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Open Access Theses & Dissertations

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Articles 91 - 113 of 113

Full-Text Articles in Physics

A Study Of Wo3 And W0.95ti0.05o3 Thin Films Using Comparative Spectroscopy, James Heyward Howard Jan 2012

A Study Of Wo3 And W0.95ti0.05o3 Thin Films Using Comparative Spectroscopy, James Heyward Howard

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Tungsten oxide (WO3) is important and well-studied in materials science, particularly for sensor applications. In this research work, we consider the innovation of adding Ti to thin films of this material. Since the characteristics of any such material are strongly dependent on the conditions and methods used in its deposition, the main objective of this project is to provide a detailed spectroscopic characterization by Raman scattering, infrared absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of WO3 and of W0.95Ti0.05O3. This characterization will be based on comparison of the morphology and composition of WO3-based thin films, grown by radio frequency ...


Aerosol Characterizaton In El Paso-Juarez Airshed Using Optical Methods, Angel E. Esparza Jan 2011

Aerosol Characterizaton In El Paso-Juarez Airshed Using Optical Methods, Angel E. Esparza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The assessment and characterization of atmospheric aerosols and their optical properties are of great significance for several applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric visibility, remote sensing of the atmosphere, and impacts on climate change. Decades ago, the interest in atmospheric aerosols was primarily for visibility impairment problems; however, recently interest has intensified with efforts to quantify the optical properties of aerosols, especially because of the uncertainties surrounding the role of aerosols in climate change. The main objective of the optical characterization of aerosols is to understand their properties. These properties are determined by the aerosols' chemical composition, size, shape ...


Equation Of State Of A Dense And Magnetized Fermion System, Israel Portillo Vazquez Jan 2011

Equation Of State Of A Dense And Magnetized Fermion System, Israel Portillo Vazquez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The equation of state of a system of fermions in a uniform magnetic field is obtained in terms of the thermodynamic quantities of the theory by using functional methods. It is shown that the breaking of the O(3) rotational symmetry by the magnetic field results in a pressure anisotropy, which leads to the distinction between longitudinal- and transverse-to-the-field pressures. A criterion to find the threshold field at which the asymmetric regime becomes significant is discussed. This threshold magnetic field is shown to be the same as the one required for the pure field contribution to the energy and pressures ...


X-Ray Diffraction Studies Of Room And Intermediate Tempertaure Phases Of Phosphate Based Solid Acids, Kiran Vajrapu Jan 2011

X-Ray Diffraction Studies Of Room And Intermediate Tempertaure Phases Of Phosphate Based Solid Acids, Kiran Vajrapu

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this work, the MH2PO4-type solid acids (where M= Cs, K, Rb) structure and properties are studied and their contribution towards fuel cell industry is understood. Some research groups have shown that, CsH2PO4 (CDP) and RbH2PO4 (RDP) shows sudden, several order of magnitude jumps in their proton conductivity at certain high temperatures.(31, 32) This so called superprotonic behavior of these compounds makes them a fuel cell electrolyte at elevated temperatures. (33) Most of the research groups working on two possible causes to get the reliable information for the high proton conductivity: polymorphic phase transition (Botez et al.,) and thermal ...


Magnetic And Structural Properties Of Zinc-Doped Nickel Ferrite, Kanokporn Chattrakun Jan 2011

Magnetic And Structural Properties Of Zinc-Doped Nickel Ferrite, Kanokporn Chattrakun

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

We have used dc-magnetization, ac-magnetic susceptibility and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the microscopic origin of the magnetic property modifications induced by zinc doping in bulk and nano-sized nickel ferrite. Magnetic measurements indicate that the nanoparticle energy barrier to magnetization reversal, EB, and the bulk saturation magnetization, Ms, follow similar dependences on the zinc doping fraction, x. Both these magnetic quantities initially increase with increasing x, reach a maximum at x~0.5, and eventually decrease upon further doping. Synchrotron and laboratory powder XRD data show no evidence of significant structural modifications for x~0.5: we find ...


