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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Diffusive Electron Heat Flow And Temperature Variance Along Magnetic Field Lines, Michael Kushlan Jan 2014

Diffusive Electron Heat Flow And Temperature Variance Along Magnetic Field Lines, Michael Kushlan

Physics Capstone Project

In this research we examine how electron heat moves along magnetic field lines and how this affects temperature variations in plasmas. Specifically we wrote FORTRAN code to solve the electron temperature equation numerically. We also solved the steady state electron temperature equation analytically using an integrating factor. We verified that the numerical and analytical solutions obtained the same result. Finally we calculated the standard deviation of temperature in our domain for the steady state. Gaussian legendre quadrature was used to integrate various functions. We represented our magnetic field and heat source with Fourier series. The sin and cosine coefficients for ...


Compilation And Comparison Of Electron Penetration Ranges As A Function Of Effective Number Of Valence Electrons, Teancum Quist Apr 2013

Compilation And Comparison Of Electron Penetration Ranges As A Function Of Effective Number Of Valence Electrons, Teancum Quist

Senior Theses and Projects

The continuous-slow-down approximation (CSDA) is used to create a simple composite analytical formula to estimate the range or maximum penetration depth of bombarding electrons into traditional materials including conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. This formula generates an approximation to the range using a single fitting parameter, Nv, described as the effective number of valence electrons. This applicability of the formulation extends to electrons with energies from 10MeV. These calculations are of great value for studies of high electron bombardment, such as electron spectroscopy or the vacuum of space. A list comprised of 187 materials has been collected that greatly extends ...


Electron Penetration Ranges As A Function Of Effective Number Of Valence Electrons, Teancum Quist, Blake Moore, Greg Wilson, Jr Dennison Apr 2013

Electron Penetration Ranges As A Function Of Effective Number Of Valence Electrons, Teancum Quist, Blake Moore, Greg Wilson, Jr Dennison

Posters

The Continuous-Slow-Down Approximation (CSDA) is used to create a simple composite analytical formula to estimate the range or maximum penetration depth of incident electrons into diverse materials including conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. This formula generates an approximation to the range using a single fitting parameter, Nv, described as the effective number of valence electrons. This range of the formulation extends to electrons with energies from <10 eV to >10MeV, with 20% accuracy. A list comprised of 222 materials has been collected that greatly extends the applicability of this model. Several key material constants were compiled for each material, including the atomic number ...


Electron Transport Models And Precision Measurements In A Constant Voltage Chamber, Justin Dekany, Alec Sim, Jerilyn Brunson, Jr Dennison Jan 2012

Electron Transport Models And Precision Measurements In A Constant Voltage Chamber, Justin Dekany, Alec Sim, Jerilyn Brunson, Jr Dennison

All Physics Faculty Publications

The conductivity of the material is a key transport parameter in spacecraft charging that determines how deposited charge will redistribute throughout the system, how rapidly charge imbalances will dissipate, and what equilibrium potential will be established under given environmental conditions. As the requirements for space missions extend to new regions of space and more stringent requirements are placed on spacecraft performance, it becomes necessary to better understand the underlying conduction mechanisms that determine the dynamic response of insulators to temperature, electric field dose rate, and sample conditioning and history. This study performed detailed measurements of the transient conductivity of representative ...


Electron Induced Luminescence Of Insulating Polymeric Materials, Doug Ball Apr 2011

Electron Induced Luminescence Of Insulating Polymeric Materials, Doug Ball

Senior Theses and Projects

The study of luminescence and electron transport in disordered insulating materials provides detailed information about the material structure and interaction of incident electrons within a material. Electron induced luminescence of insulating polymeric materials has been observed in tests by the USU Materials Physics group. Conduction electrons can transition between extended states in the valence and conduction band and a distribution of localized trapped states within the band gap. Electron transport and luminescence is governed by the distribution of states and transition rates between them. This study investigates the exponentially decaying signatures of both luminescence and sample current of M55J under ...


