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Full-Text Articles in Physics

How Bright Are Fast Optical Bursts Associated With Fast Radio Bursts?, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Jian-Yan Wei Jun 2019

How Bright Are Fast Optical Bursts Associated With Fast Radio Bursts?, Yuan-Pei Yang, Bing Zhang, Jian-Yan Wei

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

The origin of fast radio bursts (FRBs) is still unknown. Multiwavelength observations during or shortly after the FRB phase would be essential to identify the counterpart of an FRB and to constrain its progenitor and environment. In this work, we investigate the brightness of the “fast optical bursts” (FOBs) associated with FRBs and the prospects of detecting them. We investigate several inverse Compton (IC) scattering processes that might produce an FOB, including both the one-zone and two-zone models. We also investigate the extension of the same mechanism of FRB emission to the optical band. We find that a detectable FOB ...


Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel Apr 2019

Recent Evolution Of The Eta Carinae Supernova Imposter System, Greta L. Helmel

Physics and Astronomy Honors Projects

The supernova imposter Eta Carinae and its surrounding Homunculus reflection nebula have been of great interest for the last several decades. As the most massive star known in our Galaxy, this object is of particular importance in understanding high mass loss episodes and final stages in the evolution of other similarly massive stars in the later stages of their lives. Observations using the STIS CCD Instrument have been taken over the past 20 years for both the central star and the Homunculus as part of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Treasury Program on Eta Carinae. Recent changes in the spectra ...


A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron Romanowsky Mar 2019

A Second Galaxy Missing Dark Matter In The Ngc 1052, Pieter Van Dokkum, Shany Danieli, Roberto Abraham, Charlie Conroy, Aaron Romanowsky

Faculty Publications

The ultra-diffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2 has a very low velocity dispersion, indicating that it has little or no dark matter. Here we report the discovery of a second galaxy in this class, residing in the same group. NGC1052-DF4 closely resembles NGC1052-DF2 in terms of its size, surface brightness, and morphology; has a similar distance of Dsbf =  19.9 2.8 Mpc; and also has a population of luminous globular clusters extending out to 7 kpc from the center of the galaxy. Accurate radial velocities of the diffuse galaxy light and seven of the globular clusters were obtained with the Low Resolution ...


Polymer Gels With Tunable Ionic Seebeck Coefficient For Ultra-Sensitive Printed Thermopiles, Dan Zhao, Anna Martinelli, Andreas Willfahrt, Thomas Fischer, Diana Bernin, Zia Ullah Khan, Maryam Shahi, Joseph W. Brill, Magnus P. Jonsson, Simone Fabiano, Xavier Crispin Mar 2019

Polymer Gels With Tunable Ionic Seebeck Coefficient For Ultra-Sensitive Printed Thermopiles, Dan Zhao, Anna Martinelli, Andreas Willfahrt, Thomas Fischer, Diana Bernin, Zia Ullah Khan, Maryam Shahi, Joseph W. Brill, Magnus P. Jonsson, Simone Fabiano, Xavier Crispin

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Measuring temperature and heat flux is important for regulating any physical, chemical, and biological processes. Traditional thermopiles can provide accurate and stable temperature reading but they are based on brittle inorganic materials with low Seebeck coefficient, and are difficult to manufacture over large areas. Recently, polymer electrolytes have been proposed for thermoelectric applications because of their giant ionic Seebeck coefficient, high flexibility and ease of manufacturing. However, the materials reported to date have positive Seebeck coefficients, hampering the design of ultra-sensitive ionic thermopiles. Here we report an “ambipolar” ionic polymer gel with giant negative ionic Seebeck coefficient. The latter can ...


Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang Mar 2019

Kondo Signatures Of A Quantum Magnetic Impurity In Topological Superconductors, Rui Wang, Wei-Yi Su, Jian-Xin Zhu, Chin-Sen Ting, Hai Li, Changfeng Chen, Baigeng Wang, Xiaoqun Wang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

We study the Kondo physics of a quantum magnetic impurity in two-dimensional topological superconductors (TSCs), either intrinsic or induced on the surface of a bulk topological insulator, using a numerical renormalization group technique. We show that, despite sharing the p+ip pairing symmetry, intrinsic and extrinsic TSCs host different physical processes that produce distinct Kondo signatures. Extrinsic TSCs harbor an unusual screening mechanism involving both electron and orbital degrees of freedom that produces rich and prominent Kondo phenomena, especially an intriguing pseudospin Kondo singlet state in the superconducting gap and a spatially anisotropic spin correlation. In sharp contrast, intrinsic TSCs ...


The Limited Reign Of Saturn's Rings, Laurence A. Marschall Mar 2019

The Limited Reign Of Saturn's Rings, Laurence A. Marschall

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Saturn’s rings—stretching tens of thousands of miles above its equator but no more than a few hundred yards thick—mark an ancient debris field of orbiting ice shards, the remains of a moon-sized object that strayed too close and was torn to pieces by Saturn’s intense gravitation. Astronomers have debated when the rings formed and how long they will stay in orbit. Recent observations from large, land-based telescopes and orbiting spacecraft reveal that Saturn’s rings are remarkably young and are dissipating at a rapid rate. [excerpt]


Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering Beyond Lowest Order, B. Wang, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato Jan 2019

Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering Beyond Lowest Order, B. Wang, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato

Physics Faculty Publications

Motivated by recently observed tension between O(α2s) calculations of very large transverse momentum dependence in both semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and Drell-Yan scattering, we repeat the details of the calculation through an O(α2s) transversely differential cross section. The results confirm earlier calculations, and provide further support to the observation that tension exists with current parton distribution and fragmentation functions.


Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R. Dec 2018

Application Of Bradford’S Law Of Scattering On Research Publication In Astronomy & Astrophysics Of India, Satish Kumar, Senthilkumar R.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The present study is focused on examining the application of Bradford’s law of scattering on research articles published in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics by Indian scientist during 1988-2017. The bibliographic data was retrieved from Web of Science (WoS) bibliographic data base for different period of time. Total 18,877 journal’s article have been published by Indian scientist in the field of Astronomy & Astrophysics during 1988-2017 which was further retrieved and analyzed separately for different blocks of 10 years as well as for 30 years consolidated too. The core journal of the field was identified. The Bradford law ...


Challenges With Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato, B. Wang Dec 2018

Challenges With Large Transverse Momentum In Semi-Inclusive Deeply Inelastic Scattering, J. O. Gonzalez-Hernandez, T. C. Rogers, N. Sato, B. Wang

Physics Faculty Publications

We survey the current phenomenological status of semi-inclusive deeply inelastic scattering at moderate hard scales and in the limit of very large transverse momentum. As the transverse momentum becomes comparable to or larger than the overall hard scale, the differential cross sections should be calculable with fixed order perturbative QCD (pQCD) methods, while small transverse momentum (transverse-momentum-dependent factorization) approximations should eventually break down. We find large disagreement between HERMES and COMPASS data and fixed order calculations done with modern parton densities, even in regions of kinematics where such calculations should be expected to be very accurate. Possible interpretations are suggested.


J/Ψ Production Cross Section And Its Dependence On Charged-Particle Multiplicity In P + P Collisions At √S=200 Gev, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran Nov 2018

J/Ψ Production Cross Section And Its Dependence On Charged-Particle Multiplicity In P + P Collisions At √S=200 Gev, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present a measurement of inclusive J/ψ production at mid-rapidity (|y| < 1) in p+p collisions at a center-of-mass energy of √s=200 GeV with the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The differential production cross section for J/ψ as a function of transverse momentum (pT) for 0 < pT < 14 GeV/c and the total cross section are reported and compared to calculations from the color evaporation model and the non-relativistic Quantum Chromodynamics model. The dependence of J/ψ relative yields in three pT intervals on charged-particle multiplicity at mid-rapidity is measured for the first time ...


