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Full-Text Articles in Physics

An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran Apr 2019

An Investigation Of The Detection Capability Of Pulsed Wave Duplex Doppler Of Low Grade Stenosis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agent Microbubbles – An In-Vitro Study, Jacinta Browne, Deirdre King, Andrew Fagan, Deepa Chari, Carmel Moran

Articles

Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether clinically used ultrasonic contrast agents improved the accuracy of spectral Doppler ultrasound in the detection of low grade (< 50%) renal artery stenosis. Low grade stenoses in the renal artery are notoriously difficult to reliably detect using Doppler ultrasound due to difficulties such as overlying fat and bowel gas.

Methods: A range of anatomically-realistic renal artery phantoms with varying low degrees of stenosis (0, 30 and 50%) were constructed and peak velocity data was measured from within the pre-stenotic and mid-stenotic regions in each phantom, for both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced spectral Doppler data acquisitions. The effect of a 20mm overlying fat layer on the ultrasound beam distortion and phase aberration, and hence on the measured peak velocity data, was also investigated ...


Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou Feb 2019

Use Of Novel Anthropomorphic Breast Ultrasound Phantoms For Radiology Resident Education, Jacinta Browne, Chris Gu, Robert Fazzio, Andrew Fagan, Donald Tradup, Nicholas Hangiandreou

Articles

Purpose: This study evaluated the training and assessment role of anthropomorphic breast ultrasound phantoms which simulated both the morphological and sonographic characteristics of breast tissue, including lesions, in a group of radiology residents at a large academic medical center. Methods: This was a prospective study involving 9 residents across all years (2nd–4th year) of a radiology residency program. Baseline assessments of all residents ability to detect and characterize lesions in P-I were carried out, followed by a two-hour teaching session on the same phantom. All residents underwent a post-training, final assessment on P-II to evaluate changes in ...


Surface Waves Over Currents And Uneven Bottom, Alan C. Compelli, Rossen Ivanov, Calin I. Martin, Michail D. Todorov Jan 2019

Surface Waves Over Currents And Uneven Bottom, Alan C. Compelli, Rossen Ivanov, Calin I. Martin, Michail D. Todorov

Articles

The propagation of surface water waves interacting with a current and an uneven bottom is studied. Such a situation is typical for ocean waves where the winds generate currents in the top layer of the ocean. The role of the bottom topography is taken into account since it also influences the local wave and current patterns. Specific scaling of the variables is selected which leads to approximations of Boussinesq and KdV types. The arising KdV equation with variable coefficients, dependent on the bottom topography, is studied numerically when the initial condition is in the form of the one soliton solution ...


Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey Oct 2018

Raman Spectroscopy Detects Biochemical Changes Due To Different Cell Culture Environments In Live Cells In Vitro, Mahmoud Gargotti, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh J Byrne, Alan Casey

Articles

The in vitro cell culture environment can impact on cell biochemistry and cell cycle. The manifestation of such substrate-induced changes in cell cycle in the Raman microspectroscopic profiles of cell cultures is investigated at the level of nucleolus, nucleus and cytoplasm. HeLa immortalised human cervical cells and HaCaT dermal cells were cultured on three different substrates, conventional polystyrene cell culture dishes, CaF2 slides as a commonly used Raman substrate, and glass slides coated with Collagen Rat Tail, as a mimic of the extra cellular matrix (ECM) environment. A cell cycle study, based on percentage DNA content, as determined using Propidium ...


Serialised Holography For Brand Protection And Authentication, Dinesh Vather, Izabela Naydenova, Dervil Cody, Monika Zawadzka, Suzanne Martin, Emilia Mihaylova, Stephen Curran, Paul Duffy, Josune Portillo, Daniel Connell, Stephen Mcdonnell, Vincent Toal Aug 2018

Serialised Holography For Brand Protection And Authentication, Dinesh Vather, Izabela Naydenova, Dervil Cody, Monika Zawadzka, Suzanne Martin, Emilia Mihaylova, Stephen Curran, Paul Duffy, Josune Portillo, Daniel Connell, Stephen Mcdonnell, Vincent Toal

Articles

The problems presented by counterfeit products and documentation are discussed. Limitations of existing holograms for anti-counterfeit applications are described. We describe the advantages of full holographic serialisation and the requirements in terms of materials and techniques for mass production of true serialised holograms. These requirements having been met, we report for the first time the mass production of fully serialised holograms. The novelty of approach consists of the direct use of product manufacturer’s information as the object in a holographic recording system along with a self-processing photopolymer and modular optical system to facilitate mass production of truly serialised volume ...


