Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 35

Full-Text Articles in Physics

An Introduction To Quantile-Quantile Plots For The Experimental Physicist, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Nov 2018

An Introduction To Quantile-Quantile Plots For The Experimental Physicist, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Wireless Antenna Detection Of Electrostatic Discharge Events, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Sep 2018

Wireless Antenna Detection Of Electrostatic Discharge Events, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Secondary Electron Yield Measurements Of Carbon Nanotube Forests: Dependence On Morphology And Substrate, Brian Wood, Jordan Lee, Gregory Wilson, T. -C. Shen, Jr Dennison Jan 2018

Secondary Electron Yield Measurements Of Carbon Nanotube Forests: Dependence On Morphology And Substrate, Brian Wood, Jordan Lee, Gregory Wilson, T. -C. Shen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Time-Evolved Constant Voltage Conductivity Measurements Of Common Spaceborne Polymeric Materials, Brian Wood, David King, Jr Dennison Jan 2018

Time-Evolved Constant Voltage Conductivity Measurements Of Common Spaceborne Polymeric Materials, Brian Wood, David King, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


A Predictive Range Expression: Applications And Limitations, Gregory Wilson, Anne C. Starley, Lisa Phillipps, Jr Dennison Jan 2018

A Predictive Range Expression: Applications And Limitations, Gregory Wilson, Anne C. Starley, Lisa Phillipps, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Highly Accelerated Test Method For Characterizing Likelihood Of Breakdown In Hvdc Dielectric Materials, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2017

Highly Accelerated Test Method For Characterizing Likelihood Of Breakdown In Hvdc Dielectric Materials, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Increasing application and development of HVDC technologies emphasizes the need for improved characterization of candidate insulating materials. Accurately predicting the lifetime to breakdown of dielectric materials by means of accelerated voltage step-up to breakdown tests can be prohibitively time consuming. Step-up to breakdown tests with sufficiently slow voltage ramp rates that continuously monitor leakage current have detected a distribution of DC partial discharge (DCPD) events occurring prior to breakdown, which increase with increasing field. These DCPD distributions are shown to correlate strongly with the likelihood of breakdown for four common polymers. Given that hundreds of DCPD events are typically observed ...


An Enhanced Operational Definition Of Dielectric Breakdown For Dc Voltage Step-Up Tests, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2017

An Enhanced Operational Definition Of Dielectric Breakdown For Dc Voltage Step-Up Tests, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

The imprecise definition of breakdown in the ASTM D3755-14 standard can misidentify breakdown. If the recommended test circuit current sensing element threshold is set too high, breakdown may occur undetected. Conversely, false positives may result from designating a low current threshold. An operational definition of breakdown much less sensitive to these pitfalls is outlined herein. This enhanced definition of breakdown is based on the average rate of change of the leakage current with increasing voltage, rather than a simple current threshold, avoiding ambiguous association with anomalies in current traces. For tests that continuously monitor leakage current, breakdown can be detected ...


Perspectives On The Distributions Of Esd Breakdowns For Spacecraft Charging Applications, Allen Andersen, Krysta Moser, Jr Dennison Aug 2017

Perspectives On The Distributions Of Esd Breakdowns For Spacecraft Charging Applications, Allen Andersen, Krysta Moser, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Electrostatic discharge (ESD) continues to pose significant risks to space missions despite decades of intense study. Tabulated values of material breakdown strength used in spacecraft charging models are often based on cursory measurements that may not be fully relevant to a given mission. Materials physics offers insight into the pertinent variables that affect breakdown and how to address them experimentally for spacecraft applications. We present measured distributions of ESD data across several test configurations for three polymeric materials that, taken together, begin to provide an understanding of how to estimate the likelihood of ESD events over a spacecraft’s mission ...


Pea System Modeling And Signal Processing For Measurement Of Volume Charge Distributions In Thin Dielectric Films, Lee H. Pearson, Jr Dennison, Erick W. Griffiths, Anthony C. Pearson Aug 2017

Pea System Modeling And Signal Processing For Measurement Of Volume Charge Distributions In Thin Dielectric Films, Lee H. Pearson, Jr Dennison, Erick W. Griffiths, Anthony C. Pearson

Journal Articles

This paper discusses our effort to develop advanced pulsed electroacoustic (PEA) measurement system capabilities that incorporate (1) improved signal processing tools for increased signal/noise ratios; and (2) integrated PEA modeling tools. In addition, we emphasize state-of-the-art system electronic components, integrated environmental controls, and sensor improvements required to achieve high spatial resolution while maintaining reasonable temporal resolution for both ambient and in vacuo measurements of thin dielectrics charged using electron beam injection, which is most applicable for spacecraft charging tests. PEA measurement systems provide an important tool to investigate the spatial extent and dynamic evolution of embedded charge distributions in ...


Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rate For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Aug 2017

Dependence Of Electrostatic Field Strength On Voltage Ramp Rate For Spacecraft Materials, Krysta Moser, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

This work investigated the dependence of electrostatic field strength for spacecraft materials on voltage ramp rate, by applying an increasing incremental electrostatic field until electrostatic breakdown occurred. Tests on Kapton E found that at ramp rates two or three orders of magnitude lower than the maximum recommended rate, the electrostatic breakdown field, FESD was lower by a factor of two or more. This suggests that tabulated values of FESD, which have been used by the spacecraft charging community, could substantially overestimate FESD in common slowly evolving spacecraft situations. This study expanded these ramp rate tests to include a wider range ...


Cathodoluminescence Studies Of Defects In Coated Boron Nitride, Kévin Guerch, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison, Thierry Paulmier, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch, Pascal Lenormand Jul 2017

Cathodoluminescence Studies Of Defects In Coated Boron Nitride, Kévin Guerch, Justin Dekany, Jr Dennison, Thierry Paulmier, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch, Pascal Lenormand

Journal Articles

Optical emission properties of Boron Nitride (BN) substrates, BN with alumina (Al2O3) coating, and thermally-annealed alumina-coated boron nitride (an-BN/Al2O3) were investigated under electron irradiation using cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Tests were performed temperatures ranging from ~100 K to ~300 K, with monoenergetic beams from 5 keV to 30 keV, and electron flux densities from 1 nA.cm-2 to 500 nA.cm-2. These experiments were conducted to identify the effects of coating and thermal annealing on the nature and occupation of defect states in different samples with BN substrates. Previous studies have shown that these treatments can limit the charging of ...


Density Of State Models And Temperature Dependence Of Radiation Induced Conductivity, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Jr Dennison, Alec M. Sim Jan 2017

Density Of State Models And Temperature Dependence Of Radiation Induced Conductivity, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Jr Dennison, Alec M. Sim

Journal Articles

Expressions are developed for radiation induce conductivity (RIC) over an extended temperature range, based on density of states models for highly disordered insulating materials. A general discussion of the DOS of can be given using two simple types of DOS distributions of defect states within the bandgap for disordered materials are considered, one that monotonically decreases within the bandgap and one with a distribution peak within the band gap. Three monotonically decreasing models (exponential, power law, and linear), and two peaked models (Gaussian and delta function) are considered, plus limiting cases with a uniform DOS for each type. Variations using ...


Temporal And Spatial Correlations In Electron-Induced Arcs Of Adjacent Dielectric Islands, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany Jan 2017

Temporal And Spatial Correlations In Electron-Induced Arcs Of Adjacent Dielectric Islands, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany

Journal Articles

This study investigates very short duration (


Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2015

Mixed Weibull Distribution Model Of Dc Dielectric Breakdowns With Dual Defect Modes, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

This work provides physical insight into common statistical models for DC dielectric breakdown field strengths. Voltage step-up tests were performed on low density polyethylene films. The merits of generalizations to widely-used empirical Weibull models are discussed. The cumulative probability distributions of the breakdown fields were fit to standard two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. Mixed two-parameter Weibull distributions, sometimes used in the literature to model multiple breakdown modes, were found to yield the best fits to the data. In addition, the same data were fit to a physically-motivated dual-defect mean field model incorporating both low- and high-energy defect modes with different ...


Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Sep 2015

Pre-Breakdown Arcing As A Proxy For Dc Dielectric Breakdown Testing Of Polymeric Insulators, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Pre-breakdown arcing is proposed as a key indicator of DC breakdown properties of polymeric dielectric materials. Voltage step-up tests were performed for films of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) at ramp rates significantly lower than is common in most studies, allowing for the observation of both breakdown and transient pre-breakdown current spikes. The distributions of the breakdowns versus applied field were compared with the more frequent pre-breakdown arcs. A strong correlation was observed for LDPE between the distribution of breakdowns in step-up tests and the distribution of pre-breakdown arcing. Pre-breakdown arcing distributions are much easier to obtain than breakdown distributions and may ...


