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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Networks Identify Productive Forum Discussions, Adrienne L. Traxler, A. Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell Sep 2018

Networks Identify Productive Forum Discussions, Adrienne L. Traxler, A. Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Discussion forums provide a channel for students to engage with peers and course material outside of class, accessible even to commuter and nontraditional populations. Forums can build classroom community and aid learning, but students do not always take up these tools. We use network analysis to compare three semesters of forum logs from an introductory calculus-based physics course. The networks show dense structures of collaboration that differ significantly between semesters, even though aggregate participation statistics remain steady. After characterizing network structure for each semester, we correlate students’ centrality—a numeric measure of network position—with final course grade. Finally, we ...


Item-Level Gender Fairness In The Force And Motion Conceptual Evaluation And The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Paul Miller, John Stewart, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rebecca Lindell Jul 2018

Item-Level Gender Fairness In The Force And Motion Conceptual Evaluation And The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Paul Miller, John Stewart, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Gender gaps on the most widely used conceptual inventories created by physics education researchers have been extensively studied. Most of the research exploring the consistent gender gaps has been performed at the student level using the total evaluation score; less research has been performed examining these assessments at the item level and this research has been predominately restricted to the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Many studies have identified subsets of FCI items as unfair to either men or women. An item is fair if men and women of equal ability in conceptual physics score equally on the item. This study ...


Molecular Dynamics Study Of Hydrogen Trapping And Helium Clustering In Tungsten, Ashok Gurung Jan 2018

Molecular Dynamics Study Of Hydrogen Trapping And Helium Clustering In Tungsten, Ashok Gurung

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The field of plasma confinement and path toward achieving thermonuclear fusion started with experimental devices like tokamak and has evolved into other more complex variants of magnetic plasma confinement such as stellarator and spherical-tokamaks. As the plasma confinement machines advance towards higher temperature and plasma density (thermonuclear fusion conditions) the role and nature of plasma-wall interaction such as possible edge plasma regimes, particle recycling at the walls and its consequence for erosion, migration and re-deposition of wall material and impurity generation, transport and radiation as well as issues of particle exhaust continues to be a dominant limiting factor due to ...


Establishing A Quality Assurance Routine For Digital Imaging, Sulaiman Rana Al Jan 2018

Establishing A Quality Assurance Routine For Digital Imaging, Sulaiman Rana Al

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In the clinical medical physics field, Quality Assurance (QA) is a fundamental topic to insure patient safety and effective treatment. In recent years, the imaging hardware for diagnostic x-rays has been shifting to fully digital detectors. However, the quality assurance tests for such detectors in the clinical setting is still under development. In the Medical Imaging Department of Kettering Hospital (Kettering, OH), the currently accepted method of performing QA on detectors is to use an extensive set of tests suggested by the manufacturer. This set of tests requires about 90 minutes, which is too long for daily use. The goal ...


Determination Of Dose Effects When Including Attenuation Of The Treatment Table Into Treatment Planning Computer Modeling, Abdullah Alshamrany Jan 2018

Determination Of Dose Effects When Including Attenuation Of The Treatment Table Into Treatment Planning Computer Modeling, Abdullah Alshamrany

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During radiation treatment, the patient commonly lies on a horizontal treatment table called a couch. The material used for the couch is chosen during the manufacturing process so as to minimize the effect of the couch on dose delivery, but it still has an effect. In addition to couch attenuation on the beam, the modern approach of using multiple beam angles for dose delivery makes treatment planning in the presence of the couch more challenging. However, the effect of the couch is not always considered when creating treatment plans, generally due to treatment planning software limitations. In this evaluation, the ...


