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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Comparative Experimental And Theoretical Study Of Dopamine And Serotonin Interaction, Jose A. Guerrero Jan 2020

Comparative Experimental And Theoretical Study Of Dopamine And Serotonin Interaction, Jose A. Guerrero

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

To accurately identify and measure the concentrations of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in mixtures of these neurotransmitters without labeling, a comprehensive, comparative computational and Raman experimental analysis is provided. While the distinction between these two analytes may be accomplished for concentrations in the millimolar range of these mixtures, their accurate quantification remains unattainable. As shown for the first time in this study, potential creation of a new composite resulting from their interactions with each other could be a reason for this lack of quantification.

Although this new hydrogen-bonded complex greatly complicates future analyte differentiation and quantification at concentrations typical ...


Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez Jan 2020

Independent And Simultaneous Control Of Electromagnetic Wave Properties In Self-Collimating Photonic Crystals Using Spatial Variance, Jesus Javier Gutierrez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Photonic crystals are engineered periodic structures that provide great control over electromagnetic waves. One of these mechanisms is self-collimation, in which the electromagnetic wave travels through the photonic crystal along an axis of the lattice without diffracting or spreading. This mechanism of self-collimation is a dispersion phenomenon, which is dependent on the unit cell's physical and geometrical characteristics. An algorithm for generating spatially variant lattices (SVL) was developed that can change geometrical properties in photonic crystals as a function of position, like unit cell orientation, fill fraction, symmetry, and others in a manner that is smooth, continuous, and virtually ...


Study Of Blinking Statistics In Silver Coated Cobalt Ferrite Single Nanoprticle Using Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy, Rajen Kumar Goutam Jan 2019

Study Of Blinking Statistics In Silver Coated Cobalt Ferrite Single Nanoprticle Using Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy, Rajen Kumar Goutam

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool to study the molecular and cellular interactions. This technology is a non-invasive approach with the advantage of three-dimensional imaging up to submicron resolution. Two-photon excitation process is the result of simultaneous absorption of two photons that has special features of reduced photodamaged and elongated penetration depth on samples. In this work, blinking statistics of silver-coated Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) single nanocrystal is studied using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. By defining the intensity threshold, the observed fluorescence is divided into two distinct stages: OFF and ON states. Both of these states followed the inverse power law ...


Using Two-Photon Microscopy To Analyze Arabidopsis Thaliana Leaves Under Autophagy Conditions And Second Harmonic Generation In Collagen, Andres Martin Reyes Jan 2019

Using Two-Photon Microscopy To Analyze Arabidopsis Thaliana Leaves Under Autophagy Conditions And Second Harmonic Generation In Collagen, Andres Martin Reyes

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two-photon microscopy has emerged as a highly efficient and effective imaging tool for biological samples. This can be utilized in studying recently emerging technologies and conditions such as the autophagy process in arabidopsis thaliana leaves and second harmonic generation in collagen. Both of these areas of study utilize the two-photon microscopy practice effectively in uncovering more information of the biological nature of examined samples.


Non Linear Optics For Materials Fabrication And Medical Instrumentation, Aurelio Paez Jan 2019

Non Linear Optics For Materials Fabrication And Medical Instrumentation, Aurelio Paez

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two-photon absorption is a nonlinear optical process where two photons are absorbed by a molecule simultaneously. The probability of this quantum phenomenon is proportional to the quadratic excitation of light intensity. It has many applications in biomedical and materials research, such as two-photon fluorescence microcopy. The first project is to apply two-photon absorption induced bond cleavage in photoreactive materials for engineering 3D tissue scaffolds. The major challenge for growing thick 3D tissues is the lack of vasculature, where nutrients and oxygen can be delivered to the growing cells. Our collaborators have synthesized a novel polypeptide that is composed of 34-mer ...


Imaging Live Drosophila Brain With Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy, Syeed Ehsan Ahmed Jan 2017

Imaging Live Drosophila Brain With Two-Photon Fluorescence Microscopy, Syeed Ehsan Ahmed

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two-photon fluorescence microscopy is an imaging technique which delivers distinct benefits for in vivo cellular and molecular imaging. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), a second messenger molecule, is responsible for triggering many physiological changes in neural system. However, the mechanism by which this molecule regulates responses in neuron cells is not yet clearly understood. When cAMP binds to a target protein, it changes the structure of that protein. Therefore, studying this molecular structure change with fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging can shed light on the cAMP functioning mechanism. FRET is a non-radiative dipole-dipole coupling which is sensitive to small distance ...