Search For A Dark Photon In Electroproduced E + E − Pairs With The Heavy Photon Search Experiment At Jlab, P. H. Adrian, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, M. Bondí, S. Boyarinov, S. Bueltmann, G. Kalicy, H. Szumila-Vance, L. B. Weinstein, Heavy Photon Search Collaboration Nov 2018

Search For A Dark Photon In Electroproduced E + E − Pairs With The Heavy Photon Search Experiment At Jlab, P. H. Adrian, N. A. Baltzell, M. Battaglieri, M. Bondí, S. Boyarinov, S. Bueltmann, G. Kalicy, H. Szumila-Vance, L. B. Weinstein, Heavy Photon Search Collaboration

Physics Faculty Publications

The Heavy Photon Search experiment took its first data in a 2015 engineering run using a 1.056 GeV, 50 nA electron beam provided by CEBAF at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, searching for a prompt, electroproduced dark photon with a mass between 19 and 81  MeV/c2. A search for a resonance in the e+e invariant mass distribution, using 1.7 days (1170  nb−1) of data, showed no evidence of dark photon decays above the large QED background, confirming earlier searches and demonstrating the full functionality of the experiment. Upper limits on the square of ...


Collision Energy Dependence Of Moments Of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions At Rhic, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. Bouchet, J. D. Brandenburg, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran Oct 2018

Collision Energy Dependence Of Moments Of Net-Kaon Multiplicity Distributions At Rhic, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. Bouchet, J. D. Brandenburg, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Fluctuations of conserved quantities such as baryon number, charge, and strangeness are sensitive to the correlation length of the hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions and can be used to search for the QCD critical point. We report the first measurements of the moments of net-kaon multiplicity distributions in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV. The collision centrality and energy dependence of the mean (M), variance (σ2), skewness (S), and kurtosis (κ) for net-kaon multiplicity distributions as well as the ratio ...


Event Engineering Studies For Heavy Flavor Production And Hadronization In High Multiplicity Hadron-Hadron And Hadron-Nucleus Collisions, Yan-Qing Ma, Prithwish Tribedy, Raju Venugopalan, Kazuhiro Watanabe Oct 2018

Event Engineering Studies For Heavy Flavor Production And Hadronization In High Multiplicity Hadron-Hadron And Hadron-Nucleus Collisions, Yan-Qing Ma, Prithwish Tribedy, Raju Venugopalan, Kazuhiro Watanabe

Physics Faculty Publications

Heavy flavor measurements in high multiplicity proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at collider energies enable unique insights into their production and hadronization mechanism because experimental and theoretical uncertainties cancel in ratios of their cross sections relative to minimum bias events. We explore such event engineering using the color glass condensate (CGC) effective field theory to compute short-distance charmonium cross sections. The CGC is combined with heavy-quark fragmentation functions to compute D-meson cross sections; for the J/ψ, hadronization is described employing nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) and an improved color evaporation model. Excellent agreement is found between the CGC computations and the LHC ...


On The Dynamics Of Near-Extremal Black Holes, Pranjal Nayak, Ashish Shukla, Ronak M. Soni, Sandip P. Trivedi, V. Vishal Sep 2018

On The Dynamics Of Near-Extremal Black Holes, Pranjal Nayak, Ashish Shukla, Ronak M. Soni, Sandip P. Trivedi, V. Vishal

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We analyse the dynamics of near-extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes in asymptotically four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space (AdS4). We work in the spherically symmetric approximation and study the thermodynamics and the response to a probe scalar field. We find that the behaviour of the system, at low energies and to leading order in our approximations, is well described by the Jackiw-Teitelboim (JT) model of gravity. In fact, this behaviour can be understood from symmetry considerations and arises due to the breaking of time reparametrisation invariance. The JT model has been analysed in considerable detail recently and related to the behaviour ...


