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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Polar Topside Ionosphere During Geomagnetic Storms: Comparison Of Isis-Ii With Tdim, Jan J. Sojka, Donald Rice, Vince Eccles, Michael David, Robert W. Schunk, Robert Frederick Benson, H. G. James Jun 2018

Polar Topside Ionosphere During Geomagnetic Storms: Comparison Of Isis-Ii With Tdim, Jan J. Sojka, Donald Rice, Vince Eccles, Michael David, Robert W. Schunk, Robert Frederick Benson, H. G. James

All Physics Faculty Publications

Space weather deposits energy into the high polar latitudes, primarily via Joule heating that is associated with the Poynting flux electromagnetic energy flow between the magnetosphere and ionosphere. One way to observe this energy flow is to look at the ionospheric electron density profile (EDP), especially that of the topside. The altitude location of the ionospheric peak provides additional information on the net field‐aligned vertical transport at high latitudes. To date, there have been few studies in which physics‐based ionospheric model storm simulations have been compared with topside EDPs. A rich database of high‐latitude topside ionograms obtained ...


Observations Of Ionospheric Heating During The Passage Of Solar Coronal Hole Fast Streams, Jan Josef Sojka, R. L. Mcpherron, A. P. Van Eyken, M. J. Nicolis, C. J. Heinselman, J. D. Kelley Jan 2009

Observations Of Ionospheric Heating During The Passage Of Solar Coronal Hole Fast Streams, Jan Josef Sojka, R. L. Mcpherron, A. P. Van Eyken, M. J. Nicolis, C. J. Heinselman, J. D. Kelley

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Using ionospheric temperature measurements made continuously by the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) and EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) during the International Polar Year (IPY), we provide evidence for directly driven ionospheric heating associated with the solar wind corotating interaction region (CIR). Both ESR and PFISR operated almost continuously during the IPY, which began on 1 March 2007. During this period 55 CIR events occurred and when ISR observations were available during these events ionospheric heating was observed. This study is the first comprehensive observation of ionospheric heating by CIRs demonstrated through case study comparisons and statistically over the 1-year ...


Quiet Time Equatorial F Region Vertical Plasma Drift Model Derived From Rocsat-1 Observations, Bela G. Fejer, J. W. Jensen, S. Y. Su May 2008

Quiet Time Equatorial F Region Vertical Plasma Drift Model Derived From Rocsat-1 Observations, Bela G. Fejer, J. W. Jensen, S. Y. Su

Bela G. Fejer

[1] We have used five years of measurements on board the ROCSAT-1 satellite to develop a detailed quiet time global empirical model for equatorial F region vertical plasma drifts. This model describes the local time, seasonal and longitudinal dependence of the vertical drifts for an altitude of 600 km under moderate and high solar flux conditions. The model results are in excellent agreement with measurements from the Jicamarca radar and also from other ground-based and in situ probes. We show that the longitudinal dependence of the daytime and nighttime vertical drifts is much stronger than reported earlier, especially during December ...


Space Weather Effects On Mid-Latitude Hf Propagation Paths: Observations And A Data-Driven D-Region Model, J. V. Eccles, R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, Jan Josef Sojka Jan 2004

Space Weather Effects On Mid-Latitude Hf Propagation Paths: Observations And A Data-Driven D-Region Model, J. V. Eccles, R. D. Hunsucker, D. Rice, Jan Josef Sojka

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A two-pronged study is under way to improve understanding of the D region response to space weather and its effects on HF propagation. One part, the HF Investigation of D region Ionospheric Variation Experiment (HIDIVE), is designed to obtain simultaneous, quantitative propagation and absorption data from an HF signal monitoring network along with solar X-ray flux from the NOAA GOES satellites. Observations have been made continuously since late December 2002 and include the severe disturbances of October–November 2003. GOES satellite X-ray observations and geophysical indices are assimilated into the Data-Driven D Region (DDDR) electron density model developed as the ...