Electron-Induced Electron Yields Of Uncharged Insulating Materials, Ryan Carl Hoffmann May 2010

Electron-Induced Electron Yields Of Uncharged Insulating Materials, Ryan Carl Hoffmann

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Presented here are electron-induced electron yield measurements from high-resistivity, high-yield materials to support a model for the yield of uncharged insulators. These measurements are made using a low-fluence, pulsed electron beam and charge neutralization to minimize charge accumulation. They show charging induced changes in the total yield, as much as 75%, even for incident electron fluences of <3 fC/mm2, when compared to an uncharged yield. The evolution of the yield as charge accumulates in the material is described in terms of electron recapture, based on the extended Chung and Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum and the dual dynamic layer model for internal charge distribution. This model is used to explain charge-induced total yield modification measured in high-yield ceramics, and to provide a method for determining electron yield of uncharged, highly insulating, high-yield materials. A sequence of materials with progressively greater charge susceptibility is presented. This series starts with low-yield Kapton derivative called CP1, then considers a moderate-yield material, Kapton HN, and ends with a high-yield ceramic, polycrystalline aluminum oxide. Applicability of conductivity (both radiation induced conductivity (RIC) and dark current conductivity) to the yield is addressed. Relevance of these results to spacecraft charging is also discussed.


Measurement Methods Of Electron Emission Over A Full Range Of Sample Charging, R. Hoffman, Jr Dennison Jan 2010

Measurement Methods Of Electron Emission Over A Full Range Of Sample Charging, R. Hoffman, Jr Dennison

All Physics Faculty Publications

The electron emission properties of a material subject to incident radiation flux are key parameters in determining to what equilibrium charge a spacecraft will established under given environmental conditions. However, there is a complex relation between these emission properties and the charge built up in spacecraft insulators. Complex modeling codes have been developed to predict the potential a spacecraft will adopt as a consequence of its interaction with the space plasma. These require correct models of the electron yields as a function of charge to accurately predict the both the charge build up and the equilibrium potential of spacecraft components ...


Flight Experiments On The Effects Of Contamination On Electron Emission Of Materials, Jr Dennison, Joshua L. Hodges, Jeff Duce, Amberly Evans Jun 2009

Flight Experiments On The Effects Of Contamination On Electron Emission Of Materials, Jr Dennison, Joshua L. Hodges, Jeff Duce, Amberly Evans

All Physics Faculty Publications

We report on a study of the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment and of chargeenhanced contamination on the electron emission and resistivity of spacecraft materials. The State of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (SUSpECS) was deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2008 onboard the MISSE-6 payload during STS-123. The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-6) program is designed to characterize the performance of candidate new space materials over the course of its ~17 month exposure to the LEO environment, with a target return date of August 2009 on STS-127. Approximately 165 samples are mounted ...


Low-Fluence Electron Yields Of Highly Insulating Materials, Ryan Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Clint D. Thomson, Jennifer Albretson Oct 2008

Low-Fluence Electron Yields Of Highly Insulating Materials, Ryan Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Clint D. Thomson, Jennifer Albretson

Journal Articles

Electron-induced electron yields of high-resistivity, high-yield materials - ceramic polycrystalline aluminum oxide and the polymer polyimide (Kapton HN), - were made by using a low-fluence, pulsed incident electron beam and charge neutralization electron source to minimize charge accumulation. Large changes in energy-dependent total yield curves and yield decay curves were observed, even for incident electron fluences of <3 fC/mm2. The evolution of the electron yield as charge accumulates in the material is modeled in terms of electron re-capture based on an extended Chung-Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum. This model is used to explain anomalies measured in highly insulating, high-yield materials, and ...


