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Utah State University

2015

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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Correlations Of Fault Rock Constitutive Properties Derived From Laboratory Retrieved Data Of The North-Eastern Block Of The Southern San Andreas Fault, Mecca Hills, Ca Via Computational Analysis., Ryan M. Lee Dec 2015

Correlations Of Fault Rock Constitutive Properties Derived From Laboratory Retrieved Data Of The North-Eastern Block Of The Southern San Andreas Fault, Mecca Hills, Ca Via Computational Analysis., Ryan M. Lee

Physics Capstone Project

We aim to characterize fault-structure-related rocks via correlation between the various geophysical characteristics of samples retrieved from the southern San Andreas Fault (SSAF) near the Mecca Hills region in Southern California. Samples from this area were retrieved from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) near Parkfield, California at a depth of approximately 3km. Core samples of various lithologies were gathered from the borehole and analyzed using various geophysical methods. Emphasis was placed in possible correlations and relationships between varying lithologies and calculated values of unconfined compressional strength (UCS) and cohesion. Using retrieved data from the samples, as well ...


Comparison Of Coincident Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Measurements From The Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere Region, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Neal R. Criddle, Tao Yuan Dec 2015

Comparison Of Coincident Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Measurements From The Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere Region, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Neal R. Criddle, Tao Yuan

All Physics Faculty Presentations

There are relatively few instruments that have the capabilities to make near continuous measurements of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Rayleigh scatter and resonance lidars, particularly sodium resonance lidar, have been the two dominant ground-based techniques for acquiring mesosphere and MLT vertical temperature profiles, respectively, for more than two decades. With these measurements, the dynamics (gravity waves, tides) and long-term temperature trends (upper atmosphere cooling) of the MLT region can be studied. The Utah State University (USU; 41.7º N, 111.8º W) campus hosts a unique upper atmospheric observatory which houses both a high-power, large-aperture Rayleigh lidar and a sodium ...


Comparison Of Coincident Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Measurements From The Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere Region, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Neal R. Criddle, Tao Yuan Dec 2015

Comparison Of Coincident Rayleigh-Scatter And Sodium Resonance Lidar Temperature Measurements From The Mesosphere-Lower-Thermosphere Region, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Neal R. Criddle, Tao Yuan

All Physics Faculty Publications

There are relatively few instruments that have the capabilities to make near continuous measurements of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Rayleigh scatter and resonance lidars, particularly sodium resonance lidar, have been the two dominant ground-based techniques for acquiring mesosphere and MLT vertical temperature profiles, respectively, for more than two decades. With these measurements, the dynamics (gravity waves, tides) and long-term temperature trends (upper atmosphere cooling) of the MLT region can be studied. The Utah State University (USU; 41.7º N, 111.8º W) campus hosts a unique upper atmospheric observatory which houses both a high-power, large-aperture Rayleigh lidar and a sodium ...


The Schwarzschild Solution And Timelike Geodesics, Matthew B. Ross Dec 2015

The Schwarzschild Solution And Timelike Geodesics, Matthew B. Ross

Physics Capstone Project

General Relativity is a major area of study in physics. It allows us to calculate the motion and interaction of particles in a non-Euclidean space-time. This presentation will examine the process of 􏰁nding the Schwarzschild metric tensor 􏰁eld by 􏰁nding a solution of the Einstein Equation for a non-rotating spherical mass. A general form of the Schwarzschild metric tenor 􏰁eld will be used to calculate the Riemann curvature tensor and subsequently the Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar which will be used to 􏰁nd a vaccum solution to the Einstein Equation. Once the solutions of the Einstein Equation is found, they ...


Predictive Formula For Electron Range Over A Large Span Of Energy, Anne C. Starley, Jr Dennison Dec 2015

Predictive Formula For Electron Range Over A Large Span Of Energy, Anne C. Starley, Jr Dennison

Senior Theses and Projects

A model developed by the Materials Research Group that calculates electron penetration range of some common materials, has been greatly expanded with the hope that such extensions will predict the range in other, perhaps, more interesting materials. Developments in this extended model aid in predicting the approximate penetration depth into diverse classes of materials for a broad range of energetic incident electrons (<10 eV to>10 MeV, with better than 20% accuracy). The penetration depth—or range—of a material describes the maximum distance electrons can travel through a material, before losing all of its incident kinetic energy. This model has started to ...