The Influence Of A Surface On Hysteresis Loops For Single-Domain Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles, Saad Alsari Jan 2018

The Influence Of A Surface On Hysteresis Loops For Single-Domain Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles, Saad Alsari

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The influence of surface effects on a hysteresis loop for single domain, ferromagnetic nanoparticles was examined. Theoretical equations were derived to describe the magnetic behavior of the domains and a MATLAB program was used to solve them. M-H curves were calculated for the case when a magnetic field is applied in the favorable magnetization direction (easy axis). In contrast, the calculations show there were no hysteresis loops when the magnetic field was applied perpendicular to the easy axis. Our studies showed how parameters of the surface such as a associated with saturation magnetization near the surface of nanoparticles and Ks ...


Electromagnetic Properties Of Fractal Antennas, Jordan Jeffrey Ewing Jan 2018

Electromagnetic Properties Of Fractal Antennas, Jordan Jeffrey Ewing

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Finite element method analysis is used to conduct electromagnetic simulations to characterize fractal antennas. This work considers wire (1D) antennas such as the triadic Koch curve, zig zag, and quadratic Koch curve of varying heights, iterations, and cross-sectional areas. Carpet (2D) antennas, including the Sierpinksi carpet, of varying heights, iterations, and deterministic and stochastic iterations are analyzed. The antenna shapes were generated in MATLAB and then modeled with finite element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The focus of this study is to determine what role various fractal patterns and iterations have on the S11 return loss and far field radiation patterns ...


A Parallel Spectral Method Approach To Model Plasma Instabilities, Kevin S. Scheiman Jan 2018

A Parallel Spectral Method Approach To Model Plasma Instabilities, Kevin S. Scheiman

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The study of solar-terrestrial plasma is concerned with processes in magnetospheric, ionospheric, and cosmic-ray physics involving different particle species and even particles of different energy within a single species. Instabilities in space plasmas and the earth's atmosphere are driven by a multitude of free energy sources such as velocity shear, gravity, temperature anisotropy, electron, and, ion beams and currents. Microinstabilities such as Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are important for the understanding of plasma dynamics in presence of magnetic field and velocity shear. Modeling these turbulences is a computationally demanding processes; requiring large memory and suffer from excessively long runtimes ...


Gender Fairness Within The Force Concept Inventory, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rachel Henderson, John Stewart, Gay Stewart, Alexis Papak, Rebecca Lindell Jan 2018

Gender Fairness Within The Force Concept Inventory, Adrienne L. Traxler, Rachel Henderson, John Stewart, Gay Stewart, Alexis Papak, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Research on the test structure of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has largely ignored gender, and research on FCI gender effects (often reported as “gender gaps”) has seldom interrogated the structure of the test. These rarely crossed streams of research leave open the possibility that the FCI may not be structurally valid across genders, particularly since many reported results come from calculus-based courses where 75% or more of the students are men. We examine the FCI considering both psychometrics and gender disaggregation (while acknowledging this as a binary simplification), and find several problematic questions whose removal decreases the apparent gender ...


Exploring The Gender Gap In The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Gay Stewart, John Stewart, Lynnette Michaluk, Adrienne L. Traxler Jul 2017

Exploring The Gender Gap In The Conceptual Survey Of Electricity And Magnetism, Rachel Henderson, Gay Stewart, John Stewart, Lynnette Michaluk, Adrienne L. Traxler

Physics Faculty Publications

The “gender gap” on various physics conceptual evaluations has been extensively studied. Men’s average pretest scores on the Force Concept Inventory and Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation are 13% higher than women’s, and post-test scores are on average 12% higher than women’s. This study analyzed the gender differences within the Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM) in which the gender gap has been less well studied and is less consistent. In the current study, data collected from 1407 students (77% men, 23% women) in a calculus-based physics course over ten semesters showed that male students outperformed ...


Terahertz Molecular Spectroscopy As A Tool For Analytical Probing Of Cellular Metabolism, Mitchell Cameron Paul Jan 2017

Terahertz Molecular Spectroscopy As A Tool For Analytical Probing Of Cellular Metabolism, Mitchell Cameron Paul

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Terahertz spectroscopy has found use as an analytical tool in determining chemical composition of exhaled human breath. This thesis demonstrates a novel application of this technology - analytical sensing of gaseous metabolic products of several types of human cell cultures. An innovative experimental system was developed for probing cellular metabolism using terahertz [THz] rotational spectroscopy. Gaseous emissions of cell cultures were analyzed and compared between several cell types. Cancerous and healthy lung cells as well as cancerous liver cells were studied. This technique carries a lot of promise as a noninvasive method of distinguishing between cell types and identifying cell pathologies ...