Advancing Raman Microspectroscopy For Cellular And Subcellular Analysis: Towards In Vitro High Content Spectralomic Analysis, Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Alan Casey, Marcus Maher, Jennifer Mcintyre, Esen Efeoglu, Zeineb Farhane Jun 2018

Advancing Raman Microspectroscopy For Cellular And Subcellular Analysis: Towards In Vitro High Content Spectralomic Analysis, Hugh Byrne, Franck Bonnier, Alan Casey, Marcus Maher, Jennifer Mcintyre, Esen Efeoglu, Zeineb Farhane

Articles

In the confocal mode, Raman microspectroscopy can profile the biochemical content of biological cells at a subcellular level, and any changes to it by exogenous agents, such as therapeutic drugs or toxicants. As an exploration of the potential of the technique as a high content, label free analysis technique, this report reviews work to monitor the spectroscopic signatures associated with the uptake and response pathways of commercial chemotherapeutic agents and polymeric nanoparticles by human lung cells. It is demonstrated that the signatures are reproducible and characteristic of the cellular event, and can be used, for example, to identify the mode ...


Multicomponent Analysis Using A Confocal Raman Microscope, Zhengyuan Tang, Sinead J. Barton, Thomas E. Ward, John P. Lowry, Michelle M. Doran, Hugh Byrne, Bryan M. Hennelly Jun 2018

Multicomponent Analysis Using A Confocal Raman Microscope, Zhengyuan Tang, Sinead J. Barton, Thomas E. Ward, John P. Lowry, Michelle M. Doran, Hugh Byrne, Bryan M. Hennelly

Articles

Measuring the concentration of multiple chemical components in a low volume aqueous mixture by Raman spectroscopy has received significant interest in the literature. All of the contributions to date focus on the design of optical systems that facilitate the recording of spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio, by collecting as many Raman scattered photons as possible. In this study, the confocal Raman microscope set-up is investigated for multicomponent analysis. Partial Least Squares Regression is used to quantify physiologically relevant aqueous mixtures of glucose, lactic acid, and urea. The predicted error is 17.81 mg/dL for glucose, 10.6 mg/dL ...


Raman Spectral Analysis For Rapid Screening Of Dengue Infection, Tahir Mahmood, Haq Nawaz, A. Ditta, M.I. Majeed, M.A. Hanif, N. Rashid, H.N. Bhatti, H.F. Nargis, M. Saleem, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne May 2018

Raman Spectral Analysis For Rapid Screening Of Dengue Infection, Tahir Mahmood, Haq Nawaz, A. Ditta, M.I. Majeed, M.A. Hanif, N. Rashid, H.N. Bhatti, H.F. Nargis, M. Saleem, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Infection with the dengue virus is currently clinically detected according to different biomarkers in human blood plasma, commonly measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assays, including non-structural proteins (Ns1), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG). However, there is little or no mutual correlation between the biomarkers, as demonstrated in this study by a comparison of their levels in samples from 17 patients. As an alternative, the label free, rapid screening technique, Raman spectroscopy has been used for the characterisation/diagnosis of healthy and dengue infected human blood plasma samples. In dengue positive samples, changes in specific Raman spectral bands associated ...


Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin Apr 2018

Holographic Beam-Shaping Diffractive Diffusers Fabricated By Using Controlled Laser Speckle, Kevin Murphy, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova, Suzanne Martin

Articles

A method for fabricating diffractive holographic optical diffusers is reported, allowing a high degree of control of the resulting diffuser characteristics. The method consists of recording a laser speckle pattern using a single carrier beam, with controlled speckle size and shape, in an acrylamide-based volume photopolymer. The multiple interferences that create the speckle pattern form the hologram. Results are presented verifying the diffusers are volume holographic in nature and the speckle pattern is recorded accurately in the photopolymer. Diffusers recorded by this method are analysed to characterise the optical performance of the diffusers and to illustrate their beam-shaping capabilities, particularly ...


Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova Mar 2018

Studies Of Geometrical Profiling In Fabricated Tapered Optical Fbers Using Whispering Gallery Modes Spectroscopy, Vishnu Kavungal, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Arun Kumar Mallik, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

This paper experimentally demonstrates a method for geometrical profiling of asymmetries in fabricated thin microfiber tapers with waist diameters ranging from ∼10 to ∼50µm with submicron accuracy. The method is based on the analysis of whispering gallery mode resonances excited in cylindrical fiber resonators as a result of evanescent coupling of light propagating through the fiber taper. The submicron accuracy of the proposed method has been verified by SEM studies. The method can be applied as a quality control tool in fabrication of microfiber based devices and sensors or for fine-tuning of microfiber fabrication set-ups.


Enabling Quantification Of Protein Concentration In Human Serum Biopsies Using Attenuated Total Reflectance – Fourier Transform Infrared (Atr-Ftir) Spectroscopy, Kate Spalding, Franck Bonnier, Clément Bruno, Hélène Blasco, Ruth E. Board, Isabelle Benz-De-Bretagne, Hugh J. Byrne, Holly J. Butler, Igor Chourpa, Pretheepan Radhakrishnan, Matthew J. Baker Jan 2018

Enabling Quantification Of Protein Concentration In Human Serum Biopsies Using Attenuated Total Reflectance – Fourier Transform Infrared (Atr-Ftir) Spectroscopy, Kate Spalding, Franck Bonnier, Clément Bruno, Hélène Blasco, Ruth E. Board, Isabelle Benz-De-Bretagne, Hugh J. Byrne, Holly J. Butler, Igor Chourpa, Pretheepan Radhakrishnan, Matthew J. Baker

Articles

Changes in protein concentrations within human blood are used as an indicator for nutritional state, hydration and underlying illnesses. They are often measured at regular clinical appointments and the current analytical process can result in long waiting times for results and the need for return patient visits. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has the ability to detect minor molecular differences, qualitatively and quantitatively, in biofluid samples, without extensive sample preparation. ATR-FTIR can return an analytical measurement almost instantaneously and therefore could be deemed as an ideal technique for monitoring molecular alterations in blood within the clinic. To ...


Nano–Bio Interactions: Nanomedicine And Nanotoxicology, Hugh Byrne, S. Mukherjee, Pratap C. Naha Jan 2018

Nano–Bio Interactions: Nanomedicine And Nanotoxicology, Hugh Byrne, S. Mukherjee, Pratap C. Naha

Articles

The 21st century has truly become the age of nanotechnology. Nanomaterials, design strategies, and processing have already made a significant impact in areas of materials science and electronics, with many commercial applications already being available on the consumer market. However, the ability to manipulate material functions and interactions on a scale of tens of nanometers, e.g., biological subcellular organelles, may yet prove to have the most significant impact on human health and the environment.


Mode-Sum Prescription For Vacuum Polarization In Black Hole Spacetimes In Even Dimensions, Peter Taylor, Cormac Breen Nov 2017

Mode-Sum Prescription For Vacuum Polarization In Black Hole Spacetimes In Even Dimensions, Peter Taylor, Cormac Breen

Articles

We present a mode-sum regularization prescription for computing the vacuum polarization of a scalar field in static spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes in even dimensions. This is the first general and systematic approach to regularized vacuum polarization in higher even dimensions, building upon a previous scheme we developed for odd dimensions. Things are more complicated here since the even-dimensional propagator possesses logarithmic singularities which must be regularized. However, in spite of this complication, the regularization parameters can be computed in closed form in arbitrary even dimensions and for arbitrary metric function f(r). As an explicit example of our method ...