Variations In Cathodoluminescent Intensity Of Spacecraft Materials Exposed To Energetic Electron Bombardment, Justin Dekany, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen, Gregory Wilson, Todd Schneider, Charles W. Bowers, Robert Meloy Jan 2015

Variations In Cathodoluminescent Intensity Of Spacecraft Materials Exposed To Energetic Electron Bombardment, Justin Dekany, Justin Christensen, Jr Dennison, Amberly Evans Jensen, Gregory Wilson, Todd Schneider, Charles W. Bowers, Robert Meloy

Journal Articles

Many contemporary spacecraft materials exhibit cathodoluminescence when exposed to electron flux from the space plasma environment. A quantitative, physics-based model has been developed to predict the intensity of the total glow as a function of incident electron current density and energy, temperature, and intrinsic material properties. We present a comparative study of the absolute spectral radiance for more than 20 types of dielectric and composite materials based on this model which spans more than three orders of magnitude. Variations in intensity are contrasted for different electron environments, different sizes of samples and sample sets, different testing and analysis methods, and ...


Electrostatic Discharge And Endurance Time Measurements Of Spacecraft Materials: A Defect-Driven Dynamic Model, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison, Alec Sim, Charles Sim Jan 2015

Electrostatic Discharge And Endurance Time Measurements Of Spacecraft Materials: A Defect-Driven Dynamic Model, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison, Alec Sim, Charles Sim

Journal Articles

Electrostatic breakdown leads to the majority of anomalies and failures attributed to spacecraft interactions with the plasma space environment. It is therefore critical to understand how electrostatic field strength (FESD) of spacecraft materials varies due to environmental conditions such as duration of applied electric field, rate of field change, history of exposure to high fields, and temperature. We have developed a dual-defect, thermodynamic, mean-field trapping model in terms of recoverable and irrecoverable defect modes to predict probabilities of breakdown. Fits to a variety of measurements of the dependence of FESD of insulating polymers on endurance time, voltage ramp ...


Defects Density Of States Model Of Cathodoluminescent Intensity And Spectra Of Disordered Sio2, Amberly Evans Jensen, Jr Dennison Jan 2015

Defects Density Of States Model Of Cathodoluminescent Intensity And Spectra Of Disordered Sio2, Amberly Evans Jensen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Electron beam measurements show that disordered SiO2 exhibits electron-induced luminescence, and that it varies with incident beam energy and current density, sample temperature, and wavelength. A simple model based on the electronic band structure and defect density of states—initially used to explain electron transport in highly disordered insulating materials—has been extended to predict the relative cathodoluminescent intensity and spectral radiance for disordered SiO2 as a function of these variables. Due to the large band gap of insulating SiO2, thermal excitation from the valence to conduction band is highly improbable; excitation is through collisions of the ...


Electrical Properties Study Under Electron Beam Of Annealed And Coated Boron Nitride, Kevin Guerch, Thierry Paulmier, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch, Pascal Lenormand Jan 2015

Electrical Properties Study Under Electron Beam Of Annealed And Coated Boron Nitride, Kevin Guerch, Thierry Paulmier, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch, Pascal Lenormand

Journal Articles

The charging and relaxation kinetics of pyrolytic boron nitride (BN) substrates, BN with an aluminum oxide (BN/Al2O3) coating, and thermally-annealed alumina-coated boron nitride (an–BN/Al2O3) were investigated under low power electron irradiation (5 < incident energy E0 < 20 keV and incident flux Ji = 10 nA.cm-2 at room temperature) in the CEDRE facility at ONERA (Toulouse, France). Surface potentials of each ceramics configuration were measured over time using the Kelvin probe method. The influence of coating and annealing treatments to limit charging is discussed in this paper. A thorough study of a an–BN/Al2O3 sample ...


Dynamic Interplay Between Spacecraft Charging, Space Environment Interactions And Evolving Materials, Jr Dennison Jan 2015

Dynamic Interplay Between Spacecraft Charging, Space Environment Interactions And Evolving Materials, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

While the effects on spacecraft charging from varying environmental conditions and from the selection of different construction materials have been studied extensively, modification of materials properties by exposure to the space plasma environment can also have profound effects on spacecraft charging. Given the increasingly demanding nature of space missions, there is a clear need to extend our understanding of the dynamic nature of material properties that affect spacecraft charging and to expand our knowledgebase of materials’ responses to specific environmental conditions so that we can more reliably predict the long term response of spacecraft to their environment. This paper focuses ...