Beam Energy Dependence Of Rapidity-Even Dipolar Flow In Au + Au Collisions, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran Sep 2018

Beam Energy Dependence Of Rapidity-Even Dipolar Flow In Au + Au Collisions, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, I. G. Bordyuzhin, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

New measurements of directed flow for charged hadrons, characterized by the Fourier coefficient v1, are presented for transverse momenta pT, and centrality intervals in Au+Au collisions recorded by the STAR experiment for the center-of-mass energy range √sNN=7.7–200 GeV. The measurements underscore the importance of momentum conservation, and the characteristic dependencies on √sNN, centrality and pT are consistent with the expectations of geometric fluctuations generated in the initial stages of the collision, acting in concert with a hydrodynamic-like expansion. The centrality and pT dependencies of v1even, as well as ...


Photoproduction Of K+ K- Meson Pairs On The Proton, S. Lombardo, M. Battaglieri, A. Celentano, A. D'Angelo, R. De Vita, A. Filippi, D. I. Glazier, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, Y. Prok, The Clas Collaboration Sep 2018

Photoproduction Of K+ K- Meson Pairs On The Proton, S. Lombardo, M. Battaglieri, A. Celentano, A. D'Angelo, R. De Vita, A. Filippi, D. I. Glazier, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, Y. Prok, The Clas Collaboration

Physics Faculty Publications

The exclusive reaction γp → pK+K was studied in the photon energy range 3.0–3.8 GeV and momentum transfer range 0.6 < −t< 1.3 GeV2. Data were collected with the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. In this kinematic range the integrated luminosity was approximately 20 pb−1. The reaction was isolated by detecting the K+ and the proton in CLAS, and reconstructing the K via the missing-mass technique. Moments of the dikaon decay angular distributions were extracted from the experimental data. Besides the dominant contribution of the ϕ meson in the P wave, evidence for S ...


Nitrogen-To-Oxygen Abundance Ratio Variation In Quiescent Galaxies, Renbin Yan Aug 2018

Nitrogen-To-Oxygen Abundance Ratio Variation In Quiescent Galaxies, Renbin Yan

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

For the first time, we establish a gas-phase abundance pattern calibration for quiescent galaxies using optical emission lines. Quiescent galaxies have warm ionized gas showing line ratios similar to low-ionization nuclear emission line regions. The ionization mechanism for the gas is still an unsettled puzzle. Despite the uncertainty in the ionization mechanism, we argue that we can still infer certain gas-phase abundance pattern from first principles. We show that the relative trend in N/O abundance can still be reliably measured based on [N II] λλ6548,6583/[O II] λλ3726,3729 and a direct measurement of the electron temperature. We ...


Suppression Of Dielectronic Recombination Due To Finite Density Effects. Ii. Analytical Refinement And Application To Density-Dependent Ionization Balances And Agn Broad-Line Emission, D. Nikolić, T. W. Gorczyca, K. T. Korista, Marios Chatzikos, Gary J. Ferland, Francisco Guzmán, P. A. M. Van Hoof, R. J. R. Williams, N. R. Badnell Aug 2018

Suppression Of Dielectronic Recombination Due To Finite Density Effects. Ii. Analytical Refinement And Application To Density-Dependent Ionization Balances And Agn Broad-Line Emission, D. Nikolić, T. W. Gorczyca, K. T. Korista, Marios Chatzikos, Gary J. Ferland, Francisco Guzmán, P. A. M. Van Hoof, R. J. R. Williams, N. R. Badnell

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present improved fits to our treatment of suppression of dielectronic recombination at intermediate densities. At low densities, most recombined excited states eventually decay to the ground state, and therefore the total dielectronic recombination rate to all levels is preserved. At intermediate densities, on the other hand, collisions can lead to ionization of higher-lying excited states, thereby suppressing the dielectronic recombination rate. The improved suppression factors presented here, although highly approximate, allow summed recombination rate coefficients to be used to intermediate densities. There have been several technical improvements to our previously presented fits. For H- through B-like ions the activation ...