A Mathematical Analysis Of Drug Dissolution In The Usp Flow Through Apparatus, David Mcdonnell, Deirdre M. D'Arcy, Lawrence J. Crane, Brendan Redmond Oct 2017

A Mathematical Analysis Of Drug Dissolution In The Usp Flow Through Apparatus, David Mcdonnell, Deirdre M. D'Arcy, Lawrence J. Crane, Brendan Redmond

Articles

This paper applies boundary layer theory to the process of drug dissolution in the USP (United States Pharmacopeia) Flow Through Apparatus. The mass transfer rate from the vertical planar surface of a compact within the device is examined. The theoretical results obtained are then compared with those of experiment. The paper also examines the effect on the dissolution process caused by the interaction between natural and forced convection within the apparatus and the introduction of additional boundaries.


The Evaluation Of The Effect Of Strain Limits On The Physical Properties Of Magnetorheological Elastomers Subjected To Uniaxial And Biaxial Cyclic Testing., Dave Gorman, Niall Murphy, Ray Ekins, Stephen Jerrams Oct 2017

The Evaluation Of The Effect Of Strain Limits On The Physical Properties Of Magnetorheological Elastomers Subjected To Uniaxial And Biaxial Cyclic Testing., Dave Gorman, Niall Murphy, Ray Ekins, Stephen Jerrams

Articles

Magnetorheological Elastomers (MREs) are “smart” materials whose physical properties are altered by the application of magnetic fields. In a previous study by the authors [1], variations in the physical properties of MREs have been evaluated when subjected to a range of magnetic field strengths for both uniaxial and biaxial cyclic tests. By applying the same magnetic field to similar samples, this paper investigates the effect of both the upper strain limit and the strain amplitude on the properties of MREs subjected to cyclic fatigue testing. As the magnetorheological (MR) effect is due to the dipole-dipole interactions of the magnetic particles ...


Broadband Acoustic Measurement Of The Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material – A Longitudinal Study, Adela Rabell-Montiel, Jacinta Browne, Stephen Pye, Tom Anderson, Carmel Moran Jul 2017

Broadband Acoustic Measurement Of The Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material – A Longitudinal Study, Adela Rabell-Montiel, Jacinta Browne, Stephen Pye, Tom Anderson, Carmel Moran

Articles

Commercially available ultrasound quality assurance test phantoms rely upon the long-term acoustic stability of tissue-mimicking-materials (TMMs). The measurement of the acoustic properties can be technically challenging and it is important to ensure its stability. The standard technique is to film-wrap samples of TMM and to measure the acoustic properties in a water bath. In this study, a modified technique is proposed whereby the samples of TMM are measured in a preserving fluid that is intended to maintain their characteristics. The acoustic properties were evaluated using a broadband pulse-echo substitution technique over the frequency range of 4.5 – 50 MHz at ...


Formulation, Characterisation And Stability Assessment Of A Food Derived 1 Tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles, M.K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh Byrne, Jesus Frias, Sinead Ryan Jul 2017

Formulation, Characterisation And Stability Assessment Of A Food Derived 1 Tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles, M.K. Danish, Giuliana Vozza, Hugh Byrne, Jesus Frias, Sinead Ryan

Articles

The chicken or fish derived tripeptide, Leucine-Lysine-Proline (LKP), inhibits the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme and may be used as an alternative treatment for pre-hypertension. However, it has low permeation across the small intestine. The formulation of LKP into a nanoparticle (NP) has the potential to address this issue. LKP-loaded NPs were produced using an ionotropic gelation technique, using chitosan (CL113). Following optimisation of unloaded NPs, a mixture amount design was constructed using variable concentration of CL113 and tripolyphosphate at a fixed LKP concentration. Resultant particle sizes ranged from 120-271 nm, zeta potential values from 29-37 mV and polydispersity values from 0 ...