Principles Of Thomas Pynchon's Literary Realities, Ira Anthony Walker Jan 2011

Principles Of Thomas Pynchon's Literary Realities, Ira Anthony Walker

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Thomas Pynchon's literature is unique in subject and style. Postmodern by definition, Pynchon illustrates physics as a societal metaphor; Guy Debord's text The Society of the Spectacle suggests that these societal, literary, metaphors constitute and/or lead to a Spectacle. Through the analysis of an unpublished text: Minstrel Island, an early written short story: "Entropy," and a short novel: The Crying of Lot 49 the reader is capable of seeing a developing theme of physics as metaphor constituting multiple Spectacles. The narrative devices offered by Thomas Pynchon become Spectacular in nature and reflect the characteristics and environment of ...


Magnetic-Field Induced Stability In Two-Flavor Color Superconductivity, Churna B. Bhandari Jan 2011

Magnetic-Field Induced Stability In Two-Flavor Color Superconductivity, Churna B. Bhandari

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

It has long been understood that the ground state of a superdense quark system, a Fermi liquid of weakly interacting quarks, is unstable with respect to the formation of diquark condensates. This nonperturbative phenomenon is essentially equivalent to the Cooper instability of conventional BCS superconductivity. As the quark pairs have nonzero color charge, this kind of superconductivity breaks the SU(3) color gauge symmetry, thus it is called color superconductivity. A peculiar feature of spin-zero color superconductivity is the lack of Meissner effect for a combination of the regular electromagnetic field and one of the gluon fields. This combination behaves ...


On Relational Quantum Mechanics, Oscar Acosta Jan 2010

On Relational Quantum Mechanics, Oscar Acosta

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

A problem facing quantum mechanics is that there are a number of views or interpretations available that purport to 'explain' quantum mechanics. In this paper I discuss and analyze the view of relational quantum mechanics by Carlo Rovelli in the context of theoretical underdetermination. I will show that even though Rovelli offers a view that consolidates some of the aspects of competing theories it still falls short of breaking out of the theoretical underdetermination. The criteria that I have used to consider a theory successful in this context is one that increases the predictive output of quantum theory. Lacking an ...


Spectroscopic Study Of The Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Larrea Tridentata, Luis Alonso Pinales Jan 2010

Spectroscopic Study Of The Inhibition Of Calcium Oxalate Calculi By Larrea Tridentata, Luis Alonso Pinales

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion ...


Understanding The Promotion Effect: A Density Functional Theory Study Based On High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images For Mos2-Cobalt Promoted Interfaces, Manuel A. Ramos Jan 2010

Understanding The Promotion Effect: A Density Functional Theory Study Based On High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Images For Mos2-Cobalt Promoted Interfaces, Manuel A. Ramos

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Many studies had been done in order to understand promotion effect and structure/function in unsupported catalyst. Results indicated that d-electrons play an important role promoting catalytical active sites at the edges of MoS2 catalytically structures. Sulfur removal from crude oil, occurs on the edge of molybdenum di-sulfide (MoS2) nano structures, due to promotion of MoS2 nano structures with nickel or cobalt in sulfur-terminated or molybdenum-terminated edge planes. The promotion leads to formation of so-called CoMoS phase (MoS2/Co9S8) first discovered by meaning of Mössbauer spectroscopy, much more CoMoS phase usually called unsupported catalytical particles, have been topic of great ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films For Sensor Applications, Jose Luis Enriquez Carrejo Jan 2010

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films For Sensor Applications, Jose Luis Enriquez Carrejo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The objective of this study is targeted toward improving the quality of pure tungsten oxide (WO3) for application to the detection of poisoning gases, especially of H2S. While pure WO3 is a recognized candidate for gas sensing, its characteristics are strongly dependent on the conditions and methods used in its deposition.

Samples of WO3 thin films analyzed in this work were grown on silicon and sapphire substrates using RF magnetron sputtering at a number of different substrate temperatures and Ar:O2 pressure ratios. The properties of the samples were investigated spectroscopically with the goal of determining how variations in the ...


Pressure Induced Dynamical Instabilities In Body Center Cubic Crystals, Oscar Guerrero Jan 2010

Pressure Induced Dynamical Instabilities In Body Center Cubic Crystals, Oscar Guerrero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Large-scale atomistic simulations of shock-wave propagation in single crystals exhibit large anisotropies in the elastic-plastic and solid-liquid transitions. Characteristic of this type of simulations are the large strains at which the crystal yields plastically, regardless of crystal orientation. At these large strains, uniaxial deformations, such as those produced in planar shock loading generate dynamical instabilities. We have investigated the directional anisotropy of the elastic limit in bcc crystals, in particular Tantalum (Ta), employing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We show that the elastic - plastic transition in BCC defect-free crystals is caused by the appearance of soft-phonon modes and not via homogenous ...


