption/dissolution of the gas into the molten metal when gallium was exposed to plasma, even at a low temperature of 100 °C. The experimental observations, when hydrogen was used, indicate that gallium acts ...


One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev Jul 2017

One-Step Laser-Induced Hydrogen Generation From Coal Powders In Water, Dovletgeldi Seyitliyev

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

This study presents a simple way of obtaining hydrogen gas (H2) from various ranks of coal, coke, and graphite using nanosecond laser pulses. Powder samples of coal and graphite with and without water were irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm pulses from an Nd: YAG laser for 45 minutes under air and argon atmospheres. It was observed that 532 nm laser pulses were more effective than 1064 nm pulses in gas generation and both were nonlinearly correlated with respect to the laser energy density. Mainly hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were observed. The H2 to CO ratio shows ...


Hampton Roads Crossing Study Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Evaluation Of Potential Impact On Surface Water Elevation, Flow, Salinity, And Bottom Shear Stress, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen Jan 2017

Hampton Roads Crossing Study Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement: Evaluation Of Potential Impact On Surface Water Elevation, Flow, Salinity, And Bottom Shear Stress, Yinglong J. Zhang, Harry V. Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen

Reports

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impacts of the proposed alternatives for the highway crossing in Hampton Roads on physical characteristics of surface water elevation, flow, salinity, and bottom shear stress. The analysis is part of the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT), the Federal Highway Administration, and other stakeholders’ Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for Hampton Roads Crossing Study (HRCS).


Evaluation Of The Potential Impact On Flow And Sediment Transport From Proposed James River Crossings, Joseph Zhang, Harry Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen Oct 2016

Evaluation Of The Potential Impact On Flow And Sediment Transport From Proposed James River Crossings, Joseph Zhang, Harry Wang, Zhuo Liu, Mac Sisson, Jian Shen

Reports

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential impact on flow and sedimentation potential due to the proposed new crossings on the lower James River by VDOT. This project was built upon previous effort in the same area (Boon et al. 1999); the latter used VIMS’ 3D Hydrodynamic-Sedimentation Model (HYSED) to study the impact of the bridge-tunnel infrastructure on the physical characteristics (including tides, currents, circulation, salinity and sedimentation) under the existing and alternative scenarios. Due to various limitations at that time, smaller bridge pilings were not resolved but instead parameterized. In this update study, we used an ...


A Clean Energy Utility For Multifamily Housing In A Deregulated Energy Market, Ata Raziei, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha Sep 2016

A Clean Energy Utility For Multifamily Housing In A Deregulated Energy Market, Ata Raziei, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

Energy efficiency and renewable energy (EERE) investment in multifamily residences in the United States has not kept pace with investment in resident-owned facilities. Split incentives, where owners cannot benefit economically from energy cost savings for residences and resident investment in EERE is not feasible, have posed a significant barrier. A clean energy utility is posited to circumvent this barrier. This utility would be responsible for power purchase from the grid, ideally as a real-time purchase agent from the grid manager; investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy; and demand management through control of water heating, as well as supply-side management ...


Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic And Wind Power Potential In Afghanistan, Ahmad Murtaza Ershad, Robert J. Brecha, Kevin P. Hallinan Jan 2016

Analysis Of Solar Photovoltaic And Wind Power Potential In Afghanistan, Ahmad Murtaza Ershad, Robert J. Brecha, Kevin P. Hallinan

Physics Faculty Publications

Afghanistan has a need for increased access to energy to enable development. In this paper we analyze the potential for large-scale grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power plants in two of Afghanistan's most populous provinces (Balkh and Herat) to meet a large fraction of growing electricity demand. The results presented here represent the first quantitative analysis of potential capacity factors and energy yields of power plants in the country using measured wind speed and typical solar radiation data. Variability of resources is also investigated by comparing temporal profiles with those of electricity demand, using residual load duration curves ...


Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Brecha, Gunnar Luderer Sep 2015

Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Brecha, Gunnar Luderer

Physics Faculty Publications

Ambitious policy targets together with current and projected high growth rates indicate that future power systems will likely show substantially increased generation from renewable energy sources. A large share will come from the variable renewable energy (VRE) sources wind and solar photovoltaics (PV); however, integrating wind and solar causes challenges for existing power systems. In this paper we analyze three major integration challenges related to the structural matching of demand with the supply of wind and solar power: low capacity credit, reduced utilization of dispatchable plants, and over-produced generation. Based on residual load duration curves we define corresponding challenge variables ...