Industrial Grade 2d Molybdenum Disulphide (Mos2): An In-Vitro Exploration Of The Impact On Cellular Uptake, Cytotoxicity, And Inflammation, Caroline Moore, Hugh Byrne, Jonathan N. Coleman, Yuri Volkov, Jennifer Mcintyre Jun 2017

Industrial Grade 2d Molybdenum Disulphide (Mos2): An In-Vitro Exploration Of The Impact On Cellular Uptake, Cytotoxicity, And Inflammation, Caroline Moore, Hugh Byrne, Jonathan N. Coleman, Yuri Volkov, Jennifer Mcintyre

Articles

The recent surge in graphene research, since its liquid phase monolayer isolation and characterization in 2004, has led to advancements which are accelerating the exploration of alternative 2D materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2), whose unique physico-chemical properties can be exploited in applications ranging from cutting edge electronic devices to nanomedicine. However, to assess any potential impact on human health and the environment, the need to understand the bio-interaction of MoS2 at a cellular and sub-cellular level is critical. Notably, it is important to assess such potential impacts of materials which are produced by large scale production techniques, rather than ...


Extraoral Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implant Retention Systems: A Critical Review., Hugh Byrne, Marina L. Pimentel Jun 2017

Extraoral Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implant Retention Systems: A Critical Review., Hugh Byrne, Marina L. Pimentel

Articles

Objectives: The purpose of this literature review is to provide information on the different available techniques for implant-supported prosthetic retention, which are bar-clip, o-ring or magnets. Through presenting the practitioner preferences reported in literature, although limited from strict comparison due to the heterogeneity of methodologies and studied individuals, this review aims to identify the choices for maxillofacial prosthesis implant retention systems, regarding patient comfort and good aesthetic outcome, as an aid to surgical and prosthetic planning for implant-supported extraoral maxillofacial prosthetics. With proper knowledge of each implant retention system, a practitioner can design a treatment plan which allows for a ...


Ultra-Filtration Of Human Serum For Improved Quantitative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Biomarkers Using Atr-Ir Spectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Luis Felipe Cs. Carvalho, Matthew J. Baker, Hugh Byrne, Igor Chourpa Jun 2017

Ultra-Filtration Of Human Serum For Improved Quantitative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Biomarkers Using Atr-Ir Spectroscopy, Franck Bonnier, Luis Felipe Cs. Carvalho, Matthew J. Baker, Hugh Byrne, Igor Chourpa

Articles

Infrared spectroscopy is a reliable, rapid and cost effective characterisation technique, delivering a molecular finger print of the sample. It is expected that its sensitivity would enable detection of small chemical variations in biological samples associated with disease. ATR-IR is particularly suitable for liquid sample analysis and, although air drying is commonly performed before data collection, just a drop of human serum is enough for screening and early diagnosis. However, the dynamic range of constituent biochemical concentrations in the serum composition remains a limiting factor to the reliability of the technique. Using glucose as a model spike in human serum ...


Strain-Induced Spectral Tuning Of The Whispering Gallery Modes In A Cylindrical Micro-Resonator Formed By A Polymer Optical Fiber, Vishnu Kavungal, Arun Mallik, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Yuliya Semenova Feb 2017

Strain-Induced Spectral Tuning Of The Whispering Gallery Modes In A Cylindrical Micro-Resonator Formed By A Polymer Optical Fiber, Vishnu Kavungal, Arun Mallik, Gerald Farrell, Qiang Wu, Yuliya Semenova

Articles

A mechanical strain assisted technique for spectral tuning of whispering gallery modes (WGM) in a cylindrical micro-resonator formed by a polymer optical fiber (POF) is investigated. WGMs in the POF based micro-cylinder are excited by evanescent light coupling using a tapered single mode silica fiber. WGMs observed in the transmission spectrum of the silica fiber taper have a high extinction ratio of up to 19 dB and a Q-factor of up to 2.64 × 104. The application of tensile axial strain (μɛ) in the range from 0 to 1746 μɛ (0.17 %) to the POF micro-resonator results in a ...


Application Of Phase Shifting Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry In Studies Of Photoinduced Shrinkage Of Photopolymer Layers, Mohesh Moothanchery, Viswanath Bavigadda, Manojit Pramanik, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova Jan 2017

Application Of Phase Shifting Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry In Studies Of Photoinduced Shrinkage Of Photopolymer Layers, Mohesh Moothanchery, Viswanath Bavigadda, Manojit Pramanik, Vincent Toal, Izabela Naydenova

Articles

Photoinduced shrinkage occurring in photopolymer layers during holographic recording was determined by Phase Shifting Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry. Phase maps were calculated from the changes in intensity at each pixel due to the phase differences introduced between object and reference beams. Shrinkage was then obtained from the changes in phase as recording proceeded. The technique allows for whole field measurement of the dimensional changes in photopolymers during holographic recording.