Raman Microscopic Analysis Of Internal Stress In Boron-Doped Diamond Thin Films, Emma M.A. Sundin Jan 2017

Raman Microscopic Analysis Of Internal Stress In Boron-Doped Diamond Thin Films, Emma M.A. Sundin

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The correlations between induced stress on undoped and boron-doped diamond (BDD) thin films, sample chemical composition, and fabrication substrate are investigated in this study via confocal Raman microspectroscopic analysis. Stability of BDD films is relevant to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, as film delamination and dislocation of BDD-coated electrodes that can occur during neurosurgical electrode implantation can negatively impact the biosensing reliability of this technique. Electrodes were fabricated by coating cylindrical tungsten rods using a custom-built chemical vapor deposition reactor. The results of the analysis reveal a direct correlation between regions of pure diamond and enhanced material stress, as well as preferential ...


Bragg Gratings In Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber As Three Dimensional Strain Sensor, Joel Quintana Jan 2017

Bragg Gratings In Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber As Three Dimensional Strain Sensor, Joel Quintana

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Fiber-Bragg Gratings (FBG) for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) have been studied extensively as they offer electrically passive operation, electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity, high sensitivity and multiplexing as compared to conventional electric strain sensors. FBG sensors written within polarization maintaining (PM) optical fiber offer ad- ditional dimensions of strain measurement, greatly reducing the number of sensors needed to properly monitor a structure. This reduction however, adds complexity to the dis- crimination of the sensorâ??s optical response to its corresponding applied strains. This Dissertation defines the set of algorithms needed to measure planar strain using PM-FBGs exclusively. It defines the minimum ...


Two-Photon Excitation Based Photochemistry And Neural Imaging, Kevin Andrew Hatch Jan 2016

Two-Photon Excitation Based Photochemistry And Neural Imaging, Kevin Andrew Hatch

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Two-photon microscopy is a fluorescence imaging technique which provides distinct advantages in three-dimensional cellular and molecular imaging. The benefits of this technology may extend beyond imaging capabilities through exploitation of the quantum processes responsible for fluorescent events. This study utilized a two-photon microscope to investigate a synthetic photoreactive collagen peptidomimetic, which may serve as a potential material for tissue engineering using the techniques of two-photon photolysis and two-photon polymerization. The combination of these techniques could potentially be used to produce a scaffold for the vascularization of engineered three-dimensional tissues in vitro to address the current limitations of tissue engineering. Additionally ...


Light Scattering From Aerosol Particles In The El Paso Del Norte Region / The Effect Of Humidity, Richard Medina Calderon Jan 2014

Light Scattering From Aerosol Particles In The El Paso Del Norte Region / The Effect Of Humidity, Richard Medina Calderon

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in climate forcing, through scattering and absorption of the incoming solar radiation. The extinction of light by the presence of atmospheric aerosols was studied using two first-principle models, and corresponding computer codes. In the first model the extinction of light from irregularly shaped aerosol particles was analyzed. In the second model it was assumed that the irregularly shaped aerosol particles were covered by a film of water, and the hygroscopicity and the extinction of light by the aerosols was analyzed. These models were then applied to the Paso del Norte region and their light ...


Structural, Optical And Electrical Properties Of Yttrium-Doped Hafnium Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films, Abhilash Kongu Jan 2013

Structural, Optical And Electrical Properties Of Yttrium-Doped Hafnium Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films, Abhilash Kongu

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Hafnium oxide (HfO2) has emerged as the most promising high-k dielectric for Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) devices and has been highlighted as the most suitable dielectric materials to replace silicon oxide because of its comprehensive performance. In the present research, yttrium-doped HfO2 (YDH) thin films were fabricated using RF magnetron sputter deposition onto Si (100) and quartz with a variable thickness. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy coupled with Filmetrics revealed that film thickness values range from 700 A° to 7500 A°. Electrical properties such as AC Resistivity and current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of YDH films were studied. YDH films that were relatively thin (<1500 A°) crystallized in monoclinic phase while thicker films crystallized in cubic phase. The band gap (Eg) of the films was calculated from the optical measurements. The band gap was found to be ∼5.60 eV for monoclinic while it is ∼6.05 eV for cubic phase of YDH films. Frequency dependence of the electrical resistivity (ρac) and the total conductivity of the films were measured. Resistivity decreased (by three orders of magnitude) with increasing frequency from 100 Hz to 1 MHz, attributed due to the hopping mechanism in YDH films. Whereas, while ρac∼1Ω-m at low frequencies (100 Hz), it decreased to ∼ 104 Ω-cm at higher frequencies (1 MHz). Aluminum (Al) metal electrodes were deposited to fabricate a thin film capacitor with YDH layer as dielectric film thereby employing Al-YDH-Si capacitor structure. The results indicate that the capacitance of the films decrease with increasing film thickness. A detailed analysis of the electrical characteristics of YDH films is presented.


