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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Stormtime Thermospheric Neutral Winds Obtained From A Data Assimilation Model, Ludger Scherliess Sep 2019

Stormtime Thermospheric Neutral Winds Obtained From A Data Assimilation Model, Ludger Scherliess

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Generalized Near Horizon Extreme Binary Black Hole Geometry, Jacob Ciafre, Shahar Hadar, Erin Rickenbach, Maria J. Rodriguez Aug 2019

Generalized Near Horizon Extreme Binary Black Hole Geometry, Jacob Ciafre, Shahar Hadar, Erin Rickenbach, Maria J. Rodriguez

All Physics Faculty Publications

We present a new vacuum solution of Einstein’s equations describing the near horizon region of two neutral, extreme (zero-temperature), corotating, nonidentical Kerr black holes. The metric is stationary, asymptotically near horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK), and contains a localized massless strut along the symmetry axis between the black holes. In the deep infrared, it flows to two separate throats which we call “pierced-NHEK” geometries: each throat is NHEK pierced by a conical singularity. We find that in spite of the presence of the strut for the pierced-NHEK geometries the isometry group SL(2,R)×U(1) is restored. We find ...


Yang-Mills Sources For Biconformal Gravity, Walter Davis Muhwezi Aug 2019

Yang-Mills Sources For Biconformal Gravity, Walter Davis Muhwezi

Physics Capstone Project

We present a gauge formulation of Yang-Mills matter sources for Biconformal gravity. Biconformal gravity is a 2n-dimensional conformal gauge theory with a curvature linear action that has been shown to reproduce scale invariant general relativity on the cotangent bundle of n-dimensional space time. We present a generalization of Yang-Mills theories in biconformal space and show that the field equations with sources reduce the Yang-Mills sector to n-dimensional Yang-Mills theory in curved spacetime. We compute the restrictive conditions on the energy-momentum tensor required by the gravitational field equations.


Monitoring Ambient Laboratory Conditions With A Raspberry Pi, Joshua Boman Aug 2019

Monitoring Ambient Laboratory Conditions With A Raspberry Pi, Joshua Boman

Physics Capstone Project

Precise experimental devices and measurements can be sensitive to changing physical conditions in the lab. The purpose of this research was to develop a standardized computer automated package to monitor and record changes in laboratory conditions, including ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, light intensity, motion, and power outages. The computer-interfaced device was based around an inexpensive Raspberry Pi microcomputer and commercially available sensors. The Raspberry Pi uploads the sensor data to a file used by LabVIEW to further analyze, plot and display the calibrated sensor data in real time and trigger alarms. This capability allows the Material Physics Research ...


Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre Aug 2019

Introduction To Classical Field Theory, Charles G. Torre

All Complete Monographs

This is an introduction to classical field theory. Topics treated include: Klein-Gordon field, electromagnetic field, scalar electrodynamics, Dirac field, Yang-Mills field, gravitational field, Noether theorems relating symmetries and conservation laws, spontaneous symmetry breaking, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms.


Classification Of Isometry Algebras Of Solutions Of Einstein's Field Equations, Eugene Hwang Aug 2019

Classification Of Isometry Algebras Of Solutions Of Einstein's Field Equations, Eugene Hwang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Since Schwarzschild found the first solution of the Einstein’s equations, more than 800 solutions were found. Solutions of Einstein’s equations are classified according to their Lie algebras of isometries and their isotropy subalgebras. Solutions were taken from the USU electronic library of solutions of Einstein’s field equations and the classification used Maple code developed at USU. This classification adds to the data contained in the library of solutions and provides additional tools for addressing the equivalence problem for solutions to the Einstein field equations. In this thesis, homogeneous spacetimes, hypersurface-homogeneous spacetimes, Robinson-Trautman solutions, and some famous black ...


Equatorial Disturbance Dynamo Vertical Plasma Drifts Over Jicamarca: Bi‐Monthly And Solar Cycle Dependence, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Bela G. Fejer, Ludger Scherliess Jun 2019

Equatorial Disturbance Dynamo Vertical Plasma Drifts Over Jicamarca: Bi‐Monthly And Solar Cycle Dependence, Luis Navarro Dominguez, Bela G. Fejer, Ludger Scherliess

All Physics Faculty Publications

We use extensive incoherent scatter radar observations from the Jicamarca Radio Observatory to study the local time and bi‐monthly dependence of the equatorial disturbance dynamo vertical plasma drifts on solar flux and geomagnetic activity. We show that the daytime disturbance drifts have generally small magnitudes with largest values before noon and an apparent annual variation. Near dusk, they are downward throughout the year with largest values during the equinoxes and smallest during June solstice. These downward drifts increase strongly with solar flux, and shift to later local times. They also increase with increasing geomagnetically active conditions with no apparent ...


