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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Lidar User’S Manual, Lance William Peterson May 2011

Lidar User’S Manual, Lance William Peterson

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

This is intended to be a user’s manual for the upgraded USU Rayleigh lidar. As such, it begins with a discussion of the purpose of a lidar. This is followed by a brief explanation of the fundamentals of Rayleigh scatter lidar. Next the reasons for and benefits of upgrading the lidar are discussed and as well as how the upgrade was accomplished. After establishing this basis, instructions are provided for operating the lidar, performing basic maintenance, and aligning various components.


Carbon Nanotube Growth Via Spray Pyrolysis, Robert Welch Call May 2011

Carbon Nanotube Growth Via Spray Pyrolysis, Robert Welch Call

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Spray pyrolysis is a promising method to create carbon nanotube forests (CNFs) on various surfaces. By injecting metallocene-hydrocarbon solutions into a heated quartz reactor, catalyst particles and carbon nanotubes can be formed simultaneously. Factors that affect CNF growth include the precursor concentration, injection rate and duration, carrier gas flow rate, substrate surface, growth temperature, and the composition of gases inside the reactor. The CNF morphologies affected by these factors will be presented and, hopefully, an optimum condition will be found.


Electrostatic Discharge In Spacecraft Materials, Jennifer Albretsen Roth May 2009

Electrostatic Discharge In Spacecraft Materials, Jennifer Albretsen Roth

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Understanding the characteristics of electron beam bombardment that induce electrostatic discharge (ESD) of insulating materials is crucial to constructing an electrically stable spacecraft. A measurement system has been designed to determine the beam energy and charge flux densities at which typical spacecraft materials intended for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) undergo ESD. Because discharge events occur over time intervals ranging from nanoseconds to minutes, multiple detection methods were employed as charge was accumulated on a sample surface; these methods included monitoring of sample current and optical emissions from the sample surface. Each sample was also examined with optical microscopy ...


Algebraic Computing Tools In General Relativity: Energy-Momentum Tensors And Exact Solutions To The Einstein Field Equations, Sydney Joanne Chamberlin May 2009

Algebraic Computing Tools In General Relativity: Energy-Momentum Tensors And Exact Solutions To The Einstein Field Equations, Sydney Joanne Chamberlin

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Maple is a mathematical software program containing packages of tools that may be used in making difficult computations. The Tensor sub-package of Maple's Differential Geometry package is a collection of commands used for making tensor computations on manifolds. We present a series of new tools for the Tensor package. Included with these tools are new commands to compute objects of geometric and physical interest -energy-momentum tensors, matter field equations, the Bel-Robinson tensor, etc. -along with tools to compute the geometric properties of these objects. Additionally, an electronic database of exact solutions to the Einstein field equations has been created ...


Polar Mesospheric Clouds: A Satellite And Ground-Based Comparison, Jodie Barker-Tvedtnes May 2009

Polar Mesospheric Clouds: A Satellite And Ground-Based Comparison, Jodie Barker-Tvedtnes

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are tenuous ice clouds that form near the cold (<150K) summer mesopause region (80-85 km). From the ground, these clouds are seen during twilight hours as Noctilucent or “night shining” Clouds (NLCs) and are typically seen from latitudes from 50° to 65°. Observations by the Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV) instruments on the NOAA satellites have shown that the occurrence and brightness of NLCs have been increasing over the last three decades prompting speculation concerning their possible role in climate change. Recently the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite was launched (April 2007) and is the first satellite dedicated to the study of NLCs. In this report, we compare SBUV and AIM PMC observations with ground-based image data collected during two campaigns from Edmonton, Canada (June 30-July 17, 2007) and Delta Junction, Alaska (July 29-August 17, 2007). Four nights of data are discussed where coincident measurements were obtained by AIM, SBUV/2 and ground-based imagers. The results show good spatial or temporal agreement, but rarely both, and illustrate the importance of coordinated measurements for better understanding the geographic and local time variability of PMCs. Initial studies using data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA satellite are also presented.


Thermodynamics Analysis Of Refrigeration, Joe Lam May 1988

Thermodynamics Analysis Of Refrigeration, Joe Lam

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

In this term paper, I will look indepth at refrigeration. Refrigeration is a rather long and complex topic. Therefore, I will only discuss it as detail as conditions permit. As for the parts where minute details required, I will refer you to the selected references. In discussing refrigeration, I will first look at the Carnot cycle as a fundamental issue for refrigeration.


Inclusion Of Rectangular And Triangular Geometries In The Space-Dependent Kinetics Code, Fx2, Ted Perry Jan 1975

Inclusion Of Rectangular And Triangular Geometries In The Space-Dependent Kinetics Code, Fx2, Ted Perry

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

The computer code FX2 is used to model liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors now being developed by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission. These reactors differ from thermal reactors in that they have no moderator material in their cores and thus operate at mean neutron energies of 100 keV or more as opposed to neutron energies of less than 1 keV for thermal reactors. Also these reactors have the advantage that as a consequence of the high neutron energies, these reactors can be used to "breed" their own fuel: enriched 238U placed in the core is changed into plutonium which can ...


Unity In The Theory Of Elementary Particles Through Group Theory, Douglas Karl Lemon Jan 1974

Unity In The Theory Of Elementary Particles Through Group Theory, Douglas Karl Lemon

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Science is the process of seeking unity in the diversity of natural phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that group theory brings unity to the theory of elementary particles. The prime motivations are first, to find a quantitative representation of the Lorentz transformation, and second, to find a quantitative representation of angular momentum. Since both of these have continuous parameters, groups with continuous parameters, particularly Lie groups, are of interest.

The first portion of the paper develops the definition of Lie groups and their associated Lie algebras. The prerequisite definitions of transformations, groups, group representations, and continuous ...


The Thermolysis Of Bornyl And Iso-Bornyl Acetates, Allen Reed Jensen Jan 1974

The Thermolysis Of Bornyl And Iso-Bornyl Acetates, Allen Reed Jensen

Undergraduate Honors Capstone Projects

Recent investigations in the area of acetate gas phase thermolysis indicate a mechanism which involves a similar transition state despite the acetate used. The reaction preferentially goes through a cis-elimination with the β-hydrogen atoms, proceeding through a six-membered ring transition state.

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a strained bicyclic ring system upon the mechanism of acetate thermolysis. Throuqh kinetic studies and product identification of the pyrolyzed products of bornyl and iso-bornyl acetate, an insight into the preferred mechanism can be obtained. A previous study (cited later) indicated that the accepted six-membered cis ...