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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Erratum: "Imaging The Three‐Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri‐Spot Point Spread Function", Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew Aug 2019

Erratum: "Imaging The Three‐Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri‐Spot Point Spread Function", Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

In the original paper, a calibration error exists in the image-formation model used to analyze experimental images taken by our microscope, causing a bias in the orientation measurements in Figs. 2 and 3. The updated measurements are shown in Fig. E1. We have also updated the supplementary material for the original article to discuss the revised PSF model and estimation algorithms (supplementary material 2) and show the revised model and measurements (Figs. S1, S3, S7, S8, and S10–S13).


Effects Of Pulse Width On He Plasma Jets In Contact With Water Evaluated By Oh(A-X) Emission And Ohaq Production, Shutong Song, Esin B. Sözer, Chunqi Jiang Jun 2019

Effects Of Pulse Width On He Plasma Jets In Contact With Water Evaluated By Oh(A-X) Emission And Ohaq Production, Shutong Song, Esin B. Sözer, Chunqi Jiang

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed helium plasma jets impinging on water produce hydroxyl radicals both in gas- and liquid-phase. In this study, the effects of pulse width on a repetitively pulsed plasma jet in contact with water are evaluated via OH(A-X) emission and OHaq production in water for various pulse widths ranging from 200 to 5000 ns. The maximal energy efficiency of OH(A-X) emission is obtained for pulse widths of 600-800 ns whereas the maximal efficiency of OHaq production is at 200 ns. Temporally-resolved emission spectroscopy shows that more than 40% of OH(A-X) emission is produced during the ...


Intelligent Metasurfaces With Continuously Tunable Local Surface Impedance For Multiple Reconfigurable Functions, Fu Liu, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Alexandros Pitilakis, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Mohammad Sajjad Mirmoosa, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Do-Hoon Kwon, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M. Soukoulis, Sergei A. Tretyakov Apr 2019

Intelligent Metasurfaces With Continuously Tunable Local Surface Impedance For Multiple Reconfigurable Functions, Fu Liu, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Alexandros Pitilakis, Anna C. Tasolamprou, Mohammad Sajjad Mirmoosa, Nikolaos V. Kantartzis, Do-Hoon Kwon, Maria Kafesaki, Costas M. Soukoulis, Sergei A. Tretyakov

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Electromagnetic metasurfaces can be characterized as intelligent if they are able to perform multiple tunable functions, with the desired response being controlled by a computer influencing the individual electromagnetic properties of each metasurface inclusion. In this paper, we present an example of an intelligent metasurface that operates in the reflection mode in the microwave frequency range. We numerically show that, without changing the main body of the metasurface, we can achieve tunable perfect absorption and tunable anomalous reflection. The tunability features can be implemented using mixed-signal integrated circuits (ICs), which can independently vary both the resistance and reactance, offering complete ...


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak Feb 2019

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2019

Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Various methods exist for measuring molecular orientation, thereby providing insight into biochemical activities at nanoscale. Since fluorescence intensity and not electric field is detected, these methods are limited to measuring even-order moments of molecular orientation. However, any measurement noise, for example photon shot noise, will result in nonzero measurements of any of these even-order moments, thereby causing rotationally-free molecules to appear to be partially constrained. Here, we build a model to quantify measurement errors in rotational mobility. Our theoretical framework enables scientists to choose the optimal single-molecule orientation measurement technique for any desired measurement accuracy and photon budget.


Ultrafast Nonlinear Transparency Driven At A Telecom Wavelength In An Organic Semiconductor System, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Aaron Patz, Liang Luo, Fadzai Fungura, Ruth Shinar, Kai-Ming Ho, Joseph Shinar, Jigang Wang Feb 2019

Ultrafast Nonlinear Transparency Driven At A Telecom Wavelength In An Organic Semiconductor System, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Aaron Patz, Liang Luo, Fadzai Fungura, Ruth Shinar, Kai-Ming Ho, Joseph Shinar, Jigang Wang

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Ultrafast laser-induced transparency is demonstrated using femtosecond (fs) pump-probe experiments in the organic P3HT:PCBM (donor:acceptor) blend structure. For above band gap pumping, ultrafast transient signals strongly depend on the probe photon energy. Most intriguingly, for below band gap pumping at 0.95 eV, or 1.3 µm at a telecom wavelength, a huge transmission increase up to 30% only during the laser pulse ∼100 fs is observed as a pump-driven, quasi-instantaneous suppression of absorption for the high photon-energy energy probe beam. We attribute the observed laser-driven transparency to dynamic Franz-Keldysh effect, at least one order of magnitude stronger ...