Blandford-Znajek Process In Vacuo And Its Holographic Dual, Ted Jacobson, Maria J. Rodriguez Jun 2019

Blandford-Znajek Process In Vacuo And Its Holographic Dual, Ted Jacobson, Maria J. Rodriguez

All Physics Faculty Presentations

Blandford and Znajek discovered a process by which a spinning black hole can transfer rotational energy to a plasma, offering a mechanism for energy and jet emissions from quasars. Here we describe a version of this mechanism that operates with only vacuum electromagnetic fields outside the black hole. The setting, which is not astrophysically realistic, involves either a cylindrical black hole or one that lives in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, and the field is given in simple, closed form for a wide class of metrics. For asymptotically anti–de Sitter black holes in 2+1 dimensions, the holographic dual of ...


Pmc Turbo: Studying Gravity Wave And Instability Dynamics In The Summer Mesosphere Using Polar Mesospheric Cloud Imaging And Profiling From A Stratospheric Balloon, David C. Fritts, Amber D. Miller, C. Bjorn Kjellstrand, Christopher Geach, Bifford P. Williams, Bernd Kaifler, Natalie Kaifler, Glenn Jones, Markus Rapp, Michele Limon, Jason Reimuller, Ling Wang, Shaul Hanany, Sonja Gisinger, Yucheng Zhao, Gunter Stober, Cora E. Randall May 2019

Pmc Turbo: Studying Gravity Wave And Instability Dynamics In The Summer Mesosphere Using Polar Mesospheric Cloud Imaging And Profiling From A Stratospheric Balloon, David C. Fritts, Amber D. Miller, C. Bjorn Kjellstrand, Christopher Geach, Bifford P. Williams, Bernd Kaifler, Natalie Kaifler, Glenn Jones, Markus Rapp, Michele Limon, Jason Reimuller, Ling Wang, Shaul Hanany, Sonja Gisinger, Yucheng Zhao, Gunter Stober, Cora E. Randall

All Physics Faculty Publications

The Polar Mesospheric Cloud Turbulence (PMC Turbo) experiment was designed to observe and quantify the dynamics of small‐scale gravity waves (GWs) and instabilities leading to turbulence in the upper mesosphere during polar summer using instruments aboard a stratospheric balloon. The PMC Turbo scientific payload comprised seven high‐resolution cameras and a Rayleigh lidar. Overlapping wide and narrow camera field of views from the balloon altitude of ~38 km enabled resolution of features extending from ~20 m to ~100 km at the PMC layer altitude of ~82 km. The Rayleigh lidar provided profiles of temperature below the PMC altitudes and ...


Octonionic Maxwell Equations, Ben Shaw May 2019

Octonionic Maxwell Equations, Ben Shaw

Physics Capstone Project

An introduction to Quaternions and Octonions is given, and the Maxwell Equations are formulated in terms of each. The conventional, source-free relativistic theory of eight dimensional electromagnetism is introduced and examined. Similarly, the source-free Octonionic Maxwell Equations are developed, and it is shown that the seven dimensional electric and magnetic fields–pure Octonions–each admit plane wave solutions. An Octonionic Faraday tensor is constructed and compared with the conventional Faraday tensor, and it is shown that, in the source-free case, the conventional and Octonionic theories are equivalent.


Juxtaposition At 45 Km Of Temperatures From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar And Reanalysis Models, David K. Moser May 2019

Juxtaposition At 45 Km Of Temperatures From Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar And Reanalysis Models, David K. Moser

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Weather and climate forecasts are almost exclusively produced by computer models, which use atmospheric measurements as starting points. It is a well-known and joked-about fact that model predictions can be incorrect at times. One of the reasons this happens is due to gaps in our knowledge of atmospheric conditions in areas where measurements don’t often taken place, such as the mesosphere, which stretches from roughly 45-90 km altitude.

A lidar is a device that can shoot out short bursts of laser light to measure things such as atmospheric thickness at a distance. From this information one can then derive ...