Triggering Threshold Spacecraft Charging With Changes In Electron Emission From Materials, Jr Dennison, R. C. Hoffmann, J. Abbott Jan 2007

Triggering Threshold Spacecraft Charging With Changes In Electron Emission From Materials, Jr Dennison, R. C. Hoffmann, J. Abbott

All Physics Faculty Publications

Modest changes in spacecraft charging conditions can lead to abrupt changes in the spacecraft equilibrium, from small positive potentials to large negative potentials relative to the space plasma; this phenomenon is referred to as threshold charging. It is well known that temporal changes of the space plasma environment (electron plasma temperature or density) can cause threshold charging. Threshold charging can also result from by temporal changes in the juxtaposition of the spacecraft to the environment, including spacecraft orbit, orientation, and geometry. This study focuses on the effects of possible changes in electron emission properties of representative spacecraft materials. It is ...


Electron-Induced Electron Yields Of Uncharged Insulating Materials, Ryan Carl Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Jennifer Albretsen Jan 2007

Electron-Induced Electron Yields Of Uncharged Insulating Materials, Ryan Carl Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Jennifer Albretsen

All Physics Faculty Publications

This study presents electron-induced electron yield measurements from high-resistivity, high-yield materials to validate a model for the yield of uncharged insulators. These measurements are accomplished by using a low-fluence, pulsed incident electron beam and charge neutralization to minimize charge accumulation. Our measurements show large changes in total yield curves and yield decay curves, even for incident electron fluences of/mm2. We model the evolution of the yield as charge accumulates in the material in terms of electron re-capture based on the extended Chung-Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum. This model is used to explain anomalies measured in high yield ...


Measurements Of The Secondary Electron Emission Properties Of Insulators, Clint D. Thomson May 2005

Measurements Of The Secondary Electron Emission Properties Of Insulators, Clint D. Thomson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Measurements of the electron-induced electron emission properties of insulators are important to many applications including spacecraft charging, scanning electron microscopy, electron sources, and particle detection technology. However, these measurements are difficult to make since insulators can charge either negatively or positively under charge particle bombardment that in turn alters insulator emissions. In addition, incident electron bombardment can modify the conductivity, internal charge distribution, surface potential, and material structure in ways that are not well understood. A primary goal of this dissertation work has been to make consistent and accurate measurements of the uncharged electron yields for insulator materials using innovative ...


State Of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (Suspecs) Misse-6 Payload To Investigate Their Effects On Electron Emission And Resistivity Of Spacecraft Materials, Jr Dennison, L. Pearson, L. Davis, J. W. Burns, R. S. Hyde, James S. Dyer, Tina Andrus, Andrew Jay Auman, Jeff Duce, Tim Neilsen, Rob Leishman Apr 2005

State Of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (Suspecs) Misse-6 Payload To Investigate Their Effects On Electron Emission And Resistivity Of Spacecraft Materials, Jr Dennison, L. Pearson, L. Davis, J. W. Burns, R. S. Hyde, James S. Dyer, Tina Andrus, Andrew Jay Auman, Jeff Duce, Tim Neilsen, Rob Leishman

All Physics Faculty Publications

A study of the effects of prolonged exposure to the space environment and of charge-enhanced contamination on the electron emission and resistivity of spacecraft materials, the State of Utah Space Environment & Contamination Study (SUSpECS), is planned for flight aboard the MISSE-6 payload. The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE-6) program is designed to characterize the performance of candidate new space materials over the course of approximately four to eight month exposure periods on-orbit on the International Space Station, with a target flight date of mid-2006. The study is conducted by the Utah State University Materials Physics Group, in cooperation with ...


The Importance Of Accurate Computation Of Secondary Electron Emission For Modeling Spacecraft Charging, S. Clerc, Jr Dennison, C. D. Thomson Jan 2005

The Importance Of Accurate Computation Of Secondary Electron Emission For Modeling Spacecraft Charging, S. Clerc, Jr Dennison, C. D. Thomson

All Physics Faculty Publications

Secondary electron emission is a critical contributor to the current balance in spacecraft charging. Spacecraft charging codes use a parameterized expression for the secondary electron yield δ(Eo) as a function of incident electron energy Eo. Simple three-step physics models of the electron penetration, transport and emission from a solid are typically expressed in terms of the incident electron penetration depth at normal incidence or range R(Eo ), and the mean free path of the secondary electron, λ(E). We recall classical models for the range R(Eo): a power law expression of the form b1E ...