Extraordinary Optical Transmission In Aligned Carbon Nanotube Devices At Terahertz Frequencies., Shaikhah F. Almousa Jan 2017

Extraordinary Optical Transmission In Aligned Carbon Nanotube Devices At Terahertz Frequencies., Shaikhah F. Almousa

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In the phenomenon known as extraordinary optical transmission (EOT), a narrow band of selected frequencies are transmitted when incident on an array of subwavelength periodic apertures where the resonant frequency is determined by the geometry of the array of apertures and optical properties of the metal-dielectric interface. This takes place due to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the metal and dielectric interface. Using the COMSOL Multiphysics software RF Module, a unit cell of a carbon nanotube (CNT) based EOT device is modeled in order to verify theoretical calculations of the resonant frequency using S-parameter calculations. The simulation ...


Terahertz Molecular Spectroscopy As A Tool For Analytical Probing Of Cellular Metabolism, Mitchell Cameron Paul Jan 2017

Terahertz Molecular Spectroscopy As A Tool For Analytical Probing Of Cellular Metabolism, Mitchell Cameron Paul

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Terahertz spectroscopy has found use as an analytical tool in determining chemical composition of exhaled human breath. This thesis demonstrates a novel application of this technology - analytical sensing of gaseous metabolic products of several types of human cell cultures. An innovative experimental system was developed for probing cellular metabolism using terahertz [THz] rotational spectroscopy. Gaseous emissions of cell cultures were analyzed and compared between several cell types. Cancerous and healthy lung cells as well as cancerous liver cells were studied. This technique carries a lot of promise as a noninvasive method of distinguishing between cell types and identifying cell pathologies ...


Determination Of The Shape Of A Flattening Filter Free (Fff) Radiation Beam When Modified By A Physical Wedge, Kalel Alsaeed Jan 2017

Determination Of The Shape Of A Flattening Filter Free (Fff) Radiation Beam When Modified By A Physical Wedge, Kalel Alsaeed

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The determination of a flattening filter free (FFF) beam profile when the collimator is intentionally modified to incorporate a physical wedge. Specifically, radiation beam profiles change shape when a metallic wedge is placed in the path of the beam. Examination of this unknown is necessary to ascertain whether a physical wedge is clinically beneficial for applications involving FFF beams. The aim of this study is to determine if the radiation profile of a flattening filter free beam having a physical wedge is comparable to a beam with a flattening filter, with the same wedge inserted. This research involves measurement of ...


Multiscale Modeling Of Carbon Nanotube Synthesis In A Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor, Jonathan Troville Jan 2017

Multiscale Modeling Of Carbon Nanotube Synthesis In A Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Reactor, Jonathan Troville

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The bottom-up analysis of Carbon Nanotube synthesis is not well understood. Specifically, the question as to how carbon adsorbs to a substrate inclusive of a sup- ported catalyst may lead to the energetically favorable structure of a hexagonal close- packed structure along the wall, or walls, of the tube. A first time simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics has been generated in order to capture the gas-phase mech- anism which leads to carbon production. It is thought that the carbon adsorbs and the walls are formed from the bottom up and the inside out for multi-wall CNTs. The studies involved accurately setting ...


Towards A Prediction Of Landscape Evolution From Chemical Weathering And Soil Production, Eric Alan Jackson Jan 2017

Towards A Prediction Of Landscape Evolution From Chemical Weathering And Soil Production, Eric Alan Jackson

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The time evolution of a periodic landscape under the influence of chemical weathering and physical erosion is computed. The model used incorporates weathering and soil production as a flux limited reaction controlled by groundwater flow. Scaling of the flow rate is obtained from a percolation theoretic treatment. The erosion of the soil material produced by this process is modeled by the diffusion of elevation, as consistent with downslope soil transport proportional to the tangent of the angle of the topography, and application of the equation of continuity to surface soil transport. Three initial topographies are examined over a periods of ...