A Search For Possible Long Range Spin Dependent Interactions Of The Neutron From Exotic Vector Boson Exchange, C. Haddock, J. Amadio, E. Anderson, L. Barrón-Palos, B. Crawford, Christopher B. Crawford, D. Esposito, W. Fox, I. Francis, J. Fry, H. Gardiner, A. Holley, K. Korsak, J. Lieffers, S. Magers, M. Maldonado-Velázquez, D. Mayorov, J. S. Nico, T. Okudaira, C. Paudel, S. Santra, M. Sarsour, H. M. Shimizu, W. M. Snow, Aaron P. Sprow, K. Steffen, H. E. Swanson, F. Tovesson, J. Vanderwerp, P. A. Yergeau Aug 2018

A Search For Possible Long Range Spin Dependent Interactions Of The Neutron From Exotic Vector Boson Exchange, C. Haddock, J. Amadio, E. Anderson, L. Barrón-Palos, B. Crawford, Christopher B. Crawford, D. Esposito, W. Fox, I. Francis, J. Fry, H. Gardiner, A. Holley, K. Korsak, J. Lieffers, S. Magers, M. Maldonado-Velázquez, D. Mayorov, J. S. Nico, T. Okudaira, C. Paudel, S. Santra, M. Sarsour, H. M. Shimizu, W. M. Snow, Aaron P. Sprow, K. Steffen, H. E. Swanson, F. Tovesson, J. Vanderwerp, P. A. Yergeau

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present a search for possible spin dependent interactions of the neutron with matter through exchange of spin 1 bosons with axial vector couplings as envisioned in possible extensions of the Standard Model. This was sought using a slow neutron polarimeter that passed transversely polarized slow neutrons by unpolarized slabs of material arranged so that interactions would tilt the plane of polarization and develop a component along the neutron momentum. The result for the rotation angle, ϕ′=[2.8±4.6(stat.)±4.0(sys.)]×10−5 rad/m is consistent with zero. This result improves the upper bounds on ...


Correlation Measurements Between Flow Harmonics In Au + Au Collisions At Rhic, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran Aug 2018

Correlation Measurements Between Flow Harmonics In Au + Au Collisions At Rhic, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, James K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, N. N. Ajitanand, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, R. Aoyama, A. Aparin, D. Arkhipkin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, X. Bai, V. Bairathi, K. Barish, A. J. Bassill, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, A. Bhasin, A. K. Bhati, P. Bhattarai, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, L. C. Bland, Renee H. Fatemi, Suvarna Ramachandran

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

Flow harmonics (vn) in the Fourier expansion of the azimuthal distribution of particles are widely used to quantify the anisotropy in particle emission in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. The symmetric cumulants, SC(m,n), are used to measure the correlations between different orders of flow harmonics. These correlations are used to constrain the initial conditions and the transport properties of the medium in theoretical models. In this Letter, we present the first measurements of the four-particle symmetric cumulants in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=39 and 200 GeV from data collected by the STAR experiment at RHIC. We observe ...


Shocks Or Photoionization: Direct Temperature Measurements Of The Low-Ionization Gas In Quiescent Galaxies, Renbin Yan Aug 2018

Shocks Or Photoionization: Direct Temperature Measurements Of The Low-Ionization Gas In Quiescent Galaxies, Renbin Yan

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

The ionization mechanism of the low-ionization gas in quiescent red-sequence galaxies has been a long-standing puzzle. Direct temperature measurements would put strong constraints on this issue. We carefully selected a sample of quiescent red-sequence galaxies from Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We bin them into three bins with different [N II]/H α and [N II]/[O II] ratios, and we measure the temperature-sensitive [O III] λ4363, [N II] λ5755, [S II] λλ4068, 4076, and [O II] λλ7320, 7330 lines in the stacked spectra. The [S II] doublet ratios indicate the line-emitting gas is in the low-density regime (∼10–200 cm ...