Humidity And Temperature Induced Changes In The Diffraction Efficiency And The Bragg Angle Of Slanted Photopolymer-Based Holographic Gratings, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, James Walshe, Dervil Cody, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova Jan 2017

Humidity And Temperature Induced Changes In The Diffraction Efficiency And The Bragg Angle Of Slanted Photopolymer-Based Holographic Gratings, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, James Walshe, Dervil Cody, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova

Articles

This work explores the humidity and temperature response of volume phase slanted gratings recorded in photopolymers with varied chemical composition. Acrylamide and diacetone acrylamide were used as monomers and triethanolamine and N-phenylglycine were used as photoinitiators. The study demonstrates that the response of photopolymer-based holographic gratings to relative humidity (RH) and temperature (T) can be tuned by alteration of the photopolymer composition.Humidity and temperature response of the holograms has been characterized by recording Bragg selectivity curves of transmission gratings and by monitoring the position of the maximum intensity in the spectral response of reflection gratings. Investigation of the humidity ...


N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Photopolymer For Holographic Recording Of Thermosensitive Transmission And Reflection Grating, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova Jan 2017

N-Isopropylacrylamide-Based Photopolymer For Holographic Recording Of Thermosensitive Transmission And Reflection Grating, Tatsiana Mikulchyk, Suzanne Martin, Izabela Naydenova

Articles

In recent years, functionalized photopolymer systems capable of holographic recording are in great demand due to their potential use in the development of holographic sensors. This work presents a newly developed Nisopropylacrylamide(NIPA)-based photopolymer for holographic recording in reflection and transmission modes. The optimized composition of the material is found to reach refractive index modulation of up to 5  10-3 and 1.6  10-3 after recording in transmission and reflection mode, respectively. In addition to fulfilling the requirements for holographic recording materials, the NIPA-based photopolymer is sensitive to temperature and has lower toxicity than acrylamide-based photopolymers. Possible application ...


Linking Atr-Ftir And Raman Features To Phenolic Extractability And Other Attributes In Grape Skin, Hugh Byrne, Abigain Rooney, Julio Nogales-Bueno, Jose Miguel Hernandez-Hierro, Francisco Jose Heredia Jan 2017

Linking Atr-Ftir And Raman Features To Phenolic Extractability And Other Attributes In Grape Skin, Hugh Byrne, Abigain Rooney, Julio Nogales-Bueno, Jose Miguel Hernandez-Hierro, Francisco Jose Heredia

Articles

The importance of wine phenolics on the sensory characteristic of red wines is well-known. Therefore, it is necessary to control the extractability of phenolic compounds from grape skins, which depends significantly on grape ripeness and hence, on cell wall degradation.

In the present study, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Raman spectra of grape skin have been recorded. Then, these spectral matrices have been studied and the main spectral features have been linked to extractabilities of phenolic compounds (anthocyanins, flavanols and total phenols). Moreover, spectral differences between external and internal grape skin surfaces also have been studied.

It ...


Monitoring Doxorubicin Cellular Uptake And Trafficking Using In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopy: Short And Long Time Exposure Effects On Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Zeineb Farhane, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J. Byrne Jan 2017

Monitoring Doxorubicin Cellular Uptake And Trafficking Using In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopy: Short And Long Time Exposure Effects On Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Zeineb Farhane, Franck Bonnier, Hugh J. Byrne

Articles

Raman microspectroscopy is a non-invasive, in vitro analytical tool which is being increasingly explored for its potential in clinical applications and monitoring the uptake, mechanism of action and cellular interaction at a molecular level of chemotherapeutic drugs, ultimately as a potential label-free preclinical screening and companion diagnostic tool. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX), a “gold standard” chemotherapeutic drug, is employed as a model in the in vitro lung cancer cell line A549 in order to demonstrate the potential of Raman microspectroscopy to screen and identify spectroscopic markers of its trafficking and mechanism of action. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was ...


