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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Yang-Mills Sources For Biconformal Gravity, Walter Davis Muhwezi Aug 2019

Yang-Mills Sources For Biconformal Gravity, Walter Davis Muhwezi

Physics Capstone Project

We present a gauge formulation of Yang-Mills matter sources for Biconformal gravity. Biconformal gravity is a 2n-dimensional conformal gauge theory with a curvature linear action that has been shown to reproduce scale invariant general relativity on the cotangent bundle of n-dimensional space time. We present a generalization of Yang-Mills theories in biconformal space and show that the field equations with sources reduce the Yang-Mills sector to n-dimensional Yang-Mills theory in curved spacetime. We compute the restrictive conditions on the energy-momentum tensor required by the gravitational field equations.


Monitoring Ambient Laboratory Conditions With A Raspberry Pi, Joshua Boman Aug 2019

Monitoring Ambient Laboratory Conditions With A Raspberry Pi, Joshua Boman

Physics Capstone Project

Precise experimental devices and measurements can be sensitive to changing physical conditions in the lab. The purpose of this research was to develop a standardized computer automated package to monitor and record changes in laboratory conditions, including ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, light intensity, motion, and power outages. The computer-interfaced device was based around an inexpensive Raspberry Pi microcomputer and commercially available sensors. The Raspberry Pi uploads the sensor data to a file used by LabVIEW to further analyze, plot and display the calibrated sensor data in real time and trigger alarms. This capability allows the Material Physics Research ...


Octonionic Maxwell Equations, Ben Shaw May 2019

Octonionic Maxwell Equations, Ben Shaw

Physics Capstone Project

An introduction to Quaternions and Octonions is given, and the Maxwell Equations are formulated in terms of each. The conventional, source-free relativistic theory of eight dimensional electromagnetism is introduced and examined. Similarly, the source-free Octonionic Maxwell Equations are developed, and it is shown that the seven dimensional electric and magnetic fields–pure Octonions–each admit plane wave solutions. An Octonionic Faraday tensor is constructed and compared with the conventional Faraday tensor, and it is shown that, in the source-free case, the conventional and Octonionic theories are equivalent.


Porting Symbolic Libraries From Maple To Python, James Lewis Apr 2019

Porting Symbolic Libraries From Maple To Python, James Lewis

Physics Capstone Project

Utah State University has a database of tables of the known solutions of the Einstein Field Equation. This database is primarily recorded in the symbolic computing program Maple. This database needs to be translated into Python code so the information can be more accessible to the general public. This translation was successful for one table, which means that it is possible to translate the entire database.


Thermal Oxidation Of Silicon In A Home-Made Furnace System, Joshua Koskan Apr 2019

Thermal Oxidation Of Silicon In A Home-Made Furnace System, Joshua Koskan

Physics Capstone Project

I approached Dr. Shen with a desire for a project in understanding how to manage and expand the capabilities of a laboratory. After some discussion, my senior project was to complete a gas and water chiller system to an existing furnace for chemical vapor deposition. It should be able to handle temperatures up to 1100 ºC, hold a vacuum to mTorr, be easy to move samples in and out of the furnace, and cost effective.


Physics 4900, David Maughan Apr 2019

Physics 4900, David Maughan

Physics Capstone Project

More than a century has passed since Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity. The theory has been tested many times experimentally, primarily in the relatively weak gravitational fields of the solar system [1,2]. More recently the first experimental results from the strong gravitational fields of two black holes have been measured in the form of gravitational waves, which are another prediction of general relativity. The 2017 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss, and Barry Barish for their role in the detection of gravitational waves. This year we have seen the first image ...


Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith Apr 2019

Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to develop a program that will compute the Klein Gordon equation for generic Black Holes through the program Mathematica. This program will be available on Utah State websites for public usage. This project focuses on an understanding of General Relativity and more concretely on theoretical aspects of Black Holes. Developing the program begins with computing the Laplace equation in flat space to understand what it means to have empty space without a Black Hole. The Klein Gordon equation for a Schwarzschild Black Hole is then solved to show what happens once a static, non-rotating ...


Thermodynamic Properties Of Black Holes, Geoffrey Schulthess Apr 2019

Thermodynamic Properties Of Black Holes, Geoffrey Schulthess

Physics Capstone Project

Black Holes are some of the most mysterious objects in the known universe. In 1975, Stephen Hawking stated that Black Holes can behave as thermodynamical objects with a finite mass, spin, angular velocity, temperature, and entropy. This has been one of the most fascinating yet perplexing breakthroughs in our understanding of these strongly gravitating objects. In this context, the purpose of this research was to use Wolfram Mathematica to create a program that would calculate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole, given a certain metric.


Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley Dec 2018

Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley

Physics Capstone Project

Lidar observations on the night of 19-20 February 2004 at Logan, Utah (41.74 N, 111.81 W) revealed a strange thin layer which descended from roughly 55 km to 30 km over seven hours. Approximations are made for the dimensions and descent rate of the layer. Although the particle radius and density are unknown, a range can be determined from the descent rate and reference to the sizes of known particles. Several possible sources for the layer are explored, concluding that an object entering the Earth’s atmosphere was the most probable cause.


Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith Dec 2018

Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to develop a program that will compute the Klein Gordon equation for generic Black Holes through the program Mathematica. This program will be available on Utah State websites for public usage. This project focuses on an understanding of General Relativity and more concretely on theoretical aspects of Black Holes. Developing the program begins with computing the Laplace equation in flat space to understand what it means to have empty space without a Black Hole. The Klein Gordon equation for a Schwarzschild Black Hole is then solved to show what happens once a static, non-rotating ...


Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson Dec 2018

Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson

Physics Capstone Project

Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers ...


Numerical Methods For Anisotropic Thermal Conduction, Brett Adair May 2018

Numerical Methods For Anisotropic Thermal Conduction, Brett Adair

Physics Capstone Project

Understanding the transport of heat in magnetized plasmas is imperative to furthering efforts towards controlled thermonuclear fusion. This work analyzes various numerical algorithms that are useful in studying temperature equilibration due to anisotropic heat transport. The study includes two numerical approaches to the standard Braginskii closure, the more accurate using a mixed auxiliary scalar in the finite-element formulation. The physically correct kinetic closure for heat flow parallel to the magnetic field is also tested. These approaches were used to study the benchmark case for anisotropic thermal conduction presented in the original NIMROD [C.R. Sovinec et al. “Journal of Computational ...


Phonon Dynamics Of Alkali Metals In The Hcp Lattice Structure, Jake Christensen May 2018

Phonon Dynamics Of Alkali Metals In The Hcp Lattice Structure, Jake Christensen

Physics Capstone Project

An Embedded-Atom-Method model that is successful at describing the vibrational properties of alkali metals in the BCC crystal structure is applied to the HCP structure. Phonon dispersion curves, density of states, and Debye temperatures are calculalated for Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs. Comparison of BCC, FCC and HCP Debye temperatures show that BCC is the preferred structure at higher temperatures, which agrees with experiment.


Calculating Redshift Via Astronomical Spectroscopy, Joshua Glatt May 2018

Calculating Redshift Via Astronomical Spectroscopy, Joshua Glatt

Physics Capstone Project

The Doppler effect is a well-known physical phenomenon which results in a change of a wave’s frequency or wavelength due to the motion of its source. Celestial objects in space (stars, galaxies, etc.) also experience a Doppler effect on their emitted electromagnetic radiation called redshift. In this study, redshifts were observed in the spectrographic observations of various celestial objects. This was done using a high-resolution near ultra-violet spectrometer in conjunction with a 14-inch Celestron Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope. The spectrometer was used to measure the absorption spectrum of the bodies and then these absorption spectrums were compared against the Hydrogen emission ...


Characterization Of Programmable Arduino Sensors, Brett Mortenson May 2018

Characterization Of Programmable Arduino Sensors, Brett Mortenson

Physics Capstone Project

Arduinos are increasing in usage and prevalence due to the ease in which they can be programmed. External sensors attached to the Arduinos are being used for various measurements, and many of them give raw data output such as voltage spikes or decibel readings. These readings were characterized so that one can interpret the readings relatively easily, and understand more completely, the environment which the sensors are in. The sensors utilized are as follows: photoresistor, vibrational, sound, temperature, pressure, and humidity.


Gravity Waves Over Antarctica, Vanessa Chambers May 2018

Gravity Waves Over Antarctica, Vanessa Chambers

Physics Capstone Project

As part of the international Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN) program, the Utah State University all sky IR imager has been operated at the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) Halley Station (75°36′ S, 26°12′ W) since 2012, obtaining valuable gravity wave information in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere region (~80 to 100 km). In this study, we have utilized a new 3D spectral analysis technique (Matsuda, et al., 2014) to quantify the horizontal phase velocity distributions of gravity waves over Antarctica. This new tool enables us to analyze extensive amounts of airglow imaging data in a relatively ...


Sodium Lidar For Mesopause Temperature And Wind Studies, Xiaoqi Xi May 2018

Sodium Lidar For Mesopause Temperature And Wind Studies, Xiaoqi Xi

Physics Capstone Project

In 1990 Dr. Chiao-Yao She developed a narrowband Na Temperature lidar in Colorado State University (CSU), it immediately became an important instrument to measure the temperature in mesopause region (80-105 km in altitude): the atmospheric layer between mesosphere and thermosphere [Krueger et al., 2015]. Led by Dr. Tao Yuan, this system was relocated to Utah State University (USU) in summer 2010 and has been continuing its exploration of upper atmosphere. This report will give a brief introduction to the theory and application of Sodium Lidar.