Electromagnon Excitation In Cupric Oxide Measured By Fabry-Pérot Enhanced Terahertz Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry, Sean Knight, Dharmalingam Prabhakaran, Christian Binek, Mathias Schubert Feb 2019

Electromagnon Excitation In Cupric Oxide Measured By Fabry-Pérot Enhanced Terahertz Mueller Matrix Ellipsometry, Sean Knight, Dharmalingam Prabhakaran, Christian Binek, Mathias Schubert

Christian Binek Publications

Here we present the use of Fabry-Pérot enhanced terahertz (THz) Mueller matrix ellipsometry to measure an electromagnon excitation in monoclinic cupric oxide (CuO). As a magnetically induced ferroelectric multiferroic, CuO exhibits coupling between electric and magnetic order. This gives rise to special quasiparticle excitations at THz frequencies called electromagnons. In order to measure the electromagnons in CuO, we exploit single-crystal CuO as a THz Fabry-Pérot cavity to resonantly enhance the excitation’s signature. This enhancement technique enables the complex index of refraction to be extracted. We observe a peak in the absorption coefficient near 0.705 THz and 215 K ...


Quantifying The Concentration And Penetration Depth Of Long-Lived Rons In Plasma Activated Water By Uv Absorption Spectroscopy, Zhijie Liu, Chunxi Zhou, Dingxin Liu, Tongtong He, Li Guo, Dehui Xu, Michael G. Kong Jan 2019

Quantifying The Concentration And Penetration Depth Of Long-Lived Rons In Plasma Activated Water By Uv Absorption Spectroscopy, Zhijie Liu, Chunxi Zhou, Dingxin Liu, Tongtong He, Li Guo, Dehui Xu, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species (RONS) are believed to play a key role in biomedical applications, which means that RONS must reach the target tissue to produce a therapeutic effect. Existing methods (electron spin spectrometry and microplate reading) to determine the RONS concentration are not suitable for experimental real-time measurements because they require adding an indicating reagent to the plasma-treated medium, which may alter the chemical composition of the medium. In this paper, we propose a method to measure the long-lived RONS concentration in plasma-activated water (PAW) by using UV absorption spectroscopy. Based on an analysis and fit of ...


Charge Storage In Wo³ Polymorphs And Their Application As Supercapacitor Electrode Material, Vaibhav Lokhande, Abhishek Lokhande, Gon Namkoong, Jin Hyeok Kim, Taeksoo Ji Jan 2019

Charge Storage In Wo³ Polymorphs And Their Application As Supercapacitor Electrode Material, Vaibhav Lokhande, Abhishek Lokhande, Gon Namkoong, Jin Hyeok Kim, Taeksoo Ji

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Tungsten oxide is a versatile material with different applications. It has many polymorphs with varying performance in energy storage application. We report simple and facile way to synthesize four phases of tungsten oxide from same precursor materials only by changing the pH and temperature values. Monoclinic, hexagonal, orthorhombic and tetragonal phase obtained, were analyzed and tested for supercapacitor application. The electrochemical analysis of four phases indicates that the hexagonal phase is best-suited electrode material for supercapacitor. The hexagonal phase exhibits higher specific capacitance (377.5 Fg-1 at 2 mVs-1), higher surface capacitive contribution (75%), better stability and rate ...


Interface Model Of Pem Fuel Cell Membrane Steady-Dtate Behavior, Russell L. Edwards, Ayodeji Demuren Oct 2018

Interface Model Of Pem Fuel Cell Membrane Steady-Dtate Behavior, Russell L. Edwards, Ayodeji Demuren

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Modeling works which simulate the proton-exchange membrane fuel cell with the computational fluid dynamics approach involve the simultaneous solution of multiple, interconnected physics equations for fluid flows, heat transport, electrochemical reactions, and both protonic and electronic conduction. Modeling efforts vary by how they treat the physics within and adjacent to the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA). Certain approaches treat the MEA not as part of the computational domain, but rather an interface connecting the anode and cathode computational domains. These approaches may lack the ability to consistently model catalyst layer losses and MEA ohmic resistance. This work presents an upgraded interface formulation ...