De-2 Observations Of Morningside And Eveningside Plasma Density Depletions In The Equatorial Ionosphere, M. Palmroth, H. Laakso, Bela G. Fejer, R. F. Pfaff Aug 2000

De-2 Observations Of Morningside And Eveningside Plasma Density Depletions In The Equatorial Ionosphere, M. Palmroth, H. Laakso, Bela G. Fejer, R. F. Pfaff

Bela G. Fejer

The occurrence of equatorial density depletions in the nightside F region ionosphere has been investigated by using observations gathered by the polar-orbiting Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite from August 1981 to February 1983. A variety of electric field/plasma drift patterns were observed within these depletions, including updrafting, downdrafting, bifurcating, converging, subsonic, and supersonic flows. The depletions, 116 events in total, are distributed over two groups: group I (eveningside depletions) consists of the events in the 1900–2300 MLT sector, and group II (morningside depletions) are the events in the 2300–0600 MLT sector. A statistical analysis reveals clear differences in ...


Intercomparison Of Physical Models And Observations Of The Ionosphere, D. N. Anderson, M. J. Buonsanto, M. Codrescu, D. Decker, C. G. Fesen, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, B. W. Reinisch, P. G. Richards, R. G. Roble, Robert W. Schunk, Jan Josef Sojka Jan 1998

Intercomparison Of Physical Models And Observations Of The Ionosphere, D. N. Anderson, M. J. Buonsanto, M. Codrescu, D. Decker, C. G. Fesen, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, B. W. Reinisch, P. G. Richards, R. G. Roble, Robert W. Schunk, Jan Josef Sojka

All Physics Faculty Publications

Five physical models of the ionosphere were compared with each other and with data obtained at the Millstone Hill Observatory. Two of the models were self-consistent ionosphere-thermosphere models, while for the other ionospheric models the thermospheric parameters were provided by empirical inputs. The comparisons were restricted to midlatitudes and low geomagnetic activity, but four geophysical cases were considered that covered both the summer and winter solstices at solar maximum and minimum. The original motivation of the study was to determine why several physical models consistently underestimated the F region peak electron density, by up to a factor of 2, in ...


Observationsof Inner-Plasmasphere Irregularities With A Satellite Beacon Interferometer Array, A. R. Jacobsen, G. Hogeveen, R. C. Carlos, G. Wu, Bela G. Fejer, M. C. Kelley Sep 1996

Observationsof Inner-Plasmasphere Irregularities With A Satellite Beacon Interferometer Array, A. R. Jacobsen, G. Hogeveen, R. C. Carlos, G. Wu, Bela G. Fejer, M. C. Kelley

Bela G. Fejer

A radio-interferometer array illuminated by 136-MHz beacons of several geosynchronous satellites has been used to study small (≥ 1013 m−2) transient disturbances in the total electron content along the lines of sight to the satellites. High-frequency (ƒ> 3 mHz) electron content oscillations are persistently observed, particularly during night and particularly during geomagnetically disturbed periods. The oscillations move across the array plane at speeds in the range 200–2000 m/s, with propagation azimuths that are strongly peaked in lobes toward the western half-plane. Detailed analysis of this azimuth behavior, involving comparison between observations on various satellite positions, indicates compellingly that ...


Multiple Polar Cap Arcs: Akebono (Exos D) Observations, T. Obara, T. Mukai, H. Hayakawa, K. Tsurda, A. Matsuoka, A. Nishida, H. Fukunishi, L. Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, D. J. Crain Jan 1996

Multiple Polar Cap Arcs: Akebono (Exos D) Observations, T. Obara, T. Mukai, H. Hayakawa, K. Tsurda, A. Matsuoka, A. Nishida, H. Fukunishi, L. Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, D. J. Crain

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Akebono (Exos D) observations demonstrate that polar cap arcs sometimes have a fine structure, that is, multiple (double or triple) arcs with spacing of a few tens of kilometers. The multiple polar cap arcs are dominantly observed in the nightside polar cap region, suggesting that low background conductance favors the appearance of the structured arcs. A relationship between the spacing and the average energy of the precipitating electrons is investigated. Results show that a higher energy leads to a wider spacing. Akebono observations also show the existence of a downward current region embedded between upward current regions (arcs). Comparison of ...


