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Utah State University

2014

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Articles 1 - 30 of 138

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Gauge Transformations Of The Biconformal Connection, James Thomas Wheeler Dec 2014

Gauge Transformations Of The Biconformal Connection, James Thomas Wheeler

All Physics Faculty Publications

We study the changes of the biconformal gauge fields under the local rotational and dilatational gauge transformations.


Rainich-Type Conditions For Perfect Fluid Spacetimes, Dionisios Krongos, Charles G. Torre Dec 2014

Rainich-Type Conditions For Perfect Fluid Spacetimes, Dionisios Krongos, Charles G. Torre

Research Vignettes

In this worksheet we describe and illustrate a relatively simple set of new Rainich-type conditions on an n-dimensional spacetime which are necessary and sufficient for it to define a perfect fluid solution of the Einstein field equations. Procedures are provided which implement these Rainich-type conditions and which reconstruct the perfect fluid from the metric. These results provide an example of the idea of geometrization of matter fields in general relativity, which is a purely geometrical characterization of matter fields via the Einstein field equations.


Carbon Nanotube Sensors And Field Emitters, Ben Pound Dec 2014

Carbon Nanotube Sensors And Field Emitters, Ben Pound

Physics Capstone Project

Carbon nanotube (CNT) forests are arrays of free-standing CNTs, as seen in Fig. 1a. The goal of this project was to deposit 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) evenly on each CNT. The motivation is that CNTs cannot effectively participate in chemical reactions by themselves. However, DAN can bind to the CNT surface in such a way that it can participate in chemical reactions while staying on the CNT side wall1. If DAN could be coated evenly on the CNTs throughout the forest, it could make a very sensitive biological sensor. A sensor is only as good as the number of detection ...


Neutral Density Behavior From 45-90 Km Based On Rayleigh Lidar Observations Above Usu, David Barton Dec 2014

Neutral Density Behavior From 45-90 Km Based On Rayleigh Lidar Observations Above Usu, David Barton

Physics Capstone Project

There are over 900 nights of observations taken by the Rayleigh lidar above Utah State University from 1993 to 2004. The data have been reduced to give absolute temperatures and relative densities in the mesosphere, from 45-90 km (Herron, 2004, 2007). From the 11 years of relative density data an 11-year climatology of mesospheric densities above Logan, Utah has been created. From this climatology I have been able to normalize the 11 years of density data to the following models: the MSISe00 empirical model, the CPC (Climate Prediction Center) reanalysis model, the ERA Interim reanalysis model, and the NASA MERRA ...


Hf Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, And Ionization, Herbert C. Carlson, Joseph B. Jensen Dec 2014

Hf Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, And Ionization, Herbert C. Carlson, Joseph B. Jensen

All Physics Faculty Publications

Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial,and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth’s weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~ eV, but instead to - 100 times thermal energy (10s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich ...


Investigating Mesospheric Gravity Wave Dynamics Over Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica (77° S), Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Dominique Pautet Dec 2014

Investigating Mesospheric Gravity Wave Dynamics Over Mcmurdo Station, Antarctica (77° S), Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Dominique Pautet

Graduate Student Posters

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates an all-sky CCD, all-sky infrared imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper ...


Effects Of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified In Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Josh Herron Dec 2014

Effects Of Major Sudden Stratospheric Warmings Identified In Midlatitude Mesospheric Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar Temperatures, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Chad Fish, Josh Herron

Physics Student Research

Mesospheric temperature anomalies associated with Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSWs) have been observed extensively in the polar regions. However, observations of these anomalies at midlatitudes are sparse. The very dense 11-year data set, collected between 1993–2004, with the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO; 41.7°N, 111.8°W) at the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) on the campus of Utah State University (USU), has been carefully examined for such anomalies. The temperatures derived from these data extend over the mesosphere, from 45 to 90 km. During this period extensive data were acquired during seven ...


Electrostatic Breakdown Analysis, Sam Hansen, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen Nov 2014

Electrostatic Breakdown Analysis, Sam Hansen, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen

Senior Theses and Projects

Materials potentially suitable for spacecraft construction were exposed to electrostatic discharge in the USU Materials Physics Group lab, with hopes of identifying samples that possess greater resistance to breakdown. Breakdown shape and size may be important to determining material suitability for spacecraft construction [1]. The discharge damage sites of tested samples were examined, measured and logged into a matrix file for data analysis. Once logged, data was sorted within the matrix and compared graphically to identify trends.