No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Oct 2018

No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a rapidly developed technology that has been widely applied in biomedicine especially in cancer treatment. Due to the generation of various active species in plasma, CAP could induce various tumor cells death and showed a promising potential in cancer therapy. To enhance the biological effects of gas plasma, changing the discharging parameters is the most commonly used method, yet increasing discharging power will lead to a higher possibility of simultaneously damage surrounding tissues. In this study, by adding nontoxic concentration of additional nitrite and nitrate in the medium, we found that anti-tumor effect of CAP ...


Electrostatic Design And Conditioning Of A Triple Point Junction Shield For A −200 Kv Dc High Voltage Photogun, G. Palacios-Serrano, F. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Poelker, H. Baumgart Oct 2018

Electrostatic Design And Conditioning Of A Triple Point Junction Shield For A −200 Kv Dc High Voltage Photogun, G. Palacios-Serrano, F. Hannon, C. Hernandez-Garcia, M. Poelker, H. Baumgart

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Nuclear physics experiments performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Jefferson Lab require a DC high voltage photogun to generate polarized electron beams from GaAs photocathodes. The photogun uses a tapered ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber and mechanically holds the cathode electrode. Increasing the operating voltage from nominal −130 kV to −200 kV will provide lower beam emittance, better transmission through injector apertures, and improved photocathode lifetime. This desire to increase the photogun operating voltage led to the design of a triple-point-junction shield electrode which minimizes the electric field at the delicate insulator-metal-vacuum ...


A Simple Method Of Coil Design, M. Rawlik, A. Eggenberger, J. Krempel, Christopher Crawford, K. Kirch, F. M. Piegsa, G. Quéméner Aug 2018

A Simple Method Of Coil Design, M. Rawlik, A. Eggenberger, J. Krempel, Christopher Crawford, K. Kirch, F. M. Piegsa, G. Quéméner

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In this article, we present a method to design a coil producing an arbitrarily shaped magnetic field by restricting the path of the coil's wires to a regular grid. The solution is then found by a simple least squares minimum. We discuss practical applications, in particular, in the active magnetic field stabilization system of the neutron electric dipole moment experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute in Villigen, Switzerland. We also publish the software implementation of the method.


Spatial–Temporal Spectroscopy Characterizations And Electronic Structure Of Methylammonium Perovskites, Zhaoyu Liu, K. C. Bhamu, Liang Luo, Satvik Shah, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Men Long, Rana Biswas, F. Fungara, Ruth Shinar, Joseph Shinar, Javier Vela, Jigang Wang Jul 2018

Spatial–Temporal Spectroscopy Characterizations And Electronic Structure Of Methylammonium Perovskites, Zhaoyu Liu, K. C. Bhamu, Liang Luo, Satvik Shah, Joong-Mok Park, Di Cheng, Men Long, Rana Biswas, F. Fungara, Ruth Shinar, Joseph Shinar, Javier Vela, Jigang Wang

Chemistry Publications

Using time-resolved laser-scanning confocal microscopy and ultrafast optical pump/THz probe spectroscopy, we measure photoluminescence and THz-conductivity in perovskite micro-crystals and films. Photoluminescence quenching and lifetime variations occur from local heterogeneity. Ultrafast THz-spectra measure sharp quantum transitions from excitonic Rydberg states, providing weakly bound excitons with a binding energy of ~13.5 meV at low temperatures. Ab-initio electronic structure calculations give a direct band gap of 1.64 eV, a dielectric constant ~18, heavy electrons, and light holes, resulting in weakly bound excitons, consistent with the binding energies from experiment. The complementary spectroscopy and simulations reveal fundamental insights into perovskite ...


Imaging The Three-Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri-Spot Point Spread Function, Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew Jun 2018

Imaging The Three-Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri-Spot Point Spread Function, Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Fluorescence photons emitted by single molecules contain rich information regarding their rotational motions, but adapting single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to measure their orientations and rotational mobilities with high precision remains a challenge. Inspired by dipole radiation patterns, we design and implement a Tri-spot point spread function (PSF) that simultaneously measures the three-dimensional orientation and the rotational mobility of dipole-like emitters across a large field of view. We show that the orientation measurements done using the Tri-spot PSF are sufficiently accurate to correct the anisotropy-based localization bias, from 30 nm to 7 nm, in SMLM. We further characterize the emission anisotropy ...