Boom Or Bust? Mapping Out The Known Unknowns Of Global Shale Gas Production Potential, Jérôme Hilaire, Nico Bauer, Robert J. Brecha May 2015

Boom Or Bust? Mapping Out The Known Unknowns Of Global Shale Gas Production Potential, Jérôme Hilaire, Nico Bauer, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

To assess the global production costs of shale gas, we combine global top-down data with detailed bottom-up information. Studies solely based on top-down approaches do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits and hence, are unlikely to appropriately capture the extraction costs of shale gas. We design and provide an expedient bottom-up method based on publicly available US data to compute the levelized costs of shale gas extraction. Our results indicate the existence of economically attractive areas but also reveal a dramatic cost increase as lower-quality reservoirs are exploited. At the global level, our best estimate suggests ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha Apr 2015

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin P. Hallinan, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


A Recipe For The Estimation Of Information Flow In A Dynamical System, Deniz Gencaga, Kevin H. Knuth, William B. Rossow Jan 2015

A Recipe For The Estimation Of Information Flow In A Dynamical System, Deniz Gencaga, Kevin H. Knuth, William B. Rossow

Publications and Research

Information-theoretic quantities, such as entropy and mutual information (MI), can be used to quantify the amount of information needed to describe a dataset or the information shared between two datasets. In the case of a dynamical system, the behavior of the relevant variables can be tightly coupled, such that information about one variable at a given instance in time may provide information about other variables at later instances in time. This is often viewed as a flow of information, and tracking such a flow can reveal relationships among the system variables. Since the MI is a symmetric quantity; an asymmetric ...


Dependence Of The Efficiency Of A Gridded Solar Air Heater On The Mass Flow Rate, Tyler Ralston, John Root, Jonathan Barrick, Hans Pfister Jan 2015

Dependence Of The Efficiency Of A Gridded Solar Air Heater On The Mass Flow Rate, Tyler Ralston, John Root, Jonathan Barrick, Hans Pfister

Student Scholarship & Creative Works By Year

A new design of a cost-effective, gridded solar air heater with a high solar to thermal energy conversion efficiency is presented, featuring an increased air to absorber interaction, while still allowing high mass flow rates. We investigate the dependence of this solar air heater’s conversion efficiency as a function of its mass flow rate and find that the efficiency significantly depends on it. Our investigation shows that the conversion efficiency of our solar air heater approaches 80% as the mass flow rate is increased to 0.06 kg/s. As the conversion efficiency depends linearly on the mass flow ...


Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Winter 2014), Cheryl Stevens, Dean Dec 2014

Ogden College Of Science & Engineering Newsletter (Winter 2014), Cheryl Stevens, Dean

Ogden College of Science & Engineering Publications

No abstract provided.


Exploring Soil Moisture Protocol Alternatives For The Classroom Setting, Garrett Smith Aug 2014

Exploring Soil Moisture Protocol Alternatives For The Classroom Setting, Garrett Smith

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Climate change poses a direct threat to future water resources but current climate models suffer from uncertainties regarding the availability of regional water. SMAP or the Soil Moisture Active Passive mission seeks to make improvements to climate models by taking highly accurate, high resolution measurements of global soil moisture. To engage students around the world in a collection of meaningful data that may support the SMAP satellite mission, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment program or GLOBE, has forged a partnership with NASA and JPL. GLOBE brings the power of citizen science to the SMAP mission, empowering ...


Drift Corrected Trends And Periodic Variations In Mipas Imk/Iaa Ozone Measurements, E. Eckert, T. Von Clarmann, M. Kiefer, G. P. Stiller, S. Lossow, N. Glatthor, D. A. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, M. Pastel, W. Steinbrcht, D.P.J. Swart, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath Jan 2014

Drift Corrected Trends And Periodic Variations In Mipas Imk/Iaa Ozone Measurements, E. Eckert, T. Von Clarmann, M. Kiefer, G. P. Stiller, S. Lossow, N. Glatthor, D. A. Degenstein, L. Froidevaux, S. Godin-Beekmann, T. Leblanc, S. Mcdermid, M. Pastel, W. Steinbrcht, D.P.J. Swart, K. A. Walker, P. F. Bernath

Chemistry & Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Drifts, trends and periodic variations were calculated from monthly zonally averaged ozone profiles. The ozone profiles were derived from level-1b data of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) by means of the scientific level-2 processor run by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research (IMK). All trend and drift analyses were performed using a multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, several harmonics with period lengths from 3 to 24 months and the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Drifts at 2-sigma significance level were mainly negative for ozone relative to Aura MLS and ...