Electrostatic Breakdown Analysis, Sam Hansen Nov 2014

Electrostatic Breakdown Analysis, Sam Hansen

Senior Theses and Projects

Materials potentially suitable for spacecraft construction were exposed to electrostatic discharge in the USU Materials Physics Group lab, with hopes of identifying samples that possess greater resistance to breakdown. Breakdown shape and size may be important to determining material suitability for spacecraft construction [1]. The discharge damage sites of tested samples were examined, measured and logged into a matrix file for data analysis. Once logged, data was sorted within the matrix and compared graphically to identify trends.


Gauge Theories Of General Relativity, James Thomas Wheeler Nov 2014

Gauge Theories Of General Relativity, James Thomas Wheeler

James Thomas Wheeler

General relativity can be seen as a gauge theory of the Lorentz, Poincaré, Weyl, de Sitter, or conformal groups. In most of these, there is little or no difference from the standard formulation in Riemannian geometry, but the higher symmetries — de Sitter and conformal — introduce new features and explain old ones. The potential presence of a cosmological constant, the spacetime metric, cosmological dust, symplectic structure, Kähler structure and even the existence of a timelike direction can all be seen to arise from the underlying group structure.


Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Dominique Pautet, James Russell Oct 2014

Timed/Saber Satellite Investigations Of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Variances Over The Andes, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Dominique Pautet, James Russell

Graduate Student Presentations

Focusing on data from the SABER instrument aboard the TIMED satellite temperature variances are determined as a function of altitude to quantify small scale gravity waves. This was done using IDL software to extract all the temperature profile measurements that were measured by SABER within a limited geographical area, centered on our ground-based optical imager at Cerro Pachon, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°S). Then large-scale tidal waves, with wavenumbers 0-6, were removed from each profile revealing the gravity wave perturbations. The temperature variance were computed and recorded at several altitudes. Temperature variances reveal possible increased activity due to ...


Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Highly disordered insulating materials exposed to high electric fields will, over time, degrade and fail, potentially causing catastrophic damage to devices. Step-up to electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed for two common polymer dielectrics, low density polyethylene and polyimide. Pre-breakdown transient current spikes or arcs were observed, using both slow and high speed detection. These pre-ESD discharge phenomena are explained in terms of breakdown modes and defect generation on a microscopic scale. The field at which pre-breakdown arcing begins was compared to the onset field for electrostatic discharge at which complete breakdown occurs for each material studied. We present evidence ...


Charge Transport And Electron Emission Of Disordered Materials: Extensions Of The Walden-Wintle Model For Charge Injection With Electron Beams, Jr Dennison, Alec Sim, Gregory Wilson, Jodie C. Gillespie Oct 2014

Charge Transport And Electron Emission Of Disordered Materials: Extensions Of The Walden-Wintle Model For Charge Injection With Electron Beams, Jr Dennison, Alec Sim, Gregory Wilson, Jodie C. Gillespie

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Conference Proceedings

Highly disordered insulating materials exposed to high electric fields will, over time, degrade and fail, potentially causing catastrophic damage to devices. Step-up electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed for two common polymer dielectrics, low density polyethylene and polyimide. Prebreakdown transient current spikes or pre-arcs were observed, using both slow and high speed detection. These pre-ESD discharge phenomena are explained in terms of breakdown modes and defect generation on a microscopic scale. The field at which pre-breakdown arcing begins was compared to the onset field for electrostatic discharge at which complete breakdown begins to occur for each material. We present evidence ...


Stomatal Physics, Katie Sweet, Keith Mott, David Peak Oct 2014

Stomatal Physics, Katie Sweet, Keith Mott, David Peak

Browse All Undergraduate research

Stomata, microscopic pores on a leaf’s surface, regulate the diffusion of CO2 from, and the diffusion of water vapor to, the air.

Stomata are responsible for fixing essentially all carbon in the biosphere and generating over 90% of the water vapor in the atmosphere over landmasses.

Exactly how stomata respond to temperature, light intensity, and ambient CO2 and humidity, is still a matter of active debate.

Most research probing this question focuses on identifying and unraveling complicated biochemistry. Recent investigations in our laboratory, however, indicate that much of stomatal behavior can be understood in terms of a simple vapor ...


Discharge Breakdown Analyses, Sam Hansen, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen Oct 2014

Discharge Breakdown Analyses, Sam Hansen, Jr Dennison, Allen Andersen

Presentations

Material breakdown due to Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the primary cause of spacecraft damage due to environment interactions in space. This occurs when the space plasma fluxes charge a craft to high voltages where insulating craft materials then break down. This failure allows current to flow freely through the material, this can damage or destroy onboard electrical systems. My project focuses on the effects of these breakdowns on suspect materials commonly used for electrical insulation in space. The USU Material Physics Group has performed ESD tests on hundreds of samples to date. The ESD damage sites of these samples have ...