Predictive Formula For Electron Range Over A Large Span Of Energy, Anne C. Starley Dec 2015

Predictive Formula For Electron Range Over A Large Span Of Energy, Anne C. Starley

Reports

A model developed by the Materials Research Group that calculates electron penetration range of some common materials, has been greatly expanded with the hope that such extensions will predict the range in other, perhaps, more interesting materials. Developments in this extended model aid in predicting the approximate penetration depth into diverse classes of materials for a broad range of energetic incident electrons (10 MeV, with better than 20% accuracy). The penetration depth—or range—of a material describes the maximum distance electrons can travel through a material, before losing all of its incident kinetic energy. This model has started to ...


Estimation Of Cold Plasma Outflow During Geomagnetic Storms, S. Haaland, A. Eriksson, M. Andre, L. Maes, L. Baddeley, A. Barakat, R. Chappell, V. Eccles, C. Johnsen, B. Lybekk, K. Li, A. Pedersen, R. Schunk, D. Welling Dec 2015

Estimation Of Cold Plasma Outflow During Geomagnetic Storms, S. Haaland, A. Eriksson, M. Andre, L. Maes, L. Baddeley, A. Barakat, R. Chappell, V. Eccles, C. Johnsen, B. Lybekk, K. Li, A. Pedersen, R. Schunk, D. Welling

All Physics Faculty Publications

Low-energy ions of ionospheric origin constitute a significant contributor to the magnetospheric plasma population. Measuring cold ions is difficult though. Observations have to be done at sufficiently high altitudes and typically in regions of space where spacecraft attain a positive charge due to solar illumination. Cold ions are therefore shielded from the satellite particle detectors. Furthermore, spacecraft can only cover key regions of ion outflow during segments of their orbit, so additional complications arise if continuous longtime observations, such as during a geomagnetic storm, are needed. In this paper we suggest a new approach, based on a combination of synoptic ...


The Role Of Space Materials Research In Spacecraft Charging And Satellite Survivability, Jr Dennison Nov 2015

The Role Of Space Materials Research In Spacecraft Charging And Satellite Survivability, Jr Dennison

Presentations

No abstract provided.


An Overview Of The Dynamic Interplay Between The Space Environment & Spacecraft Materials, Jr Dennison Nov 2015

An Overview Of The Dynamic Interplay Between The Space Environment & Spacecraft Materials, Jr Dennison

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Daytime Plasma Drifts In The Equatorial Lower Ionosphere, D. Hui, B. G. Fejer Nov 2015

Daytime Plasma Drifts In The Equatorial Lower Ionosphere, D. Hui, B. G. Fejer

All Physics Faculty Publications

We have used extensive radar measurements from the Jicamarca Observatory during low solar flux periods to study the quiet time variability and altitudinal dependence of equatorial daytime vertical and zonal plasma drifts. The daytime vertical drifts are upward and have largest values during September-October. The day-to-day variability of these drifts does not change with height between 150 and 600 km, but the bimonthly variability is much larger in the F region than below about 200 km. These drifts vary linearly with height generally increasing in the morning and decreasing in the afternoon. The zonal drifts are westward during the day ...


Electrically Induced Plasma, Nate Ashby Nov 2015

Electrically Induced Plasma, Nate Ashby

Physics Capstone Project

No abstract provided.


Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser Nov 2015

Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen Oct 2015

Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

This work provides physical insight into common statistical models for DC dielectric breakdown field strengths. Voltage step-up tests were performed on low density polyethylene films. The merits of generalizations to widely-used empirical Weibull models are discussed. The cumulative probability distributions of the breakdown fields were fit to standard two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. Mixed two-parameter Weibull distributions, sometimes used in the literature to model multiple breakdown modes, were found to yield the best fits to the data. In addition, the same data were fit to a physically-motivated dual-defect mean field model incorporating both low- and high-energy defect modes with different ...


Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

Purpose/Aim

This work proposes an enhanced statistical model for DC dielectric breakdown properties, which incorporates both shallow and deep defect modes. By incorporating these physics-based concepts into a traditionally empirical model, its accuracy and utility can be extended.