Tailoring Bandgap Of Perovskite Batio3 By Transition Metals Co-Doping For Visible-Light Photoelectrical Applications: A First-Principles Study, Fan Yang, Liang Yang, Changzhi Ai, Pengcheng Xie, Shiwei Lin, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Xihong Lu Jun 2018

Tailoring Bandgap Of Perovskite Batio3 By Transition Metals Co-Doping For Visible-Light Photoelectrical Applications: A First-Principles Study, Fan Yang, Liang Yang, Changzhi Ai, Pengcheng Xie, Shiwei Lin, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Xihong Lu

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The physical and chemical properties of V-M″ and Nb-M″ (M″ is 3d or 4d transition metal) co-doped BaTiO3were studied by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory. Our calculation results show that V-M″ co-doping is more favorable than Nb-M″ co-doping in terms of narrowing the bandgap and increasing the visible-light absorption. In pure BaTiO3, the bandgap depends on the energy levels of the Ti 3d and O 2p states. The appropriate co-doping can effectively manipulate the bandgap by introducing new energy levels interacting with those of the pure BaTiO3. The optimal co-doping effect comes from the ...


Characterization And Analysis Of Ultrathin Cigs Films And Solar Cells Deposited By 3-Stage Process, Grace Rajan, Krishna Aryal, Shankar Karki, Puruswottam Aryal, Robert W. Collins, Sylvain Marsillac May 2018

Characterization And Analysis Of Ultrathin Cigs Films And Solar Cells Deposited By 3-Stage Process, Grace Rajan, Krishna Aryal, Shankar Karki, Puruswottam Aryal, Robert W. Collins, Sylvain Marsillac

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In view of the large-scale utilization of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for photovoltaic application, it is of interest not only to enhance the conversion efficiency but also to reduce the thickness of the CIGS absorber layer in order to reduce the cost and improve the solar cell manufacturing throughput. In situ and real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) has been used conjointly with ex situ characterizations to understand the properties of ultrathin CIGS films. This enables monitoring the growth process, analyzing the optical properties of the CIGS films during deposition, and extracting composition, film thickness, grain size, and ...


Bandgap Profiling In Cigs Solar Cells Via Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy, Julia I. Deitz, Shankar Karki, Sylvain X. Marsillac, Tyler J. Grassman Mar 2018

Bandgap Profiling In Cigs Solar Cells Via Valence Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy, Julia I. Deitz, Shankar Karki, Sylvain X. Marsillac, Tyler J. Grassman

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

A robust, reproducible method for the extraction of relative bandgap trends from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is described. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by profiling the bandgap through a CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cell that possesses intentional Ga/(In + Ga) composition variation. The EELS-determined bandgap profile is compared to the nominal profile calculated from compositional data collected via STEM-based energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The EELS based profile is found to closely track the calculated bandgap trends, with only a small, fixed offset difference. This method, which is particularly advantageous ...


The 3d Stress-Tensor Bootstrap, Anatoly Dymarsky, Filip Kos, Petr Kravchuk, David Poland, David Simmons-Duffin Feb 2018

The 3d Stress-Tensor Bootstrap, Anatoly Dymarsky, Filip Kos, Petr Kravchuk, David Poland, David Simmons-Duffin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We study the conformal bootstrap for 4-point functions of stress tensors in parity-preserving 3d CFTs. To set up the bootstrap equations, we analyze the constraints of conformal symmetry, permutation symmetry, and conservation on the stress-tensor 4-point function and identify a non-redundant set of crossing equations. Studying these equations numerically using semidefinite optimization, we compute bounds on the central charge as a function of the independent coefficient in the stress-tensor 3-point function. With no additional assumptions, these bounds numerically reproduce the conformal collider bounds and give a general lower bound on the central charge. We also study the effect of gaps ...


Three Dimensional View Of Arbitrary Q Syk Models, Sumit R. Das, Aminik Ghosh, Antal Jevicki, Kenta Suzuki Feb 2018

Three Dimensional View Of Arbitrary Q Syk Models, Sumit R. Das, Aminik Ghosh, Antal Jevicki, Kenta Suzuki

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In [15] it was shown that the spectrum and bilocal propagator of SYK model with four fermion interactions can be realized as a three dimensional model in AdS2 ×S1/Z2 with nontrivial boundary conditions in the additional dimension. In this paper we show that a similar picture holds for generalizations of the SYK model with q-fermion interactions. The 3D realization is now given on a space whose metric is conformal to AdS2 × S1/Z2 and is subject to a non-trivial potential in addition to a delta function at the center of the interval ...