Electrical Properties Of Annealed And Coated Boron Nitride Under Electron Beam Irradiation, Kevin Guerch, Theirry Paulmier, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany, Pascal Lenormand, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch Jan 2015

Electrical Properties Of Annealed And Coated Boron Nitride Under Electron Beam Irradiation, Kevin Guerch, Theirry Paulmier, Jr Dennison, Justin Dekany, Pascal Lenormand, Sophie Guillemet-Fritsch

Journal Articles

The charging and relaxation kinetics of pyrolytic boron nitride (BN) substrates, BN with an aluminium oxide (BN/Al2O3) coating, and thermally-annealed alumina-coated boron nitride (an-BN/Al2O3) were investigated under low power electron irradiation (5 < E0 < 20 keV, Ji = 10 nA.cm-2 at room temperature) in the CEDRE facility at ONERA (Toulouse, France). Surface potentials of each ceramics configuration were measured over time using the Kelvin probe method. The influence of coating and annealing treatments to limit charging is discussed in this paper. A thorough study of a an–BN/Al2O3 sample was ...


Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison Oct 2014

Pre-Breakdown Arcing And Electrostatic Discharge In Dielectrics Under High Dc Electric Field Stress, Allen Andersen, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Highly disordered insulating materials exposed to high electric fields will, over time, degrade and fail, potentially causing catastrophic damage to devices. Step-up to electrostatic discharge (ESD) tests were performed for two common polymer dielectrics, low density polyethylene and polyimide. Pre-breakdown transient current spikes or arcs were observed, using both slow and high speed detection. These pre-ESD discharge phenomena are explained in terms of breakdown modes and defect generation on a microscopic scale. The field at which pre-breakdown arcing begins was compared to the onset field for electrostatic discharge at which complete breakdown occurs for each material studied. We present evidence ...


Feasibility Of Detecting Spacecraft Charging And Arcing By Remote Sensing, Dale C. Ferguson, Jeremy Murray Krezan, David A. Barton, Jr Dennison, Stephen Gregory Jan 2014

Feasibility Of Detecting Spacecraft Charging And Arcing By Remote Sensing, Dale C. Ferguson, Jeremy Murray Krezan, David A. Barton, Jr Dennison, Stephen Gregory

Journal Articles

More than 50 years after the dawn of the space age, most spacecraft still do not have sensors onboard capable of detecting whether they are at potentials likely to put them at risk of severe charging and the concomitant arcing, or, indeed, even capable of detecting when or if they undergo arcing. As a result, anomaly resolution has often been hit or miss, and false diagnoses are probably common. In this paper, a few remote sensing techniques that could be applied for remotely detecting spacecraft charging and/or arcing, and their feasibility, are examined: surface glows from high-energy electron impact ...


Temperature Dependence Of Radiation Induced Conductivity In Insulators, Jr Dennison, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Joshua Hodges, Ryan C. Hoffman, J Abott, Steven Hart, Alan W. Hunt Jan 2009

Temperature Dependence Of Radiation Induced Conductivity In Insulators, Jr Dennison, Jodie Corbridge Gillespie, Joshua Hodges, Ryan C. Hoffman, J Abott, Steven Hart, Alan W. Hunt

Journal Articles

We report on measurements of Radiation Induced Conductivity (RIC) of thin film Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) samples. RIC occurs when incident ionizing radiation deposits energy in a material and excites electrons into conduction states. RIC is calculated as the difference in sample conductivity under an incident flux and “dark current” conductivity under no incident radiation.

The primary focus of this study is the temperature dependence of the steady state RIC over a wide range of absorbed dose rates, from cryogenic temperatures to well above room temperature. The measured RIC values are compared to theoretical predictions of dose rate and temperature ...


Deep Dielectric Charging Of Spacecraft Polymers By Energetic Protons, Nelson W. Green, Jr Dennison Oct 2008

Deep Dielectric Charging Of Spacecraft Polymers By Energetic Protons, Nelson W. Green, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

The majority of research in the field of spacecraft charging concentrates on electron charging effects with little discussion of charging by protons. For spacecraft orbiting in the traditional LEO and GEO environments, this emphasis on electrons is appropriate since energetic electrons are the dominant species. However, for spacecraft in orbits within the inner radiation belts, or for interplanetary and lunar space probes, proton charging effects may also be of concern. To examine bulk spacecraft charging effects in these environments, several typical highly insulating spacecraft polymers were exposed to energetic protons with energies from 1 to 10 MeV to simulate protons ...