Experimental/Modeling methods

Voltage step-up tests were performed for various polymeric films. The distributions of the breakdown fields are fit to standard two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. These are extended for a dual defect model, with separate mean energies for shallow and deep level traps, using mixed Weibull distributions.

Results/discussion

As shown in Fig 1, such enhanced physics-based statistical models ...


A Coordinated Study Of 1 H Mesoscale Gravity Waves Propagating From Logan To Boulder With Crrl Na Doppler Lidars And Temperature Mapper, Xian Lu, Cao Chen, Wentao Huang, John A. Smith, Xinzhao Chu, Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Mike J. Taylor, Jie Gong, Chihoko Y. Cullens Oct 2015

A Coordinated Study Of 1 H Mesoscale Gravity Waves Propagating From Logan To Boulder With Crrl Na Doppler Lidars And Temperature Mapper, Xian Lu, Cao Chen, Wentao Huang, John A. Smith, Xinzhao Chu, Tao Yuan, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Mike J. Taylor, Jie Gong, Chihoko Y. Cullens

All Physics Faculty Publications

We present the first coordinated study using two lidars at two separate locations to characterize a 1 h mesoscale gravity wave event in the mesopause region. The simultaneous observations were made with the Student Training and Atmospheric Research (STAR) Na Doppler lidar at Boulder, CO, and the Utah State University Na Doppler lidar and temperature mapper at Logan, UT, on 27 November 2013. The high precision possessed by the STAR lidar enabled these waves to be detected in vertical wind. The mean wave amplitudes are ~0.44 m/s in vertical wind and ~1% in relative temperature at altitudes of ...


Comparing Experimental Apples And Oranges With Quantile-Quantile Plots, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Comparing Experimental Apples And Oranges With Quantile-Quantile Plots, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

An important question often encountered in experimental physics is, are two observables related or not? Quantile-quantile (q-q) analysis compares the cumulative distributions of two observations (or one set of observations and a theoretical curve) in a way that is both visually apparent and statistically quantifiable. If the two observables follow the same distribution, the q-q plot will be linear; if they are identical the plot will have unity slope. Deviations from a linear q-q plot indicate that the two observables do not follow the same distribution. We show that the q-q analysis method is applicable to a wide range of ...


Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Material, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Material, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Posters

Previous tests done by the USU Materials Physics Group (MPG) using our electrostatic discharge (ESD) custom vacuum chamber have found that, for the polymeric materials polyimide and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the electrostatic field strength at breakdown depends on the voltage ramp rate applied across the materials. At ramp rates an order of magnitude lower than the maximum recommended rate of 500 V/s, the breakdown electrostatic field strength was also found to be significantly lower. The data from these tests were compared to a microscopic mean field theory for dielectric breakdown in highly disordered insulating materials. We present new ...


Density Of State Models Of Steady-State Temperature Dependent Radiation Induced Conductivity, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Density Of State Models Of Steady-State Temperature Dependent Radiation Induced Conductivity, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Jr Dennison

Posters

Radiation induced conductivity (RIC) occurs when incident radiation deposits energy and excites electrons into the conduction band of insulators. The magnitude of the enhanced conductivity is dependent on a number of factors including temperature and the spatial- and energy-dependence and occupation of the material’s distribution of localized trap states within the band gap—or density of states (DOS). Expressions are developed for steady-state RIC over an extended temperature range, based on DOS models for highly disordered insulating materials. A general discussion of the DOS of disordered materials can be given using two simple distributions: one that monotonically decreases below ...


Measurement Of Effects Of Long Term Ionizing Radiation On High Efficiency Solar Arrays, Ben Russon, Heather Tippets, Gregory Wilson, Katie Gamaunt, Alex Souvall, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Measurement Of Effects Of Long Term Ionizing Radiation On High Efficiency Solar Arrays, Ben Russon, Heather Tippets, Gregory Wilson, Katie Gamaunt, Alex Souvall, Jr Dennison

Posters

Degradation of power output efficiency for high-efficiency multilayer solar arrays due to ionizing radiation is measured using the Space Survivability Test chamber. Exposure to ionizing radiation disrupts the crystalline structure and can reduce solar array power output to the point that it no longer provides adequate output capacity. This can be a significant concern, particularly in the harsh environment of space where radiation dose rate is significantly higher and replacing components is often impossible. Ionizing radiation is simulated in a controlled environment to allow measurement and characterization of the power output of solar arrays, using a 100 mCi encapsulated Sr90 ...