Measuring 3d Molecular Orientation And Rotational Mobility Using A Tri-Spot Point Spread Function, Oumeng Zhang, Tianben Ding, Jin Lu, Hesam Mazidi, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2018

Measuring 3d Molecular Orientation And Rotational Mobility Using A Tri-Spot Point Spread Function, Oumeng Zhang, Tianben Ding, Jin Lu, Hesam Mazidi, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

We present a method to measure the molecular orientation and rotational mobility of single-molecule emitters by designing and implementing a Tri-spot point spread function. It can measure all degrees of freedom related to molecular orientation and rotational mobility. Its design is optimized by maximizing the theoretical limit of its measurement precision. We evaluate the precision and accuracy of the Tri-spot PSF by measuring the orientation and effective rotational mobility of single fluorescent molecules embedded in a polymer matrix.


Universality Of Fast Quenches From The Conformal Perturbation Theory, Anatoly Dymarsky, Michael Smolkin Jan 2018

Universality Of Fast Quenches From The Conformal Perturbation Theory, Anatoly Dymarsky, Michael Smolkin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We consider global quantum quenches, a protocol when a continuous field theoretic system in the ground state is driven by a homogeneous time-dependent external interaction. When the typical inverse time scale of the interaction is much larger than all relevant scales except for the UV-cutoff the system’s response exhibits universal scaling behavior. We provide both qualitative and quantitative explanations of this universality and argue that physics of the response during and shortly after the quench is governed by the conformal perturbation theory around the UV fixed point. We proceed to calculate the response of one and two-point correlation functions ...


Antimatched Electromagnetic Metasurfaces For Broadband Arbitrary Phase Manipulation In Reflection, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Thomas Koschny, Costas M. Soukoulis Jan 2018

Antimatched Electromagnetic Metasurfaces For Broadband Arbitrary Phase Manipulation In Reflection, Odysseas Tsilipakos, Thomas Koschny, Costas M. Soukoulis

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Metasurfaces impart phase discontinuities on impinging electromagnetic waves that are typically limited to 0–2π. Here, we demonstrate that multiresonant metasurfaces can break free from this limitation and supply arbitrarily large, tunable time delays over ultrawide bandwidths. As such, ultrathin metasurfaces can act as the equivalent of thick bulk structures by emulating the multiple geometric resonances of three-dimensional systems that originate from phase accumulation with effective material resonances implemented on the surface itself via suitable subwavelength meta-atoms. We describe a constructive procedure for defining the required sheet admittivities of such metasurfaces. Importantly, the proposed approach provides an exactly linear phase ...


Plasma Medicine: A Brief Introduction, Mounir Laroussi Jan 2018

Plasma Medicine: A Brief Introduction, Mounir Laroussi

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This mini review is to introduce the readers of Plasma to the field of plasma medicine. This is a multidisciplinary field of research at the intersection of physics, engineering, biology and medicine. Plasma medicine is only about two decades old, but the research community active in this emerging field has grown tremendously in the last few years. Today, research is being conducted on a number of applications including wound healing and cancer treatment. Although a lot of knowledge has been created and our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that play important roles in the interaction between low temperature plasma and ...


Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Analysis Of First Stage Cuin1-Xgaxse2 Growth: Indium-Gallium Selenide Co-Evaporation, Puja Pradhan, Puruswottam Aryal, Dinesh Attygalle, Abdel-Rahman Ibdah, Prakash Koirala, Jian Li, Khagendra P. Bhandari, Geethika K. Liyanage, Randy J. Ellingson, Michael J. Heben, Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W. Collins, Nikolas J. Podraza Jan 2018

Real Time Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Analysis Of First Stage Cuin1-Xgaxse2 Growth: Indium-Gallium Selenide Co-Evaporation, Puja Pradhan, Puruswottam Aryal, Dinesh Attygalle, Abdel-Rahman Ibdah, Prakash Koirala, Jian Li, Khagendra P. Bhandari, Geethika K. Liyanage, Randy J. Ellingson, Michael J. Heben, Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W. Collins, Nikolas J. Podraza

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Real time spectroscopic ellipsometry (RTSE) has been applied for in-situ monitoring of the first stage of copper indium-gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin film deposition by the three-stage co-evaporation process used for fabrication of high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) devices. The first stage entails the growth of indium-gallium selenide (In1-xGax)₂Se₃ (IGS) on a substrate of Mo-coated soda lime glass maintained at a temperature of 400 °C. This is a critical stage of CIGS deposition because a large fraction of the final film thickness is deposited, and as a result precise compositional control is desired in order to ...