First Measurement Of Ξ− Polarization In Photoproduction, J. Bono, L. Guo, K. P. Adhikari, M. J. Amaryan, G. Charles, G. Gavalian, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao Aug 2018

First Measurement Of Ξ− Polarization In Photoproduction, J. Bono, L. Guo, K. P. Adhikari, M. J. Amaryan, G. Charles, G. Gavalian, M. Khachatryan, A. Klein, Y. Prok, J. Zhang, Z. W. Zhao

Physics Faculty Publications

Despite decades of studies of the photoproduction of hyperons, both their production mechanisms and their spectra of excited states are still largely unknown. While the parity-violating weak decay of hyperons offers a means of measuring their polarization, which could help discern their production mechanisms and identify their excitation spectra, no such study has been possible for doubly strange baryons in photoproduction, due to low production cross sections. However, by making use of the reaction γ p → K+K+Ξ−, we have measured, for the first time, the induced polarization, P, and the transferred polarization from circularly polarized real photons, characterized ...


Space-Time In The Syk Model, Sumit R. Das, Aminik Ghosh, Antal Jevicki, Kenta Suzuki Jul 2018

Space-Time In The Syk Model, Sumit R. Das, Aminik Ghosh, Antal Jevicki, Kenta Suzuki

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We consider the question of identifying the bulk space-time of the SYK model. Focusing on the signature of emergent space-time of the (Euclidean) model, we explain the need for non-local (Radon-type) transformations on external legs of n-point Green’s functions. This results in a dual theory with Euclidean AdS signature with additional legfactors. We speculate that these factors incorporate the coupling of additional bulk states similar to the discrete states of 2d string theory.


Path Integral Complexity For Perturbed Cfts, Arpan Bhattacharyya, Pawal Caputa, Sumit R. Das, Nilay Kundu, Masamichi Miyaji, Tadashi Takayanagi Jul 2018

Path Integral Complexity For Perturbed Cfts, Arpan Bhattacharyya, Pawal Caputa, Sumit R. Das, Nilay Kundu, Masamichi Miyaji, Tadashi Takayanagi

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In this work, we formulate a path-integral optimization for two dimensional conformal field theories perturbed by relevant operators. We present several evidences how this optimization mechanism works, based on calculations in free field theories as well as general arguments of RG flows in field theories. Our optimization is performed by minimizing the path-integral complexity functional that depends on the metric and also on the relevant couplings. Then, we compute the optimal metric perturbatively and find that it agrees with the time slice of the hyperbolic metric perturbed by a scalar field in the AdS/CFT correspondence. Last but not the ...


One-Loop Evolution Of Parton Pseudo-Distribution Functions On The Lattice, Anatoly Radyushkin Jul 2018

One-Loop Evolution Of Parton Pseudo-Distribution Functions On The Lattice, Anatoly Radyushkin

Physics Faculty Publications

We incorporate recent calculations of one-loop corrections for the reduced Ioffe-time pseudo-distribution m(v, z(3)(2) thorn to extend the leading-logarithm analysis of lattice data obtained by Orginos et al. We observe that the one-loop corrections contain a large term reflecting the fact that effective distances involved in the most important diagrams are much smaller than the nominal distance z(3). The large correction in this case may be absorbed into the evolution term, and the perturbative expansion used for extraction of parton densities at the μ ≈ 2 GeV scale is under control. The extracted parton distribution is rather ...