Low-Fluence Electron Yields Of Highly Insulating Materials, Ryan Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Clint D. Thomson, Jennifer Albretson Oct 2008

Low-Fluence Electron Yields Of Highly Insulating Materials, Ryan Hoffmann, Jr Dennison, Clint D. Thomson, Jennifer Albretson

Journal Articles

Electron-induced electron yields of high-resistivity, high-yield materials - ceramic polycrystalline aluminum oxide and the polymer polyimide (Kapton HN), - were made by using a low-fluence, pulsed incident electron beam and charge neutralization electron source to minimize charge accumulation. Large changes in energy-dependent total yield curves and yield decay curves were observed, even for incident electron fluences of <3 fC/mm2. The evolution of the electron yield as charge accumulates in the material is modeled in terms of electron re-capture based on an extended Chung-Everhart model of the electron emission spectrum. This model is used to explain anomalies measured in highly insulating, high-yield materials, and ...


Methods For High Resistivity Measurements Related To Spacecraft Charging, Jr Dennison, Jerilyn Brunson, Prasanna Swaminathan, Nelson Green, A Robb Frederickson Oct 2006

Methods For High Resistivity Measurements Related To Spacecraft Charging, Jr Dennison, Jerilyn Brunson, Prasanna Swaminathan, Nelson Green, A Robb Frederickson

Journal Articles

A key parameter in modeling differential spacecraft charging is the resistivity of insulating materials. This parameter determines how charge will accumulate and redistribute across the spacecraft, as well as the time scale for charge transport and dissipation. ASTM constant voltage methods are shown to provide inaccurate resistivity measurements for materials with resistivities greater than ~1017 Ω-cm or with long polarization decay times such as are found in many polymers. These data have been shown to often be inappropriate for spacecraft charging applications, and have been found to underestimate charging effects by one to four orders of magnitude for many ...


Extended Beg Model Of Halogenated Methanes Physisorbed On Ionic Crystals, T. E. Burns, Jr Dennison, Jason Kite Jan 2004

Extended Beg Model Of Halogenated Methanes Physisorbed On Ionic Crystals, T. E. Burns, Jr Dennison, Jason Kite

Journal Articles

The 2D dielectric phases and phase transitions of adsorbed dipolar molecules are modeled using a dilute spin-one Ising model. This model is studied in the Blume-Emery-Griffiths formalism, using a mean-field approximation, where the interaction parameters are related to system interaction energies using a unique averaging procedure. The model is applied to four halogenated methane species physisorbed on MgO(100) and NaCl(100) surfaces using previous experimental and theoretical studies to estimate the interaction energy parameters. We find that temperature- and coverage-dependent antiferroelectric to ferroelectric, coverage-dependant ferroelectric up to ferroelectric down, reentrant ferroelectric to ferroelectric, and order-disorder dipole phase transitions can ...


Measurement Of Conductivity And Charge Storage In Insulators Related To Spacecraft Charging, A Robb Frederickson, Jr Dennison Dec 2003

Measurement Of Conductivity And Charge Storage In Insulators Related To Spacecraft Charging, A Robb Frederickson, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Improved experimental methods are discussed for laboratory measurement of conductivity and electric field in insulating spacecraft material intended for space radiation and plasma environments. These measurement techniques investigate the following features: 1) Measurements of conductivity are up to four orders of magnitude smaller than those determined by existing standard methods. 2) Conductivity is altered as radiation accumulates and trapping states fill with electrons. 3) With intense keV electron irradiation, electrons are continually emitted for hours from the irradiated surface after the irradiation ceases. 4) Charging induced by electron irradiation is strongly modified by the electron-hole pairs that the irradiation generates ...


Evolution Of Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics Of Spacecraft Surfaces: Importance To Spacecraft Charging, R. E. Davies, Jr Dennison Jan 2000

Evolution Of Secondary Electron Emission Characteristics Of Spacecraft Surfaces: Importance To Spacecraft Charging, R. E. Davies, Jr Dennison

Journal Articles

Secondary electron emission (SEE) plays a key role in spacecraft charging [Garrett, 1981; Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992] . As a result, spacecraft charging codes require knowledge of the SEE characteristics of various materials in order to predict vehicle potentials in various orbital environments [Katz, et. al., 1986]. Because SEE is a surface phenomenon, occurring in the first few atomic layers of a material, the SEE characteristics of a given surface are extremely sensitive to changes in surface condition—e.g., the addition or removal of surface contaminants, or changes in surface morphology. That spacecraft surfaces can and generally do undergo significant ...