A Natural, Calcium-Rich Marine Multi-Material Complex Preserves Bone Structure, Composition And Strength In An Ovariectomized Rat Model Of Osteoporosis, Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne, Denis O'Gorman, Fergal O'Brien Jan 2017

A Natural, Calcium-Rich Marine Multi-Material Complex Preserves Bone Structure, Composition And Strength In An Ovariectomized Rat Model Of Osteoporosis, Orlaith Brennan, Joseph Sweeney, Brian O'Meara, Amro Widaa, Franck Bonnier, Hugh Byrne, Denis O'Gorman, Fergal O'Brien

Articles

Calcium supplements are used as an aid in the prevention of osteopenia and osteoporosis and also for the treatment of patients when used along with medication. Many of these supplements are calcium carbonate based. This study compared a calcium-rich, marine multi-mineral complex (Aquamin) to calcium carbonate in an ovariectomised rat model of osteoporosis in order to assess Aquamin’s efficacy in preventing the onset of bone loss. Animals were randomly assigned to either non-ovariectomy control (Control), ovariectomy (OVX) plus calcium carbonate, ovariectomy plus Aquamin or ovariectomy plus Aquamin delay where Aquamin treatment started 8 weeks post OVX. At the end ...


Determination Of Spectral Markers Of Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Using In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopy: Cellular Responses To Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Exposure, Esen Efeoglu, Alan Casey, Hugh J. Byrne Jan 2017

Determination Of Spectral Markers Of Cytotoxicity And Genotoxicity Using In Vitro Raman Microspectroscopy: Cellular Responses To Polyamidoamine Dendrimer Exposure, Esen Efeoglu, Alan Casey, Hugh J. Byrne

Articles

Although consumer exposure to nanomaterials is ever increasing, with potential increased applications in areas such as drug and/or gene delivery, contrast agents and diagnosis, determination of cyto- and geno- toxic effect of nanomaterials on human health and the environment still remains challenging. Although many techniques have been established and adapted to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nano-sized materials, these techniques remain limited by the number of assays required, total cost, use of labels and they struggle to explain the underlying interaction mechanisms. In this study, Raman microspectroscopy is employed as an in vitro label free high content screening ...


A Review Of The Recommendations Governing Quality Assurance Of Ultrasound Systems Used For Guidance In Prostate Brachytherapy, Andrea Jane Doyle, Deirdre King, Jacinta Browne Jan 2017

A Review Of The Recommendations Governing Quality Assurance Of Ultrasound Systems Used For Guidance In Prostate Brachytherapy, Andrea Jane Doyle, Deirdre King, Jacinta Browne

Articles

Ultrasound guided brachytherapy for the treatment of prostate cancer has become a routine treatment option, due to many benefits including patient recovery and dose localisation [1]; however it is not clear whether the standards which govern the image quality for these systems are adequate. Upon review of the recommended standards for ultrasound systems used in prostate brachytherapy procedures, the recommended tests do not appear to be specific to the clinical application of ultrasound guided prostate brachytherapy. Rather they are generic and similar to those recommended for other clinical applications such as general abdominal scanning [2]. Furthermore, there is growing evidence ...


Broadband Acoustic Measurement Of The Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material: A Longitudinal Study, A. Rabell-Montiel, Jacinta Browne, S. D. Pyke, T. A. Anderson, C. M. Moran Jan 2017

Broadband Acoustic Measurement Of The Agar-Based Tissue Mimicking Material: A Longitudinal Study, A. Rabell-Montiel, Jacinta Browne, S. D. Pyke, T. A. Anderson, C. M. Moran

Articles

Commercially available ultrasound quality assurance test phantoms rely on the long-term acoustic stability of the tissue-mimicking-material (TMM). Measurement of the acoustic properties of the TMM can be technically challenging, and it is important to ensure its stability. The standard technique is to film-wrap samples of TMM and to measure the acoustic properties in a water bath. In this study, a modified technique was proposed whereby the samples of TMM are measured in a preserving fluid that is intended to maintain their characteristics. The acoustic properties were evaluated using a broadband pulse-echo substitution technique over the frequency range 4.5-50 MHz ...