Atmospheric Gravity Wave Events Over Antarctica, America Wrobel May 2018

Atmospheric Gravity Wave Events Over Antarctica, America Wrobel

Physics Capstone Project

This study used infrared (IR) image data obtained from McMurdo Station, Antarctica to investigate the properties of atmospheric gravity waves as they propagate into the upper mesosphere over Antarctica. The data were obtained as part of the international Antarctic Gravity Wave Instrument Network (ANGWIN). ANGWIN utilizes image data from several sites around Antarctica to investigate continent-wide propagation. This paper covers a study that reduced and analyzed two years of data from one particular site: McMurdo Station. An all-sky IR camera placed at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (77°83’ S, 166°61’ E) took one picture every ten seconds for the months ...


Solar Observatory: Shedding Light On The Surface Of The Sun, Zane F. Davis Apr 2018

Solar Observatory: Shedding Light On The Surface Of The Sun, Zane F. Davis

Physics Capstone Project

The Solar Observatory was used to observe the photosphere of the sun. The main focus to observer the photosphere are the sunspots and prominences that develop on the surface. These phenomenon can lead to Coronal Mass Ejections (CME’s). After taking pictures and analyzing them, there was only one day that had any activity on the photosphere. It was concluded that the sun is at it’s solar minima. This means that there is little to zero activity on the suns photosphere. With this, and more data over an extended period of time, it is possible to calculate a solar ...


D-Region Vlf Monitoring System, Jonh Carlos Mojica Decena Mar 2018

D-Region Vlf Monitoring System, Jonh Carlos Mojica Decena

Physics Capstone Project

The use of VLF signals to monitor the changes that occur in the ionosphere resulting from solar variability, has helped to understand how different ionospheric layers depend upon the Sun. These different ionospheric layer responses play a significant role in determining space weather impacts. Our system was created to be a permanent monitor to study the effects on the D-region of the ionosphere and explore any major impacts due to sun radiation exposure. The use of inexpensive equipment proved to be effective and the key point in the creation of this system.


An Investigation Of The Alkali Metals In The Fcc Structure Using An Embedded-Atom-Method (Eam) Model, Marcus Jackman Dec 2017

An Investigation Of The Alkali Metals In The Fcc Structure Using An Embedded-Atom-Method (Eam) Model, Marcus Jackman

Physics Capstone Project

Embedded-atom-method models have been used in the calculation and prediction of many vibrational and thermal properties of materials. In 2012 Wilson and Riffe constructed a model that predicts dispersion relations and frequency-moment Debye temperatures of the alkali metals with a greater degree of accuracy than previous models. The Wilson-Riffe model was implemented using MATLAB code. Here that model is extended to model alkali metals in the close-packed fcc structure. Code development is discussed, and results are presented for dispersion relations, density of states, Debye temperatures and free energy. The vibrational free energy combined with a suitable constant representing the electronic ...


Reducing The Contact Time Of Bouncing Droplets Using Macro-Textured Surfaces, Andrew Merritt Aug 2017

Reducing The Contact Time Of Bouncing Droplets Using Macro-Textured Surfaces, Andrew Merritt

Physics Capstone Project

This study was designed to investigate the possibility of using visible surface features to decrease the amount of time a droplet remains in contact with a hydrophobic surface. Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces have long been a focus for scientists studying fluids. However, a majority of studies have focused on surfaces with hydrophobic properties rooted in their chemical makeup or other features invisible to the naked eye. In this study, the contact reduction induced by a simple needle protruding from a hydrophobic surface is investigated.


Measuring And Modeling The Conductivity Of Highly Insulating Materials, David King Aug 2017

Measuring And Modeling The Conductivity Of Highly Insulating Materials, David King

Physics Capstone Project

Satellites and other spacecraft must be able to withstand hazardous conditions in order to be viable in their expected operating environments. One specific hazard that occurs due to incident radiation is spacecraft charging. Insulating materials, frequently used in spacecraft and other electrical equipment, while very good at preventing charge flow, also store charge very well. This can create problems; specifically, “if the charge decay time exceeds the orbital period, not all charge will be dissipated before orbital conditions act again to further charge the satellite. As the insulator accumulates charge, the electric field will rise until the insulator breaks down ...


Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mid-Latitude Mesospheric Densities, Brandon S. Hustead, Lucas R. Priskos, Jonathan L. Price, Joshua P. Herron May 2017

Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mid-Latitude Mesospheric Densities, Brandon S. Hustead, Lucas R. Priskos, Jonathan L. Price, Joshua P. Herron

Physics Capstone Project

This research is an analysis of absolute densities throughout the mesosphere (45 km to 90 km). Although much research has gone into the study of temperatures and their variations occurring in our atmosphere, little has been done to research the densities and their variations. Due to the remoteness of the middle atmosphere there is a high degree of difficulty in making observations in the mesosphere. There are currently three major types of ground-based instruments used to sense the mesosphere remotely. They are atmospheric radars, LIDARs and optical spectrometers. As far as measuring density in the mesosphere LIDAR is the most ...


Uv Degradation Of Polycarbonate, Katie Gamaunt May 2017

Uv Degradation Of Polycarbonate, Katie Gamaunt

Physics Capstone Project

The decrease in visible and ultraviolet transmission spectra of polymeric and glass spacecraft materials has been measured to determine the extent of degradation due to high-energy UV radiation similar to the solar spectrum (both above and below the stratosphere, which is where most of the UV radiation is absorbed). This project looked at the effects that the atmosphere has in regards to blocking UV radiation and thus, slowing down the UV degradation process. A polycarbonate sample was exposed to radiation from a focused high intensity deuterium lamp source, which generates radiation in the UVA and UVB spectrum. A particularly severe ...


Growing Bores At The South Pole, Mikaela Ashcroft May 2017

Growing Bores At The South Pole, Mikaela Ashcroft

Physics Capstone Project

Bores in the South Pole have been monitored for over ten years, and, until the year 2012, they were found to be relatively rare. Bores start with relatively large intensity and develop additional waves behind them depending on their movement and stability. The data from the South Pole was gathered from the US Admundsen-Scott South Pole station. A photo was taken every 30 seconds from the months of April to August with a wide-angled lens. The data was then processed and analyzed in multiple programs to determine wavelength, duration of event, relative velocity over time, and direction of propagation. Studies ...


Tilt Classifications In Perfect Fluid Cosmology, Bryant Ward May 2017

Tilt Classifications In Perfect Fluid Cosmology, Bryant Ward

Physics Capstone Project

We classify all known perfect fluid cosmological solutions of the Einstein equations according to whether they are tilted or non-tilted. A non-tilted universe will have observers who see a homogeneous, isotropic universe with matter at rest with respect to them. A tilted universe will have observers who see matter moving relative to them. These classifications are useful when considering fluid models of the universe in that the Hubble parameter and expansion are observer dependent and can be different in a tilted versus a non-tilted universe. This gives more insight when fitting these models with observations of our real universe. We ...


Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Densities, Lucas R. Priskos, Brandon S. Hustead, Jonathon L. Price, Joshua P. Herron May 2017

Rayleigh-Lidar Observations Of Mesospheric Densities, Lucas R. Priskos, Brandon S. Hustead, Jonathon L. Price, Joshua P. Herron

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to take relative densities of the mesosphere (altitude 45-90 km) from data that has been collected and convert them into absolute densities. It is then possible to look at how these densities vary with altitude and season. The data was collected using a Rayleigh-scatter LIDAR at the Atmospheric LIDAR Observatory. This is a part of the Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences and is located on the Utah State University Campus. It spans a total of 11 years beginning in 1993 and ending in 2004. The collected data is used to create a composite ...


Microcontroller Survivability In Space Conditions, Windy Olsen May 2017

Microcontroller Survivability In Space Conditions, Windy Olsen

Physics Capstone Project

The Utah State University (USU) Materials Physics Group (MPG) is interested in the performance of Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) microcontrollers in space conditions. Microcontrollers are commonly used on CubeSats, small relatively inexpensive satellites that are flown in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) at altitudes of ~160 km-2000 km. There is a large area of interest in COTS microcontrollers because they provide a more cost-effective on-board computer for CubeSats. This experiment focused on the functionality of an ATmega328 microcontroller on an Arduino Uno board inside the MPG’s Space Survivability Test (SST) Chamber. A diagnostic program was used to try to ...


Investigating The Weddell Sea Anomaly Using Tie-Gcm, Daesean K. Jones May 2017

Investigating The Weddell Sea Anomaly Using Tie-Gcm, Daesean K. Jones

Physics Capstone Project

The ionosphere is a region of Earth’s upper atmosphere that is embedded in the thermosphere and parts of the exosphere and mesosphere. The ionosphere is a layer of electrons and electrically charged atoms and molecules that are created by atmospheric absorption of solar radiation. It is subdivided into many layers but for this report, only the F-layer will be of interest. In the F-layer, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) solar radiation ionizes atomic oxygen and in this layer, an intriguing feature occurs. This feature involves an anomalous evening phenomenon over a fixed geographic location, where the electron density during the nighttime ...