Finite-Volume Effects Due To Spatially Nonlocal Operators, Raúl A. Briceño, Juan V. Guerrero, Maxwell T. Hansen, Christopher J. Monahan Jul 2018

Finite-Volume Effects Due To Spatially Nonlocal Operators, Raúl A. Briceño, Juan V. Guerrero, Maxwell T. Hansen, Christopher J. Monahan

Physics Faculty Publications

Spatially nonlocal matrix elements are useful lattice-QCD observables in a variety of contexts, for example in determining hadron structure. To quote credible estimates of the systematic uncertainties in these calculations, one must understand, among other things, the size of the finite-volume effects when such matrix elements are extracted from numerical lattice calculations. In this work, we estimate finite- volume effects for matrix elements of nonlocal operators, composed of two currents displaced in a spatial direction by a distance ξ. We find that the finite-volume corrections depend on the details of the matrix element. If the external state is the lightest ...


Characterization Of Eight Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Asteroids: Rotation Period Analysis And Structure Modeling Via Light Curve Inversion Techniques, Stacy Jo Hicks Jul 2018

Characterization Of Eight Potentially Hazardous Near Earth Asteroids: Rotation Period Analysis And Structure Modeling Via Light Curve Inversion Techniques, Stacy Jo Hicks

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The term “homeland security”, seems to have become synonymous with terrorism in the minds of the general public. However, there are other threats to the security of the United States homeland that can be just as, if not more, devastating than terrorism. Included among these other threats is the potential of an asteroid collision with Earth. Historically, asteroid impact events have been responsible for the devastation of our planet and many of the mass extinction events encountered throughout the geologic record. Knowledge of physical parameters such as structure and rotational dynamics of the asteroid are critical parameters in developing interception ...


Molpop-Cep: An Exact, Fast Code For Multi-Level Systems, Andrés Asensio Ramos, Moshe Elitzur Jul 2018

Molpop-Cep: An Exact, Fast Code For Multi-Level Systems, Andrés Asensio Ramos, Moshe Elitzur

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

We present MOLPOP-CEP, a universal line transfer code that allows the exact calculation of multi-level line emission from a slab with variable physical conditions for any arbitrary atom or molecule for which atomic data exist. The code includes error control to achieve any desired level of accuracy, providing full confidence in its results. Publicly available, MOLPOP-CEP employs our recently developed coupled escape probability (CEP) technique, whose performance exceeds other exact methods by orders of magnitude. The program also offers the option of an approximate solution with different variants of the familiar escape probability method. As an illustration of the MOLPOP-CEP ...


Young Blue Straggler Stars In The Galactic Field, Gemunu Ekanayake, Ronald Wilhelm Jun 2018

Young Blue Straggler Stars In The Galactic Field, Gemunu Ekanayake, Ronald Wilhelm

Physics and Astronomy Faculty Publications

In this study, we present an analysis of a sample of field blue straggler (BS) stars that show high ultra violet emission in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs): indication of a hot white dwarf (WD) companion to BS. Using photometry available in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) surveys, we identified 80 stars with ultraviolet (UV) excess. To determine the parameter distributions (mass, temperature, and age) of the WD companions, we developed a fitting routine that could fit binary model SEDs to the observed SED. Results from this fit indicate the need for a hot ...


How Middle Level Science Teachers Visualize And Translate Motion, Scale, And Geometric Space Of The Earth-Moon-Sun System With Their Students, Jennifer Wilhelm, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca Lindell Jun 2018

How Middle Level Science Teachers Visualize And Translate Motion, Scale, And Geometric Space Of The Earth-Moon-Sun System With Their Students, Jennifer Wilhelm, Merryn Cole, Cheryl Cohen, Rebecca Lindell

Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education Faculty Publications

[This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Astronomy Education Research.] We examined teachers’ spatial-scientific reasoning and the alternative conceptions they held regarding Earth-space content. While participating in a professional development (PD) workshop, teachers engaged in an integrated mathematics and science project-based unit designed to foster spatial reasoning and improve lunar-related conceptual understanding. The Purdue Spatial Visualization Test-Rotation (PSVT-Rot) and the Lunar Phases Concept Inventory (LPCI) were used to assess understanding. We found the teachers held similar alternative conceptions as their students. Moreover, we discovered that teachers had limited understanding of the Earth-Moon-Sun scale, motions, and geometric configurations. To ...