Secondary Electron Emission Study Of Annealed Graphitic Amorphous Carbon, Jodie Corbridge May 2003

Secondary Electron Emission Study Of Annealed Graphitic Amorphous Carbon, Jodie Corbridge

Senior Theses and Projects

In the 1880s a curious phenomena was observed: when a ray of light, no matter how weak, hit certain metals; electrons were emitted from the surface. Called the “photoelectric effect”, this puzzle was never explained until much later. In 1905, Albert Einstein put forth one possible explanation, which is currently accepted as correct. Einstein proposed that light propagated in discrete energy packets rather than as a continuous wave. While most scientists disbelieved Einstein theory, it was later proved in detail by Robert Milikan.1 Rays of light traveling in discrete packets hit metal surfaces, depositing energy. If the energy is ...


Electron Emission Properties Of Insulator Materials Pertinent To The International Space Station, C. D. Thomson, V. V. Zavyalov, Jr Dennison, Jodie Corbridge Jan 2003

Electron Emission Properties Of Insulator Materials Pertinent To The International Space Station, C. D. Thomson, V. V. Zavyalov, Jr Dennison, Jodie Corbridge

All Physics Faculty Publications

We present the results of our measurements of the electron emission properties of selected insulating and conducting materials used on the International Space Station (ISS). Utah State University (USU) has performed measurements of the electron-, ion-, and photon-induced electron emission properties of conductors for a few years, and has recently extended our capabilities to measure electron yields of insulators, allowing us to significantly expand current spacecraft material charging databases. These ISS materials data are used here to illustrate our various insulator measurement techniques that include: i) Studies of electron-induced secondary and backscattered electron yield curves using pulsed, low current electron ...


Instrumentation And Measurement Of Secondary Electron Emission For Spacecraft Charging, Neal Nickles, Jr Dennison May 2000

Instrumentation And Measurement Of Secondary Electron Emission For Spacecraft Charging, Neal Nickles, Jr Dennison

All Physics Faculty Publications

Secondary electron emission is an important physical mechanism in the problem of spacecraft charging. The NASA Space Environments and Effects branch is currently revising NASA’s strategy for mitigating damage due to spacecraft charging. In an effort to substantially improve the modeling of spacecraft charging, measurements of secondary electron emission parameters are being made. The design of the apparatus needed to measure these parameters is discussed in detail. Various measurement techniques are explained and conclusions are drawn about the suitability of the final design.


Effects Of Spacecraft Potential On Secondary Electron Yields In Geosynchronous Orbit, Neal E. Nickles Jan 1999

Effects Of Spacecraft Potential On Secondary Electron Yields In Geosynchronous Orbit, Neal E. Nickles

All Physics Faculty Publications

Surface charging due to interactions with the earth=s plasma is a hazard for orbiting spacecraft. Secondary electron (SE) emission is an important physical process in spacecraft charging. Current spacecraft charging models do not consider the SE energy or angular distributions and their implications for estimating the return of SE to the spacecraft. Comprehensive work on the application of SE energy and angular distributions to spacecraft charging has been published [Nickles et al., 1999] and part of that work is summarized here. The application of SE energy distributions to the case of positive charging in geosynchronous orbit is discussed and ...