General Relativity As A Biconformal Gauge Theory, James T. Wheeler Apr 2019

General Relativity As A Biconformal Gauge Theory, James T. Wheeler

All Physics Faculty Publications

We consider the conformal group of a space of dim n=p+q, with SO(p,q) metric. The quotient of this group by its homogeneous Weyl subgroup gives a principal fiber bundle with 2n-dim base manifold and Weyl fibers. The Cartan generalization to a curved 2n-dim geometry admits an action functional linear in the curvatures. Because symmetry is maintained between the translations and the special conformal transformations in the construction, these spaces are called biconformal; this same symmetry gives biconformal spaces overlapping structures with double field theories, including manifest T-duality. We establish that biconformal geometry ...


Porting Symbolic Libraries From Maple To Python, James Lewis Apr 2019

Porting Symbolic Libraries From Maple To Python, James Lewis

Physics Capstone Project

Utah State University has a database of tables of the known solutions of the Einstein Field Equation. This database is primarily recorded in the symbolic computing program Maple. This database needs to be translated into Python code so the information can be more accessible to the general public. This translation was successful for one table, which means that it is possible to translate the entire database.


On The Long Lasting “C‐Type” Structures In The Sodium Lidargram: The Lifetime Of Kelvin‐Helmholtz Billows In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Region, S. Mondal, S. Sarkhel, Jay Agarwal, D. Chakrabarty, R. Sekar, Tao Yuan, Xuguang Cai, Alan Z. Liu, Satonori Nozawa, Norihito Saito, Takuya D. Kawahara, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell Iii Apr 2019

On The Long Lasting “C‐Type” Structures In The Sodium Lidargram: The Lifetime Of Kelvin‐Helmholtz Billows In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Region, S. Mondal, S. Sarkhel, Jay Agarwal, D. Chakrabarty, R. Sekar, Tao Yuan, Xuguang Cai, Alan Z. Liu, Satonori Nozawa, Norihito Saito, Takuya D. Kawahara, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell Iii

All Physics Faculty Publications

In order to understand the characteristics of long‐lasting “C‐type” structure in the Sodium (Na) lidargram, six cases from different observational locations have been analyzed. The Na lidargram, collected from low‐, middle‐, and high‐latitude sites, show long lifetime of the C‐type structures which is believed to be the manifestation of Kelvin‐Helmholtz (KH) billows in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In order to explore the characteristics of the long‐lasting C‐type structures, the altitude profile of square of Brunt‐Väisälä frequency in the MLT region has been derived using the temperature profile collected from ...


On The Long Lasting “C‐Type” Structures In The Sodium Lidargram: The Lifetime Of Kelvin‐Helmholtz Billows In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Region, S. Mondal, S. Sarkhel, Jay Agarwal, D. Chakrabarty, R. Sekar, Tao (Titus) Yuan, Xuguang Cai, Alan Z. Liu, Satonori Nozawa, Norihito Saito, Takuya D. Kawahara, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell Iii Apr 2019

On The Long Lasting “C‐Type” Structures In The Sodium Lidargram: The Lifetime Of Kelvin‐Helmholtz Billows In The Mesosphere And Lower Thermosphere Region, S. Mondal, S. Sarkhel, Jay Agarwal, D. Chakrabarty, R. Sekar, Tao (Titus) Yuan, Xuguang Cai, Alan Z. Liu, Satonori Nozawa, Norihito Saito, Takuya D. Kawahara, Martin G. Mlynczak, James M. Russell Iii

All Physics Faculty Publications

In order to understand the characteristics of long‐lasting “C‐type” structure in the Sodium (Na) lidargram, six cases from different observational locations have been analyzed. The Na lidargram, collected from low‐, middle‐, and high‐latitude sites, show long lifetime of the C‐type structures which is believed to be the manifestation of Kelvin‐Helmholtz (KH) billows in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region. In order to explore the characteristics of the long‐lasting C‐type structures, the altitude profile of square of Brunt‐Väisälä frequency in the MLT region has been derived using the temperature profile collected from ...


Thermal Oxidation Of Silicon In A Home-Made Furnace System, Joshua Koskan Apr 2019

Thermal Oxidation Of Silicon In A Home-Made Furnace System, Joshua Koskan

Physics Capstone Project

I approached Dr. Shen with a desire for a project in understanding how to manage and expand the capabilities of a laboratory. After some discussion, my senior project was to complete a gas and water chiller system to an existing furnace for chemical vapor deposition. It should be able to handle temperatures up to 1100 ºC, hold a vacuum to mTorr, be easy to move samples in and out of the furnace, and cost effective.