Relative Permeability Of Homogenous-Wet And Mixed-Wet Porous Media As Determined By Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Modeling, C. J. Landry, Z. T. Karpyn, O. Ayala Jan 2014

Relative Permeability Of Homogenous-Wet And Mixed-Wet Porous Media As Determined By Pore-Scale Lattice Boltzmann Modeling, C. J. Landry, Z. T. Karpyn, O. Ayala

Engineering Technology Faculty Publications

We present a pore-scale study of two-phase relative permeability in homogenous-wet porous media, and porous media altered to a mixed-wet state. A Shan-Chen type multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is employed to determine pore-scale fluid distributions and relative permeability. Mixed-wet states are created by altering the wettability of solid surfaces in contact with the nonwetting phase at the end of steady state simulation of initially homogenous-wet porous media. To ensure accurate representation of fluid-solid interfacial areas, we compare LB simulation results to experimental measurements of interfacial fluid-fluid and fluid-solid areas determined by X-ray computed microtomography imaging of water and oil ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert J. Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler Oct 2013

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert J. Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Physics Faculty Publications

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert J. Brecha Sep 2013

The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert J. Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent ...


Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Christof Steckel, Robert J. Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer Jun 2013

Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Christof Steckel, Robert J. Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer

Physics Faculty Publications

We analyze the relationship between economic development and energy consumption in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation. The main contribution of this work is to compare estimates of energy thresholds in the form of minimum energy requirements to reach high levels of development with output projections of per capita final energy supply from a group of integrated assessment models (IAMs). Scenarios project that reductions of carbon emissions in developing countries will be achieved not only by means of decreasing the carbon intensity, but also by making a significant break with the historically observed relationship between energy use and economic growth ...


Ten Reasons To Take Peak Oil Seriously, Robert Brecha Feb 2013

Ten Reasons To Take Peak Oil Seriously, Robert Brecha

Physics Faculty Publications

Forty years ago, the results of modeling, as presented in The Limits to Growth, reinvigorated a discussion about exponentially growing consumption of natural resources, ranging from metals to fossil fuels to atmospheric capacity, and how such consumption could not continue far into the future. Fifteen years earlier, M. King Hubbert had made the projection that petroleum production in the continental United States would likely reach a maximum around 1970, followed by a world production maximum a few decades later. The debate about “peak oil," as it has come to be called, is accompanied by some of the same vociferous denials ...


The Greenhouse Effect At The Molecular Level, Michael Monce Jan 2013

The Greenhouse Effect At The Molecular Level, Michael Monce

Physics, Astronomy and Geophysics Faculty Publications

The greenhouse effect is generally modeled on a macro scale by designating energy balance for the planetary system. This involves the incoming solar radiation, reflected solar energy, absorbed solar energy at the ground, and subsequent re-radiation at longer wavelengths from the ground. The reradiated energy is then either transmitted out of the system or absorbed by the greenhouse gases and thus changing the overall energy balance.

However, the entire notion of the effects of so-called greenhouse gases hinges on the absorption and reemission of radiation at the individual molecular level. This paper presents an evaluation of that process by utilizing ...


Rose: Roadmaps Towards Sustainable Energy Futures And Climate Protection: A Synthesis Of Results From The Rose Project, Elmar Kriegler, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Nico Bauer, Katherine Calvin, Enrica Decian, Robert J. Brecha, Wenying Chen, Aleh Cherp, Jae Edmonds, Kejun Jiang, Shonali Pachauri, Fabio Sferra, Massimo Tavoni, Ottmar Edenhofer Jan 2013

Rose: Roadmaps Towards Sustainable Energy Futures And Climate Protection: A Synthesis Of Results From The Rose Project, Elmar Kriegler, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Nico Bauer, Katherine Calvin, Enrica Decian, Robert J. Brecha, Wenying Chen, Aleh Cherp, Jae Edmonds, Kejun Jiang, Shonali Pachauri, Fabio Sferra, Massimo Tavoni, Ottmar Edenhofer

Physics Faculty Publications

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Exploring energy demand and supply uncertainty: An exploration of uncertainty on drivers of energy demand and supply is indispensable for better understanding the prospects of long-tern climate stabilization. The RoSE study is the first of its kind to systematically explore the impact of economic growth, population and fossil fuel scarcity, in scenarios with and without climate policy, using a model ensemble. A feature of RoSE is the participation of five established integrated assessment modelling teams from three important regions in international climate policy negotiations: the EU, the USA and China.

Economic growth: Neither slow nor rapid economic growth ...