An Ab-Initio Study Of The Elastic Properties Of Important Group Iv Diborides At High Temperatures, Manny Gonzales Jan 2010

An Ab-Initio Study Of The Elastic Properties Of Important Group Iv Diborides At High Temperatures, Manny Gonzales

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Presented is an ab-initio Molecular Dynamics (MD) study, employing the Density Functional Theory (DFT), of the lattice parameter, thermal expansion coefficients and elastic constants of ZrB2, TiB2 and HfB2 as a function of temperature. The MD trajectories provide the equilibrium lattice parameters at finite temperatures, and the gradient of the energy from these equilibrium solutions is then used to calculate the components of the stiffness tensor. The results for ZrB2 are shown to agree well with reported experimental results for the lattice parameters and elastic constants as a function of temperature.


Structural And Electronic Properties Of Aluminum Nano Clusters By Dft, Mrudula Raparla Jan 2010

Structural And Electronic Properties Of Aluminum Nano Clusters By Dft, Mrudula Raparla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The electronic properties of Al clusters containing up to 60 atoms are investigated using an all electron density functional theory using large polarized Gaussian basis sets with 39 Gaussians per atom (NRLMOL basis). We have performed an extensive search for the lowest energy isomers for clusters up to Al 21. We build a database of candidate structures for the ground state using different strategies. First, a few structures are randomly generated and fully relaxed using plane wave pseudo potential method. We also performed simulated annealing runs using ab initio molecular dynamics for clusters up to Al20. In three sets of ...


High-Temperature Phase Transitions In Rbh2po4, Heber Jair Martinez Jan 2009

High-Temperature Phase Transitions In Rbh2po4, Heber Jair Martinez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Recent studies have shown that the proton conductivity of MH2PO4 (M=Cs, Rb) solid-acids exhibits a sharp, several-order-of-magnitude increase upon heating above a certain temperature threshold [Boysen et al., Chem. Mater. 15, 727(2003), Boysen et al., Chem. Mater. 16, 693(2004)]. This so-called superprotonic behavior allows the above-mentioned compounds to function as fuel-cell electrolytes at intermediate temperatures [Boysen et al., Science 303, 68(2004)], a remarkable application that has attracted much interest. Yet, the crystal structures and microscopic mechanisms responsible for this heating-induced proton conductivity enhancement are not fully understood.

Our group has previously demonstrated [Botez et al., J ...


Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph Jan 2009

Computational Modeling Studies Of The Structures And Properties Of Organotin(Iv) And Stannyl-Thioether Systems With Comparisons To X-Ray Crystallography, Michelle R. Stem Joseph

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Controlling the toxic effects of organotin(IV) compounds involves engineering the structure of the molecules to optimize their properties. Molecular engineering, coupled with improved capabilities to generate reliable computational optimization models (COMs), will enable researchers to have greater success at harnessing the highly specific cytotoxicity of organotins. For example, as the thion ligand phenyl groups were replaced with Cl atoms, the S-Sn intramolecularity was strengthened, the bond distance decreased, and the stannyl tetrahedral structure was deformed from its triphenyl conformation. With each substitution, conformation deformations lowered the damaging bioactivity levels of thion. Bonding various ligands to organotin(IV ...


Studies Of Prompt Gamma And Neutron Yield Due To 2.5 Mev Neutrons Using Geant4, Jesus Felipe Tovar Jan 2009

Studies Of Prompt Gamma And Neutron Yield Due To 2.5 Mev Neutrons Using Geant4, Jesus Felipe Tovar

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In the present work the software GEANT4, a particle transport toolkit based on the Monte Carlo method, developed mostly by CERN, but also by other institutions and universities. GEANT4 is here used to simulate the dispersive effects that 2.5 MeV neutrons undergo after interacting with different elements. This study has the main interest of identifying spectral signatures, that is the type and number of particles yielded after neutron bombardment of special nuclear material under various shielding conditions. Shielding is composed of various attenuating materials with simple geometrical configurations, that can evolve into more intricate geometries through Boolean operations, enclosing ...


Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla Jan 2009

Experimental Study Of The Response Of Semiconductor Detectors For Edxrf Analysis., Sunil Kumar Valaparla

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

This present work relates to the study and characterization of the response function of an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer. The problems of energy, efficiency and resolution calibration of the system operating in the energy (5-60 keV) range are discussed. We present the operation characteristics of the portable pyro-electric x-ray generator (COOL-X) and the application of the calibrated response spectrum in the elemental analysis using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

We study the response of the Si(Li)-Pin XR-100CR semiconductor detector to low energy photons. The photopeak efficiency was determined experimentally by using radioisotopes and compared against a theoretical efficiency curve. The efficiency ...


Pressure Induced Phase Transformation Of Sno2: An Ab Initio Constant Pressure Study, Daniel Tesfai Yehdego Jan 2009

Pressure Induced Phase Transformation Of Sno2: An Ab Initio Constant Pressure Study, Daniel Tesfai Yehdego

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The behavior of SnO2 under rapid hydrostatic pressures is studied using constant-pressure ab initio simulations. The rutile-type SnO2 gradually transforms into the CaCl2-type structure at 15 GPa. At a pressure of about 20 GPa, a phase transformation into a cubic fluorite-type structure is observed. The orthorhombic Pnma cotunnite-structured phase is observed above 150 GPa. The mechanisms of these phase transformations at the atomistic level are discussed.


Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair Jan 2009

Observed Superspin-Glass Behavior In Ni0.5zn0.5fe2o4 Nanoparticles, Antony Adair

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In this investigation we seek to identify the magnetic behavior of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles though AC-susceptibility and DC-magnetization measurements. Powder x-ray diffraction was performed to determine the purity and average diameter ( ~ 9nm) of the particles. Aditionally, structure was confirmed by comparison through the International Centre for Diffraction Data's Powder Diffraction File [52] (PDF # 08-0234).

Zero-field cooled and field cooled DC magnetization measurements (bifurcation and blocking temperature), as well as M(H) hysteresis (below and above the blocking temperature) lead us to initially suggest that the material may in fact be superparamagnetic. However, further investigation of the real AC ...


Electroweak Scale Neutrinos, Enrique Diaz-Mendez Jan 2009

Electroweak Scale Neutrinos, Enrique Diaz-Mendez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

We study a model of neutrino mass generation at the Electroweak scale (EW), where Lepton number is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a Standard Model singlet complex scalar field. No energy scales higher than the EW scale are introduced in the model and neutrinos can still get their tiny masses through the general seesaw mechanism. The neutrino Yukawa couplings need not be more suppressed than that of the electron. As part of our results we present the branching ratios of the possible Higgs decays, which should be detectable at near future colliders.


The Problem Of Time In Quantum Mechanics, Crisol J. Escobedo Jan 2009

The Problem Of Time In Quantum Mechanics, Crisol J. Escobedo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of my Thesis is to gain a better understanding of the nature of time and the problems associated with time. For example, I aim to explore the problem associated with the energy-time uncertainty relation due to the lack of a universal operator for time. Using Jan Hilgevoord's work, I will explore the idea that if a measure of time is to be obtained in quantum mechanics, then time has to be a property of physical systems that can only be measured in relation to other systems. As such, time cannot be independent of physical systems. This implies ...


Study Of Structural And Spectroscopic Properties Of Small Zns Clusters By Dft, Venkata Ramana Chaganti Jan 2008

Study Of Structural And Spectroscopic Properties Of Small Zns Clusters By Dft, Venkata Ramana Chaganti

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

ABSTRACT

The small clusters (aggregates of atoms containing a few tens of atoms) of semiconductors and metals often adopt very different shapes than the fragments of these materials in the bulk phase. Due to their large surface to volume ratio and unsaturated bonds, the small clusters often have properties that are very different from their bulk. Semiconductor clusters are extensively studied for their potential applications in a wide variety of systems from opto-electronic devices to spintronics. The present work is devoted to understanding the structural and electronic properties of small clusters of the zinc sulfide ZnnSn where n = 1 - 6 ...