Physics 4900, David Maughan Apr 2019

Physics 4900, David Maughan

Physics Capstone Project

More than a century has passed since Albert Einstein published his general theory of relativity. The theory has been tested many times experimentally, primarily in the relatively weak gravitational fields of the solar system [1,2]. More recently the first experimental results from the strong gravitational fields of two black holes have been measured in the form of gravitational waves, which are another prediction of general relativity. The 2017 Nobel prize in physics was awarded to Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss, and Barry Barish for their role in the detection of gravitational waves. This year we have seen the first image ...


Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith Apr 2019

Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to develop a program that will compute the Klein Gordon equation for generic Black Holes through the program Mathematica. This program will be available on Utah State websites for public usage. This project focuses on an understanding of General Relativity and more concretely on theoretical aspects of Black Holes. Developing the program begins with computing the Laplace equation in flat space to understand what it means to have empty space without a Black Hole. The Klein Gordon equation for a Schwarzschild Black Hole is then solved to show what happens once a static, non-rotating ...


Thermodynamic Properties Of Black Holes, Geoffrey Schulthess Apr 2019

Thermodynamic Properties Of Black Holes, Geoffrey Schulthess

Physics Capstone Project

Black Holes are some of the most mysterious objects in the known universe. In 1975, Stephen Hawking stated that Black Holes can behave as thermodynamical objects with a finite mass, spin, angular velocity, temperature, and entropy. This has been one of the most fascinating yet perplexing breakthroughs in our understanding of these strongly gravitating objects. In this context, the purpose of this research was to use Wolfram Mathematica to create a program that would calculate the thermodynamic properties of a black hole, given a certain metric.


The Water Entry Of A Sphere In A Jet, Nathan B. Speirs, Jesse Belden, Zhao Pan, Sean Holekamp, George Badlissi, Matthew Jones, Tadd T. Truscott Mar 2019

The Water Entry Of A Sphere In A Jet, Nathan B. Speirs, Jesse Belden, Zhao Pan, Sean Holekamp, George Badlissi, Matthew Jones, Tadd T. Truscott

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

The forces on an object impacting the water are extreme in the early moments of water entry and can cause structural damage to biological and man-made bodies alike. These early-time forces arise primarily from added mass, peaking when the submergence is much less than one body length. We experimentally investigate a means of reducing impact forces on a rigid sphere by placing the sphere inside a jet of water so that the jet strikes the quiescent water surface prior to entry of the sphere into the pool. The water jet accelerates the pool liquid and forms a cavity into which ...


Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh Mar 2019

Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh

All Physics Faculty Publications

Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have revealed considerable diurnal variations, particularly on the bottom side of the layer, where more than an order-of-magnitude increase in Na density has been observed below 80 km after sunrise. In this paper, multi-year Na lidar observations are utilized over a full diurnal cycle at Utah State University (USU) (41.8∘ N, 111.8∘ W) and a global atmospheric model of Na with 0.5 km vertical resolution in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (WACCM-Na) to explore the dramatic changes of Na density on the bottom side of the layer. Photolysis of the ...


Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh Mar 2019

Photochemistry On The Bottom Side Of The Mesospheric Na Layer, Tao Yuan, Wuhu Feng, John M. C. Plane, Daniel R. Marsh

All Physics Faculty Publications

Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have revealed considerable diurnal variations, particularly on the bottom side of the layer, where more than an order-of-magnitude increase in Na density has been observed below 80 km after sunrise. In this paper, multi-year Na lidar observations are utilized over a full diurnal cycle at Utah State University (USU) (41.8o N, 111.8o W) and a global atmospheric model of Na with 0.5 km vertical resolution in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (WACCM-Na) to explore the dramatic changes of Na density on the bottom side of the layer. Photolysis of the ...


Radar Studies Of Height-Dependent Equatorial F Region Vertical And Zonal Plasma Drifts, S. A. Shidler, F. S. Rodrigues, Bela G. Fejer, M. A. Milla Feb 2019

Radar Studies Of Height-Dependent Equatorial F Region Vertical And Zonal Plasma Drifts, S. A. Shidler, F. S. Rodrigues, Bela G. Fejer, M. A. Milla

All Physics Faculty Publications

We present the results of an analysis of long-term measurements of ionospheric F region E × B plasma drifts in the American/Peruvian sector. The analysis used observations made between 1986 and 2017 by the incoherent scatter radar of the Jicamarca Radio Observatory. Unlike previous studies, we analyzed both vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts to derive the geomagnetically quiet time climatological variation of the drifts as a function of height and local time. We determine the average behavior of the height profiles of the drifts for different seasons and distinct solar flux conditions. Our results show good agreement ...