Cathodolumiescence Studies Of The Density Of States Of Disordered Silicon Dioxide, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen Oct 2014

Cathodolumiescence Studies Of The Density Of States Of Disordered Silicon Dioxide, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen

Presentations

Electron bombardment measurements have shown that disordered SiO2 exhibits cathodoluminescence, with an overall intensity that varies with incident electron beam energy and current density, sample temperature, exposure time, and wavelength. A simple model based on the defect density of states—used to explain electron transport in highly disordered insulating materials—has been extended to predict the relative cathodoluminescent intensity and spectral radiance for disordered SiO 2 as a function of these variables. The spectral radiance exhibited four distinct bands, corresponding to four distinct energy distributions of defect states within the band gap; each showed different temperature dependence. These localized defect ...


Lifetimes Of Polymeric Dielectrics: A Dual-Defect Model, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Lifetimes Of Polymeric Dielectrics: A Dual-Defect Model, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Presentations

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can cause catastrophic failures in electronic devices. Estimating the lifetime of dielectrics under prolonged high field exposure is a major design concern for applications including spacecraft, high voltage DC power transmission, and semiconductor electronics. Dielectric strengths listed in engineering handbooks are primarily based on cursory measurements with poor repeatability and tend to overestimate ESD fields in real applications. Standard measurements subject test samples to ~500 V/s ramp rates until breakdown. We present the results of ESD studies in two prototypical polymer dielectrics using a ramp rate of ~20 V/4s until breakdown together with tests applying ...


Modeling The Energy Dependent Cathodoluminescent Intensity Of A Carbon Composite Material, Justin Christensen, Kelby T. Peterson, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Modeling The Energy Dependent Cathodoluminescent Intensity Of A Carbon Composite Material, Justin Christensen, Kelby T. Peterson, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison

Presentations

When highly disordered insulating materials are subjected to energetic electron bombardment they can emit photons. This process is termed “cathodoluminescence.” This occurs in the space plasma environment and is an important phenomenon to understand when designing any object to be put into space. Light emitted from spacecraft materials can affect optical detection, and can cause stray-light contamination in space-based observatories. The Materials Physics Group at Utah State University uses an ultra-high vacuum chamber equipped with electron guns and a cryostat to control the sample temperature to simulate the space environment and to observe its affects on sample materials. Previous studies ...


Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison

Presentations

Samples of highly disordered insulating material have been irradiated with keV electron beams, resulting in three forms of electron induced light emission with differing duration: arcs (duration), “flares” (~100 s), and cathodoluminescence (as long as beam is on) [Dennison, 2013]. The arc and cathodoluminescence phenomena are well understood, while the flares’ origins are not. Flares were observed at intervals of ~2 per hr. This is within a factor of 2 for the expected muon cross section at an altitude of Logan, UT (1370 m) caused by high altitude cosmic rays; those high energy particles could have deposited sufficient energy throughout ...


Space Effects Survivability Testing, Lisa Montierth Phillipps, Jr Dennison, Kent Hartley, Robert H. Johnson, Justin Dekany, James S. Dyer Oct 2014

Space Effects Survivability Testing, Lisa Montierth Phillipps, Jr Dennison, Kent Hartley, Robert H. Johnson, Justin Dekany, James S. Dyer

Presentations

A versatile test facility has been designed to study the effects of space environment fluxes and radiation damage on small scale materials samples, system components, and small satellites. Cost-effective long-duration testing for potentially environmental-induced modifications is increasingly more important as small satellite programs have longer mission lifetimes, expand to more harsh environments, make more diverse and sensitive measurements, minimize shielding to reduce mass, and utilize more compact and sensitive electronics. The facility simulates environmental components including the neutral gas atmosphere, the solar spectrum, electron plasma fluxes, and temperature. The UV/VIS/NIR solar spectrum is simulated using a class AAA ...


Time And Dark Matter From The Conformal Symmetries Of Euclidean Space, Jeffrey S. Hazboun, James Thomas Wheeler Oct 2014

Time And Dark Matter From The Conformal Symmetries Of Euclidean Space, Jeffrey S. Hazboun, James Thomas Wheeler

All Physics Faculty Publications

The quotient of the conformal group of Euclidean 4-space by its Weyl subgroup results in a geometry possessing many of the properties of relativistic phase space, including both a natural symplectic form and non-degenerate Killing metric. We show that the general solution posesses orthogonal Lagrangian submanifolds, with the induced metric and the spin connection on the submanifolds necessarily Lorentzian, despite the Euclidean starting pont. By examining the structure equations of the biconformal space in an orthonormal frame adapted to its phase space properties, we also find that two new tensor fields exist in this geometry, not present in Riemannian geometry ...


Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia Oct 2014

Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia

Senior Theses and Projects

No abstract provided.


Guesstimation: The Art Of Getting About The Right Answer, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Guesstimation: The Art Of Getting About The Right Answer, Jr Dennison

Presentations

No abstract provided.


New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor Oct 2014

New Measurements Of Mcmurdo Gravity Wave Parameters, Jonathan Pugmire, Michael J. Taylor

Graduate Student Presentations

The ANtarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) is an NSF sponsored international program designed to develop and utilize a network of gravity wave observatories using existing and new instrumentation operated at several established research stations around the continent. The primary goal is to better understand and quantify large-scale gravity wave climatology and their effects on the upper atmosphere over Antarctica. ANGWIN currently comprises research measurements from five nations (U.S., U.K., Australia, Japan, and Brazil) at seven international stations. Utah State University’s Atmospheric Imaging Lab operates all-sky infrared and CCD imagers and an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM ...


Cathodolumiescence Studies Of The Density Of States Of Disordered Silicon Dioxide, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen Oct 2014

Cathodolumiescence Studies Of The Density Of States Of Disordered Silicon Dioxide, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen

Presentations

Electron bombardment measurements have shown that disordered SiO2 exhibits cathodoluminescence, with an overall intensity that varies with incident electron beam energy and current density, sample temperature, exposure time, and wavelength. A simple model based on the defect density of states—used to explain electron transport in highly disordered insulating materials—has been extended to predict the relative cathodoluminescent intensity and spectral radiance for disordered SiO2 as a function of these variables. The spectral radiance exhibited four distinct bands, corresponding to four distinct energy distributions of defect states within the band gap; each showed different temperature dependence. These localized defect or ...


Breakdown Analysis Of Electrostatic Discharge, Sam Hansen, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Breakdown Analysis Of Electrostatic Discharge, Sam Hansen, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Posters

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and the associated material breakdown is the primary cause for spacecraft damage due to space environment interactions. This phenomenon occurs when the space plasma fluxes charge a craft to high voltages where insulating materials then break down. This failure allows current to flow freely through the material which; can damage or destroy onboard electrical systems. My work focuses on the effects of these breakdowns on suspect materials commonly used for electrical insulation in space. The USU Material Physics Group has performed ESD tests on hundreds of samples to date. The ESD damage sites of these samples have ...


Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Cathodoluminescence Events Coincident With Muon Detection, Kenneth Zia, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison

Posters

Samples of highly disordered insulating material were irradiated with 1 keV electron beams, resulting in three forms of light emission with differing duration: arcs (<1 s duration), flares (~100 s), and cathodoluminescence (as long as beam is on). The arc and cathodoluminescence phenomena are well understood, while the flares are not. Flares were observed at intervals of ~2 per hr. This is within a factor of 2 for the expected muon crosssection at an altitude of Logan, UT (1370 m) caused by high altitude cosmic rays. Based on this suggestive evidence, we have proposed incorporation of standard muon coincidence detection apparatus into our vacuum cathode luminescence test facility. Measurements of the muon cross-section zenith angle and angle-dependence will provide calibration of the muon detector. If muon evidence coincides with the flare events, this will provide definitive evidence of the flare origin. We will discover whether a correlation between flares of charged sample are caused by transitory muons which trigger discharge and subsequent recharging during our testing of space materials.


A Dual-Defect Model For Predicting Lifetimes For Polymeric Discharges From Accelerated Testing, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

A Dual-Defect Model For Predicting Lifetimes For Polymeric Discharges From Accelerated Testing, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Posters

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) can cause catastrophic failures in electronic devices. Estimating the lifetime of dielectrics under prolonged high field exposure is a major design concern for applications including spacecraft, high voltage DC power transmission, and semiconductor electronics. Dielectric strengths listed in engineering handbooks are primarily based on cursory measurements with poor repeatability and tend to overestimate ESD fields in real applications. Standard measurements subject test samples to ≈500 V/s ramp rates until breakdown. We present the results of ESD studies in two prototypical polymer dielectrics using a ramp rate of ≈20 V/4s until breakdown, together with tests ...