Evolution Of Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics Of Spacecraft Surfaces: Importance To Spacecraft Charging, R. E. Davies, Jr Dennison Jan 1998

Evolution Of Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics Of Spacecraft Surfaces: Importance To Spacecraft Charging, R. E. Davies, Jr Dennison

All Physics Faculty Publications

Secondary electron emission (SEE) plays a key role in spacecraft charging [Garrett, 1981; Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992] . As a result, spacecraft charging codes require knowledge of the SEE characteristics of various materials in order to predict vehicle potentials in various orbital environments [Katz, et. al., 1986]. Because SEE is a surface phenomenon, occurring in the first few atomic layers of a material, the SEE characteristics of a given surface are extremely sensitive to changes in surface condition—e.g., the addition or removal of surface contaminants, or changes in surface morphology. That spacecraft surfaces can and generally do undergo significant ...


Electron Mean-Free Paths In The Alkali Metals, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, N. V. Smith, P. H. Citrin Jul 1992

Electron Mean-Free Paths In The Alkali Metals, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, N. V. Smith, P. H. Citrin

All Physics Faculty Publications

Photoemission data in which the signal from the first atomic layer is well resolved from that of the bulk are used to determine accurately the kinetic-energy dependence of the inelastic-electron mean free path in the alkali metals. At the higher kinetic energies, the data are in very good agreement with the theory of Penn. Below about 10 eV, the mean free path in the heavier alkali metals drops markedly below the theoretical values. This is attributed to electron decay processes involving the unoccupied d bands.


Auroral E-Region Plasma Waves Andelevated Electron Temperatures, Bela G. Fejer, J. Providakes, D. T. Farley, W. E. Swartz Dec 1986

Auroral E-Region Plasma Waves Andelevated Electron Temperatures, Bela G. Fejer, J. Providakes, D. T. Farley, W. E. Swartz

Bela G. Fejer

We have observed 3-m auroral E region plasma waves with a high-resolution 50-MHz radar interferometer at Ithaca. During postmidnight periods of very strong magnetic activity at Ottawa (L = 3.5), the backscattered power and Doppler spectra vary rapidly with time and range and may have both mean Doppler shifts and half power widths in excess of 200 Hz (600 m/s). In addition, when the radar and magnetometer data imply that the current is approximately parallel to the radar line of sight, sharp spectral peaks corresponding to phase velocities approaching 1 km/s sometimes appear suddenly. These persist for at ...


Directional And Dynamic Variations Ofauroral Power Spectra Related To The Ionospheric Electron Drift Velocity, E. Nielsen, C. I. Haldoupis, Bela G. Fejer, H. M. Ierkic Jan 1984

Directional And Dynamic Variations Ofauroral Power Spectra Related To The Ionospheric Electron Drift Velocity, E. Nielsen, C. I. Haldoupis, Bela G. Fejer, H. M. Ierkic

Bela G. Fejer

Power spectral observations of auroral electron density fluctuations with a scale length of nearly 1 m have been made with the STARE system (Scandinavian twin auroral radar experiment). Simultaneous measurements of the mean radial Doppler velocities were used to derive estimates of the ionospheric electron drift velocity. The data were analyzed to determine the spectral dependence on the magnitude and direction of the electron drift velocity. The two spectral types, characterized as “narrow” and “broad,” were observed simultaneously from the same scattering volume. The width of the broad spectrum (up to about 1200 Hz) can be at least 3 times ...


A Relativistic One Pion Exchange Model Of Proton-Neutron Electron-Positron Pair Production, William A. Peterson May 1973

A Relativistic One Pion Exchange Model Of Proton-Neutron Electron-Positron Pair Production, William A. Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Proton-neutron electron-positron pair production cross sections are calculated in the framework of the pseudoscalar one-pion exchange model in a fully relativistic manner.

A computer program has been developed to evaluate invariants and Dirac traces for a given data point.

The sections for symmetric coplanar events for laboratory kinetic energies of 10 to 250 MeV were calculated for pair angles of 20° to 120°.

Frequency distributions were also calculated, at a laboratory energy of 200 MeV, using a random number generator to select data points. The frequency distributions are illustrated by curves.

It was noted that the inclusion of heavier bosons ...