Comparison Of Simultaneous Chatanika And Millstone Hill Observations With Ionospheric Model Predictions, C. E. Rasmussen, Robert W. Schunk, Jan Josef Sojka, V. B. Wickwar, O. De La Beaujardiere, J. Foster, J. Holt, D. S. Evans, E. Nielsen Jan 1986

Comparison Of Simultaneous Chatanika And Millstone Hill Observations With Ionospheric Model Predictions, C. E. Rasmussen, Robert W. Schunk, Jan Josef Sojka, V. B. Wickwar, O. De La Beaujardiere, J. Foster, J. Holt, D. S. Evans, E. Nielsen

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As part of the MITHRAS program, the Chatanika and Millstone Hill incoherent-scatter radars made coordinated observations of the polar ionosphere on June 27 and 28, 1981. We compare these data with predictions made by a high-latitude ionospheric model. Qualitatively, the same features are evident in both the model and the radar data: fairly constant densities on the dayside with a mid-latitude trough forming poleward of 65 degrees around 1900 MLT (magnetic local time). This trough is seen to extend equatorward with increasing MLT, such that the minimum densities occurring in the trough appear just after midnight around 60 degrees dipole ...


First Vhf Auroral Radarinterferometer Observations, J. Providakes, W. E. Swartz, D. T. Farley, Bela G. Fejer Jan 1983

First Vhf Auroral Radarinterferometer Observations, J. Providakes, W. E. Swartz, D. T. Farley, Bela G. Fejer

Bela G. Fejer

The radar interferometer technique first used at the magnetic equator in Peru is also a very powerful means for studying auroral plasma instabilities. We present here the first results, obtained with a 49.92 MHz, 20-25 KW peak power pulsed radar located in Ithaca, NY (42.5° N, 76.4° W). Strong auroral echoes were obtained during several highly active periods. Phase differences between the signals received on the two antennas accurately determine the E-W position, within the scattering volume, of localized scattering centers, and changes in this phase determine the corresponding velocity. The signal Doppler shift describes radial (essentially ...


Comparison Of Model High-Latitude Electron Densities With Millstone Hill Observations, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, J. V. Evans, J. M. Holt, R. H. Wand Jan 1983

Comparison Of Model High-Latitude Electron Densities With Millstone Hill Observations, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, J. V. Evans, J. M. Holt, R. H. Wand

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Model predictions of the diurnal variations of plasma convection velocities and electron densities in the high-latitude ionosphere were compared with Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations for an equinox day on which there was moderate magnetic activity. On the observation day, three major morphological features were evident at 500 km, including a dayside high density region, a nightside mid-latitude trough, and a region of slightly enhanced densities in the auroral zone. Although the dayside high density region was due to solar EUV radiation, it was not symmetrical about local noon (1000-1900 LT sector) owing to the effect of horizontal transport ...


Observations Of The Diurnal Dependence Of The High-Latitude F Region Ion Density By Dmsp Satellites, Jan Josef Sojka, W. John Raitt, Robert W. Schunk, F. J. Rich, R. C. Sagalyn Jan 1982

Observations Of The Diurnal Dependence Of The High-Latitude F Region Ion Density By Dmsp Satellites, Jan Josef Sojka, W. John Raitt, Robert W. Schunk, F. J. Rich, R. C. Sagalyn

All Physics Faculty Publications

Data from the DMSP F2 and F4 satellites for the period December 5-10, 1979, have been used to study the diurnal dependence of the high-latitude ion density at 800-km altitude. A 24-hour periodicity in the minimum orbital density (MOD) during a crossing of the high-latitude region is observed in both the winter and summer hemispheres. The phase of the variation in MOD is such that it has a minimum during the 24-hour period between 0700 and 0900 UT. Both the long term variation of the high-latitude ion density on a time scale of days, and the orbit by orbit variations ...


High-Latitude Convection: Comparison Of A Simple Model With Incoherent Scatter Observations, Jan Josef Sojka, J. C. Foster, W. J. Raitt, R. W. Schunk, J. R. Doupnik Jan 1980

High-Latitude Convection: Comparison Of A Simple Model With Incoherent Scatter Observations, Jan Josef Sojka, J. C. Foster, W. J. Raitt, R. W. Schunk, J. R. Doupnik

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We have compared a simple model of plasma convection at high latitudes with data obtained from simultaneous measurements made by the incoherent scatter facilities at Chatanika, Alaska and Millstone Hill, Massachusetts in June 1978 during moderately disturbed conditions. The measured horizontal plasma drift velocities were averaged for four days to emphasize gross features of the convection pattern and reduce the effects of substorms. The convection model includes the offset of 11.5° between the geographic and geomagnetic poles, the tendency of plasma to corotate about the geographic pole, and a constant dawn/dusk magnetospheric electric field mapped to a circle ...