Transient Lattice Deformations Of Crystals Studied By Means Of Ultrafast Time-Resolved X-Ray And Electron Diffraction, Runze Li, Kyle Sundqvist, Jie Chen, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, Jie Zhang, Peter M. Rentzepis Jan 2018

Transient Lattice Deformations Of Crystals Studied By Means Of Ultrafast Time-Resolved X-Ray And Electron Diffraction, Runze Li, Kyle Sundqvist, Jie Chen, H. E. Elsayed-Ali, Jie Zhang, Peter M. Rentzepis

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Ultrafast lattice deformation of tens to hundreds of nanometer thick metallic crystals, after femtosecond laser excitation, was measured directly using 8.04 keV subpicosecond x-ray and 59 keV femtosecond electron pulses. Coherent phonons were generated in both single crystal and polycrystalline films. Lattice compression was observed within the first few picoseconds after laser irradiation in single crystal aluminum, which was attributed to the generation of a blast force and the propagation of elastic waves. The different time scales of lattice heating for tens and hundreds nanometer thick films are clearly distinguished by electron and x-ray pulse diffraction. The electron and ...


Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie Dec 2017

Recursive Non-Local Means Filter For Video Denoising, Redha A. Ali, Russell C. Hardie

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient algorithm for video denoising that exploits temporal and spatial redundancy. The proposed method is based on non-local means (NLM). NLM methods have been applied successfully in various image denoising applications. In the single-frame NLM method, each output pixel is formed as a weighted sum of the center pixels of neighboring patches, within a given search window.

The weights are based on the patch intensity vector distances. The process requires computing vector distances for all of the patches in the search window. Direct extension of this method from 2D to 3D, for video ...


Speckle Effects In Target-In-The-Loop Laser Beam Projection Systems, Mikhail Vorontsov Dec 2017

Speckle Effects In Target-In-The-Loop Laser Beam Projection Systems, Mikhail Vorontsov

Electro-Optics and Photonics Faculty Publications

In target-in-the-loop laser beam projection scenarios typical of remote sensing, directed energy, and adaptive optics applications, a transmitted laser beam propagates through an optically inhomogeneous medium toward a target, scatters off the target’s rough surface, and returns back to the transceiver plane. Coherent beam scattering off the randomly rough surface results in strong speckle modulation in the transceiver plane. This speckle modulation has been a long-standing challenge that limits performance of remote sensing, active imaging, and adaptive optics techniques. Using physics-based models of laser beam scattering off a randomly rough surface, we show that received speckle-field spatial and temporal ...


Generalized Ellipsometry On Complex Nanostructures And Low-Symmetry Materials, Alyssa Mock Dec 2017

Generalized Ellipsometry On Complex Nanostructures And Low-Symmetry Materials, Alyssa Mock

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this thesis, complex anisotropic materials are investigated and characterized by generalized ellipsometry. In recent years, anisotropic materials have gained considerable interest for novel applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices, mostly due to unique properties that originate from reduced crystal symmetry. Examples include white solid-state lighting devices which have become ubiquitous just recently, and the emergence of high-power, high-voltage electronic transistors and switches in all-electric vehicles. The incorporation of single crystalline material with low crystal symmetry into novel device structures requires reconsideration of existing optical characterization approaches. Here, the generalized ellipsometry concept is extended to include applications for materials with ...


High Consequence Scenarios For North Korean Atmospheric Nuclear Tests With Policy Recommendations For The U.S. Government, Thomas S. Popik, Jordan T. Kearns, George H. Baker Iii, Henry F. Cooper, William R. Harris Nov 2017

High Consequence Scenarios For North Korean Atmospheric Nuclear Tests With Policy Recommendations For The U.S. Government, Thomas S. Popik, Jordan T. Kearns, George H. Baker Iii, Henry F. Cooper, William R. Harris

Department of Integrated Science and Technology - Faculty Scholarship

The government of North Korea has declared high-altitude EMP-capability to be a “strategic goal” and has also threatened an atmospheric test of a hydrogen bomb. Atmospheric nuclear tests have the potential to cripple satellites and the undersea cable networks critical to communication, and navigation necessary for trans-Pacific trade among the U.S., China, and other nations. When a nuclear warhead is detonated at high altitude, a series of electromagnetic pulses radiate downward within the line of sight of the blast. These pulses can disable equipment with miniature electronics and long conductors. Electric grid controls and transmission systems are especially vulnerable ...