Properties Of Spacecraft Materials Exposed To Ionizing Radiation, Alex Souvall, Gregory Wilson, Katie Gamaunt, Ben Russon, Heather Tippets, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Properties Of Spacecraft Materials Exposed To Ionizing Radiation, Alex Souvall, Gregory Wilson, Katie Gamaunt, Ben Russon, Heather Tippets, Jr Dennison

Posters

The effects of ionizing radiation damage on the various properties of spacecraft materials resulting from exposure in the Space Survivability Testing chamber (SST) are being studied with both ex situ and in situ tests. The SST is a ground based test facility designed to mimic low earth orbit (LEO), and geosynchronous orbit to test potential environmental-induced modifications to small satellites , and materials. Tests described here expose spacecraft materials to a Sr90 ionizing beta radiation source at room temperature and in high vacuum. Ex situ optical transmission/reflectivity measurements glass samples will monitor optical darkening. Properties of polymeric samples will ...


The Space Survivability Test Chamber, Katie Gamaunt, Heather Tippets, Alex Souvall, Ben Russon, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

The Space Survivability Test Chamber, Katie Gamaunt, Heather Tippets, Alex Souvall, Ben Russon, Jr Dennison

Posters

The Space Survivability Test chamber is a new ground-based research instrument being used for accelerated testing of environment-induced modifications of diverse samples. The chamber simulates space environment conditions, including neutral gas atmospheres and vacuum (<10-5 Pa) environments, temperature (~100 K to >450 K), ionizing radiation, electron fluxes (<10 eV to ~2½ MeV), and vacuum ultraviolet through mid-infrared photon fluxes. This versatile test chamber is well-suited for cost-effective testing of complete systems up to the size (< 20 cm dia.) of a 1U CubeSat, smaller components or electronics, and individual material samples. Multiple in-flux or in-situ space survivability and radiation exposure tests can be performed simultaneously, as well as extensive before and after ex-situ tests. Currently the chamber is performing a series of radiation experiments using a Sr90 beta radiation source which approximately mimics the geostationary high energy electron spectra at ~4-10X accelerated rates. These ...


Enhanced Electron Yield Measurements Of Extremely Low-Conductivity High Yield Dielectrics, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Enhanced Electron Yield Measurements Of Extremely Low-Conductivity High Yield Dielectrics, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

An important question often encountered in experimental physics is, are two observables related or not? Quantile-quantile (q-q) analysis compares the cumulative distributions of two observations (or one set of observations and a theoretical curve) in a way that is both visually apparent and statistically quantifiable. If the two observables follow the same distribution, the q-q plot will be linear; if they are identical the plot will have unity slope. Deviations from a linear q-q plot indicate that the two observables do not follow the same distribution. We show that the q-q analysis method is applicable to a wide range of ...


Momentum Flux Estimates Accompanying Multiscale Gravity Waves Over Mount Cook, New Zealand, On 13 July 2014 During The Deepwave Campaign, K. Bossert, D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, M. J. Taylor, B. Kaifler, A. Dornbrack, I. M. Reid, D. J. Murphy, A. J. Spargo, A. D. Mackinnon, Pierre-Dominique Pautet Sep 2015

Momentum Flux Estimates Accompanying Multiscale Gravity Waves Over Mount Cook, New Zealand, On 13 July 2014 During The Deepwave Campaign, K. Bossert, D. C. Fritts, B. P. Williams, M. J. Taylor, B. Kaifler, A. Dornbrack, I. M. Reid, D. J. Murphy, A. J. Spargo, A. D. Mackinnon, Pierre-Dominique Pautet

All Physics Faculty Publications

Observations performed with a Rayleigh lidar and an Advanced Mesosphere Temperature Mapper aboard the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream V research aircraft on 13 July 2014 during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE) measurement program revealed a large-amplitude, multiscale gravity wave (GW) environment extending from ~20 to 90 km on flight tracks over Mount Cook, New Zealand. Data from four successive flight tracks are employed here to assess the characteristics and variability of the larger- and smaller-scale GWs, including their spatial scales, amplitudes, phase speeds, and momentum fluxes. On each flight, a large-scale mountain wave ...


Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Sep 2015

Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rates For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

Previous tests done by the USU Materials Physics Group (MPG) using our electrostatic discharge (ESD) custom vacuum chamber have found that, for the polymeric materials polyimide and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the electrostatic field strength at breakdown depends on the voltage ramp rate applied across the materials. At ramp rates an order of magnitude lower than the maximum recommended rate of 500 V/s, the breakdown electrostatic field strength was also found to be significantly lower. The data from these tests were compared to a microscopic mean field theory for dielectric breakdown in highly disordered insulating materials. We present new ...


Magnetic Meridional Winds In The Thermosphere Obtained From Global Assimilation Of Ionospheric Measurements (Gaim) Model, Levan Lomidze, Ludger Scherliess, Robert W. Schunk Sep 2015

Magnetic Meridional Winds In The Thermosphere Obtained From Global Assimilation Of Ionospheric Measurements (Gaim) Model, Levan Lomidze, Ludger Scherliess, Robert W. Schunk

All Physics Faculty Publications

Thermospheric neutral winds play an important part in the dynamics of ionospheric plasma and represent one of the key inputs for ionospheric physics-based models. Yet wind measurements are scarce and generally lack global coverage and continuity. To help mitigate this shortcoming, a data assimilation model was used to estimate neutral winds in the low- and middle-latitude thermosphere. Seasonal global maps of NmF2 andhmF2 were generated from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate radio occultation measurements for geomagnetically quiet and low solar flux conditions. The maps were assimilated into the Utah State University Global Assimilation of ...


Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Sep 2015

Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Pre-breakdown arcing is proposed as a key indicator of DC breakdown properties of polymeric dielectric materials. Voltage step-up tests were performed for films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) at ramp rates significantly lower than is common in most studies, allowing for the observation of both breakdown and transient pre-breakdown current spikes. The distributions of the breakdowns versus applied field were compared with the more frequent pre-breakdown arcs. A strong correlation was observed for LDPE between the distribution of breakdowns in step-up tests and the distribution of pre-breakdown arcing. Pre-breakdown arcing distributions are much easier to obtain than breakdown distributions and may ...


Small Satellite Verification And Assessment Test Facility With Space Environments Effects Ground-Testing Capabilities, Eric Stromberg, Crystal Frazier, Lisa Montierth Phillipps, Alex Souvall, Jr Dennison, James S. Dyer Aug 2015

Small Satellite Verification And Assessment Test Facility With Space Environments Effects Ground-Testing Capabilities, Eric Stromberg, Crystal Frazier, Lisa Montierth Phillipps, Alex Souvall, Jr Dennison, James S. Dyer

Presentations

The Utah State University Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) and Materials Physics Group (MPG) have developed an extensive versatile and cost-effective pre-launch test capability for verification and assessment of small satellites, system components, and spacecraft materials. The facilities can perform environmental testing, component characterization, system level hardware in-the-loop testing, and qualification testing to ensure that each element is functional, reliable, and working per its design. Unique capabilities of SDL’s Nano-Satellite Operation Verification and Assessment (NOVA) test facility include: (i) mass and moment of inertia testing using a high resolution mass measurement table to determine the center of gravity and an ...


Materials At The Atomic Scale: A Key To Exploring The Vast Reaches Of Space, Jr Dennison Aug 2015

Materials At The Atomic Scale: A Key To Exploring The Vast Reaches Of Space, Jr Dennison

Presentations

A critical technology to master for any interplanetary probe is mitigation of risks from spacecraft charging and electrostatic discharge, which cause the majority of environmentally-induced “anomalies.” Understanding how charge is acquired through interaction with space fluxes of electrons, ions and photons; how temperature, dose and fields affect redistributed of charge within spacecraft materials; and what triggers electrostatic arcs all require the study of how charged particles interact with the structure of materials on an atomic scale. This seminar presents an overview of the dynamic properties of materials underlying spacecraft charging, how the material’s structure affects these properties, which properties ...


The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla Jul 2015

The Online System For Lidar Data Handling And Real Time Monitoring Of Lidar Operations At Alo-Usu, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Vincent B. Wickwar, Jose Gamboa, Marco Milla

Conference publications

t is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software set- ups ...