Thermoelectrical Properties Of Covetics, S. M. Sarif Rana Jan 2017

Thermoelectrical Properties Of Covetics, S. M. Sarif Rana

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Covetics are hybrid materials fabricated by fusing carbon with metals in an induction furnace. There is an indication that covetics have better thermal and electrical proper-ties in comparison with pure metals. The main goal of this research is to study thermal transport in covetics measured by specific absorption rate using calorimetry. In addition, temperature distribution has been measured along the both metal and covetic wires carrying currents of 5 A and 10 A, respectively. The first set of copper covetic (Cu cov) samples with nominal content of 36 at% carbon were prepared by Third Millennium Materials Company (TMMC) in the ...


Detection And Analysis Of Polyurethane Biodegradation Due To Cryptococcus Laurentii, Tyler Jacob Zicht Jan 2017

Detection And Analysis Of Polyurethane Biodegradation Due To Cryptococcus Laurentii, Tyler Jacob Zicht

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Current United States aircraft are equipped with a multitude of protective coatings on the interior and exterior of the vehicle, ultimately enhancing their ability to ensure a safe and effective mission. Aircraft, over the course of their lifetime, will experience impact, corrosion, weathering, and microbial damage to its defensive structures, rendering it vulnerable to attacks. Damaged coatings are then repaired on the aircraft once detected in inspection or replaced in accordance to the lifecycle of the material on the aircraft. However potentially harmful threats such as bacteria are not considered by the Air Force to be dangerous. Therefore, the purpose ...


Adaptive Optics System Baseline Modeling For A Usaf Quad Axis Telescope, Nathaniel R. Morris Jan 2017

Adaptive Optics System Baseline Modeling For A Usaf Quad Axis Telescope, Nathaniel R. Morris

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Atmospheric turbulence has afflicted accurate observations of celestial bodies since man first gazed upon the stars. In this past century, the technology of adaptive optics was invented to help compensate for the optical distortions that atmospheric turbulence causes. As part of that technology, artificial guide stars, wave front sensors, deformable mirrors, and other optical components were developed to correct these wave aberrations. The purpose of this study focuses on the modeling and configuration of an adaptive optics system that is appropriate for the John Bryan Observatory Quad Axis Telescope System (JBO-Q), which is funded by the United States Air Force ...


A Study Of Alkali-Resistant Materials For Use In Atomic Physics Based Systems, Aaron Thomas Fletcher Jan 2017

A Study Of Alkali-Resistant Materials For Use In Atomic Physics Based Systems, Aaron Thomas Fletcher

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Due to shortcomings in emerging alkali-based atomic physics based systems, a need to investigate alkali resistant materials has arisen. There is interest in alkali based systems such as atomic clocks and diode pumped alkali laser (DPAL) systems. In the case of atomic clocks and DPALs, alkali metal vapor, such as Rb, is the active part of the systems. The alkali vapor is confined in some manner of housing, but the transmission of electromagnetic radiation is required in the cells. This requires the incorporation of windows into the cell. The current window material, however, have been shown to degrade over time ...


Experimental Investigation Of A Parametric Excitation Of Whistler Waves, Nathan E. Zechar Jan 2017

Experimental Investigation Of A Parametric Excitation Of Whistler Waves, Nathan E. Zechar

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Previous theoretical work has shown that a parametric interaction between electrostatic lower oblique resonance (LOR) and ion acoustic waves (IAW) can produce electromagnetic whistler waves in a cold magnetized plasma. It was also demonstrated theoretically that this interaction can more efficiently generate electromagnetic whistler waves than by direct excitation using a conventional loop antenna. For the purpose of experimentally validating the above result, an experimental facility was designed and constructed utilizing a vacuum chamber, electromagnets, and a helicon plasma source array capable of producing a volume of plasma with high density and spatial uniformity. Additionally, positioning equipment and plasma diagnostics ...