Crystal Structure, Phase, And Optical Properties Of Yttrium-Doped Hafnium Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films, Alejandro Ortega Jan 2013

Crystal Structure, Phase, And Optical Properties Of Yttrium-Doped Hafnium Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films, Alejandro Ortega

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Yttrium-doped hafnium oxide (YDH) nanocrystalline films were produced by sputter-deposition at various substrate times and temperatures, to produce YDH films in a wide range of thicknesses, dYDH∼25 to 1100 nm. The deposition was made onto optical grade quartz and sapphire substrates. Samples deposited on sapphire were subject to post-deposition annealing (PDA) at various times (3-24 hr) and temperatures (1100 - 1500 °C). The effect of d[special characters omitted]YDH on the crystal structure, surface/interface morphology and optical properties of YDH films was investigated. X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the formation of monoclinic phase for relatively thin films (<150nm). The evolution towards stabilized cubic phase with increasing dYDH [special characters omitted]is observed. The scanning electron microscopy results indicate the dense, columnar structure of YDH films as a function of dYDH. Spectrophotometry analyses indicate that the grown YDH films are transparent and exhibit interference fringes. The band gap was found to be ∼ 5.60 eV for monoclinic YDH films while distinct separation and an increase in band gap to 6.03 eV is evident with increasing dYDH and formation cubic YDH films. The PDA films band gaps were found to be between 5.31 and 5.72 eV, all of which exhibit secondary gaps. A correlation between growth conditions, annealing, phase evolution, and optical properties of the YDH nanocrystalline thin films is established.


Two-Photon Microscopy Of Nanoparticles And Biotissues, Judith Noemi Rivera Jan 2013

Two-Photon Microscopy Of Nanoparticles And Biotissues, Judith Noemi Rivera

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Biomedical Imaging is an important tool in medical research and clinical practice. From understanding the fundamental processes involved in our biological makeup to its use in diagnostics in helping determine what ails us, the advancements in imaging and microscopy have helped shape our view of the world and nature. Microscopy in particular is often used to study the smallest of cells and their dynamical properties while attempting to minimally change the sample being studied. My research objective is largely divided into two parts. The first part consists of designing a video-rate raster scanning two-photon microscope that is faster than current ...


Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco Jan 2013

Surface Plasmon Polaritons And Waveguide Modes At Structured And Inhomogeneous Surfaces, Javier Polanco

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In chapter 1, properties of a p-polarized surface plasmon polariton are studied, propagating circumferentially around a portion of a cylindrical interface between vacuum and a metal, a situation investigated earlier by M. V. Berry (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 8, (1975) 1952). When the metal is convex toward the vacuum this mode is radiative and consequently is attenuated as it propagates on the cylindrical surface. An approximate analytic solution of the dispersion relation for this wave is obtained by an approach different from the one used by Berry, and plots of the real and imaginary parts of its wave number ...


A Study Of Wo3 And W0.95ti0.05o3 Thin Films Using Comparative Spectroscopy, James Heyward Howard Jan 2012

A Study Of Wo3 And W0.95ti0.05o3 Thin Films Using Comparative Spectroscopy, James Heyward Howard

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Tungsten oxide (WO3) is important and well-studied in materials science, particularly for sensor applications. In this research work, we consider the innovation of adding Ti to thin films of this material. Since the characteristics of any such material are strongly dependent on the conditions and methods used in its deposition, the main objective of this project is to provide a detailed spectroscopic characterization by Raman scattering, infrared absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of WO3 and of W0.95Ti0.05O3. This characterization will be based on comparison of the morphology and composition of WO3-based thin films, grown by radio frequency ...


Spectroscopic Analysis Of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films For Sensor Applications, Jose Luis Enriquez Carrejo Jan 2010

Spectroscopic Analysis Of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films For Sensor Applications, Jose Luis Enriquez Carrejo

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The objective of this study is targeted toward improving the quality of pure tungsten oxide (WO3) for application to the detection of poisoning gases, especially of H2S. While pure WO3 is a recognized candidate for gas sensing, its characteristics are strongly dependent on the conditions and methods used in its deposition.

Samples of WO3 thin films analyzed in this work were grown on silicon and sapphire substrates using RF magnetron sputtering at a number of different substrate temperatures and Ar:O2 pressure ratios. The properties of the samples were investigated spectroscopically with the goal of determining how variations in the ...