Coursenetworking And Community: Linking Online Discussion Networks And Course Success, Adrienne L. Traxler, Andrew Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell Dec 2016

Coursenetworking And Community: Linking Online Discussion Networks And Course Success, Adrienne L. Traxler, Andrew Gavrin, Rebecca Lindell

Physics Faculty Publications

Large introductory science courses are isolating for many students, and reducing this isolation is an important factor for student retention in college. Active learning courses often build community among students as an explicit goal, but many commuter or non-traditional students have limited on-campus time. Online discussion forums provide one tool for engaging students with each other outside of class time. This study uses social network analysis with forum data from an introductory physics course to examine students' positions in the class discussion network and link it to their final course grades. We find that, contrary to expectations, there is no ...


Non-Traditional Students' Conceptual Scores And Network Centrality In Scale-Up Classrooms, Emily N. Sandt, Adrienne L. Traxler Jul 2016

Non-Traditional Students' Conceptual Scores And Network Centrality In Scale-Up Classrooms, Emily N. Sandt, Adrienne L. Traxler

Physics Faculty Publications

As classrooms transition from traditional to cooperative learning environments, questions about the details of these environments effectiveness are posed. Does this model equally benefit all students? How do nontraditional (NT) students' gains in conceptual knowledge compare to those of traditional (Trad) students in these classrooms? Do NT students' social differences (i.e. age, employment status, family life, etc.) affect the amount of learning they do in the course or their tendency to form collaborative ties with other students? In three sections of SCALE-UP introductory calculus-based physics, we collected social network survey data about student connections and used the Force Concept ...


Photoexcited Carrier Trapping And Recombination At Fe Centers In Gan, T. K. Uždavinys, S. Marcinkevičius, J. H. Leach, K. R. Evans, David C. Look Jun 2016

Photoexcited Carrier Trapping And Recombination At Fe Centers In Gan, T. K. Uždavinys, S. Marcinkevičius, J. H. Leach, K. R. Evans, David C. Look

Physics Faculty Publications

Fe doped GaN was studied by time- resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The shape of PLtransients at different temperatures and excitation powers allowed discrimination between electron and hole capture to Fe3+ and Fe2+ centers, respectively. Analysis of the internal structure of Fe ions and intra-ion relaxation rates suggests that for high repetition rates of photoexciting laser pulses the electron and hole trapping takes place in the excited state rather than the ground state of Fe ions. Hence, the estimated electron and hole capture coefficients of 5.5 × 10−8 cm3/s and 1.8 × 10−8 cm3/s should be attributed ...


Ultrafast Saturation Of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering And Comparison For Pulse Durations In The Nanosecond To Femtosecond Regime, Anil K. Patnaik, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord Feb 2016

Ultrafast Saturation Of Electronic-Resonance-Enhanced Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering And Comparison For Pulse Durations In The Nanosecond To Femtosecond Regime, Anil K. Patnaik, Sukesh Roy, James R. Gord

Physics Faculty Publications

The saturation threshold of a probe pulse in an ultrafast electronic-resonance-enhanced (ERE) coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) configuration is calculated. We demonstrate that while the underdamping condition is a sufficient condition for saturation of ERE-CARS with the long-pulse excitations, a transient gain must be achieved to saturate the ERE-CARS signal for the ultrafast probe regime. We identify that the area under the probe pulse can be used as a definitive parameter to determine the criterion for a saturation threshold for ultrafast ERE-CARS. From a simplified analytical solution and a detailed numerical calculation based on density-matrix equations, the saturation threshold of ...


A Social Network Analysis Of An Introductory Calculus-Based Physics Class With Comparisons Of Traditional And Non-Traditional Students, Fci Scores, And Network Centralities, Emily Sandt Jan 2016

A Social Network Analysis Of An Introductory Calculus-Based Physics Class With Comparisons Of Traditional And Non-Traditional Students, Fci Scores, And Network Centralities, Emily Sandt

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The use of social network analysis in physics education research seeks to advance understanding of how students' collaborative tendencies influence trends of learning. Common useful measurements are network size, density of connections, and centrality measures that describe the importance of nodes' positions. This study compared four different centrality measures at the beginning and end of seven sections of an introductory calculus-based physics course. The Force Concept Inventory was used as a measure of conceptual learning at pre- and post-course administrations. The main focus of this study was to identify if differences in network centralities and conceptual learning/knowledge exist with ...


Use Of Clearview Gel Dosimeter For Quality Assurance And Testing Of Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Erik Joseph-Leonard Courter Jan 2016

Use Of Clearview Gel Dosimeter For Quality Assurance And Testing Of Stereotactic Radiosurgery, Erik Joseph-Leonard Courter

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There exists a lack of accurate, reproducible three-dimensional dosimetry techniques for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) commissioning and quality assurance. This experiment evaluates the use of ClearView gel dosimeters as an alternative to current methods for small field dosimetry in SRS testing. ClearView differs from other gel dosimeters in that it uses tetrazolium salt in its chemical make-up in place of traditional Fricke-type compounds. Using a Varian TrueBeam radiotherapy system to deliver the radiation, three vials of ClearView gel dosimeter were tested in three different dose delivery scenarios. The first test examined the dosimeter's response to a static beam with the ...


Improved Sensitivity Mems Cantilever Sensor For Terahertz Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Ronald A. Coutu Jr., Ivan Medvedev, Douglas T. Petkie Jan 2016

Improved Sensitivity Mems Cantilever Sensor For Terahertz Photoacoustic Spectroscopy, Ronald A. Coutu Jr., Ivan Medvedev, Douglas T. Petkie

Physics Faculty Publications

In this paper, a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) cantilever sensor was designed, modeled and fabricated to measure the terahertz (THz) radiation induced photoacoustic (PA) response of gases under low vacuum conditions. This work vastly improves cantilever sensitivity over previous efforts, by reducing internal beam stresses, minimizing out of plane beam curvature and optimizing beam damping. In addition, fabrication yield was improved by approximately 50% by filleting the cantilever’s anchor and free end to help reduce high stress areas that occurred during device fabrication and processing. All of the cantilever sensors were fabricated using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers and tested in a ...


Heating Power Of Coated Fecov Magnetic Nanoparticles, Hanaa Ali Alshammari Jan 2016

Heating Power Of Coated Fecov Magnetic Nanoparticles, Hanaa Ali Alshammari

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The effect of coatings on the heating curves of magnetic nanoparticles was studied in this Thesis. Iron cobalt vanadium (FeCoV) nanoparticles with oxide (CoOFe2O3) and graphite (C) coating to prevent oxidation, were synthesized through thermal plasma processing method. The magnetic nanoparticles had an average diameter of 30 nm. In the case of FeCoV with oxide coating, the initial diameter of the pure FeCoV nanoparticles on average was 30 nm but after oxidation 5 nm thick oxide layer was created. As a result of this oxidation, the magnetic core of FeCoV nanoparticles was shrunk from 30 nm to 20 nm in ...


Social Network Analysis And The Representation Of Female Students In Introductory Undergraduate Physics, Sarah Teresa Hierath Jan 2016

Social Network Analysis And The Representation Of Female Students In Introductory Undergraduate Physics, Sarah Teresa Hierath

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Physics Education Research has begun to focus on the learning habits, success, and connections of students in physics classrooms using Social Network Analysis (SNA). SNA is an important tool in studying classroom dynamics because it can be used to map the social structure of a classroom's interactions and to aid in understanding how students work and study together. This study presents network diagrams, statistics, centrality measures, and conceptual understanding correlations for 7 different sections of introductory physics. Centrality measures were determined from a first and last week survey in which students were asked to indicate their study partners within ...