Water Entry Of Spheres At Various Contact Angles, Nathan B. Speirs, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Jesse Belden, Tadd T. Truscott Jan 2019

Water Entry Of Spheres At Various Contact Angles, Nathan B. Speirs, Mohammad M. Mansoor, Jesse Belden, Tadd T. Truscott

Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

It is well known that the water entry of a sphere causes cavity formation above a critical impact velocity as a function of the solid-liquid contact angle (Duez et al. 2007). Using a rough sphere with a contact angle of 120, Aristoff & Bush (2009) showed that there are four different cavity shapes dependent on the Bond and Weber numbers (i.e., quasi-static, shallow, deep and surface). We experimentally alter the Bond number, Weber number and contact angle of smooth spheres and find two key additions to the literature: 1) Cavity shape also depends on the contact angle; 2) the absence of a splash crown at low Weber number results in cavity formation below the predicted critical velocity. In addition, we find an alternate scaling for the Bond and Weber numbers that predicts cavity shapes for various impacting bodies (e.g., spheres, multi-droplet streams and jets) on the same regime diagram, thus, merging the often separated ...


Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken Jan 2019

Thermal Structure Of The Mesopause Region During The Wadis-2 Rocket Campaign, Raimund Wörl, Boris Strelnikov, Timo P. Viehl, Josef Höffner, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Yucheng Zhao, Franz-Josef Lübken

Publications

This paper presents simultaneous temperature measurements by three independent instruments during the WADIS-2 rocket campaign in northern Norway (69 N, 14 E) on 5 March 2015. Vertical profiles were measured in situ with the CONE instrument. Continuous mobile IAP Fe lidar (Fe lidar) measurements during a period of 24 h, as well as horizontally resolved temperature maps by the Utah State University (USU) Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) in the mesopause region, are analysed. Vertical and horizontal temperature profiles by all three instruments are in good agreement. A harmonic analysis of the Fe lidar measurements shows the presence of waves ...


Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley Dec 2018

Investigation Of An Unusual Thin Layer Descending Through The Upper Stratosphere, Houston D. Bentley

Physics Capstone Project

Lidar observations on the night of 19-20 February 2004 at Logan, Utah (41.74 N, 111.81 W) revealed a strange thin layer which descended from roughly 55 km to 30 km over seven hours. Approximations are made for the dimensions and descent rate of the layer. Although the particle radius and density are unknown, a range can be determined from the descent rate and reference to the sizes of known particles. Several possible sources for the layer are explored, concluding that an object entering the Earth’s atmosphere was the most probable cause.


Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith Dec 2018

Mathematica Program To Compute Klein Gordon Equation For Generic Black Holes, Brant Smith

Physics Capstone Project

The goal of this project is to develop a program that will compute the Klein Gordon equation for generic Black Holes through the program Mathematica. This program will be available on Utah State websites for public usage. This project focuses on an understanding of General Relativity and more concretely on theoretical aspects of Black Holes. Developing the program begins with computing the Laplace equation in flat space to understand what it means to have empty space without a Black Hole. The Klein Gordon equation for a Schwarzschild Black Hole is then solved to show what happens once a static, non-rotating ...


Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson Dec 2018

Impact Of Bubble Baths On Stainless Steel Sphere Water Entry, Wesley Robinson

Physics Capstone Project

Soap Bubbles on the water surface would seem to be an intuitive means for splash suppression, but their presence appears to be a double edged sword. We present on the water entry of hydrophilic spheres where the liquid surface is augmented by the presence of a bubble layer, similar to a bubble bath. While the presence of a bubble layer can diminish splashing upon impact at low Weber numbers, it also induces cavity formation at speeds below the critical velocity. The formation of a cavity generally results in larger Worthington jets and thus, larger amounts of ejected liquid. Bubble layers ...


Sensitivity Of The Opal Instrument For Gravity Wave Detection, Kenneth I. Zia Dec 2018

Sensitivity Of The Opal Instrument For Gravity Wave Detection, Kenneth I. Zia

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Knowing what goes on in the upper atmosphere (∼80-140 km) is very important to the space science community. There are several competing forces that influence the temperature and densities of neutral molecules in that region. OPAL (Optical Profiling of the Atmospheric Limb) is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to measure the temperature there using light from oxygen molecules (∼760 nm). To accomplish this,OPAL is built into a CubeSat (a satellite the size of a loaf of bread) to be launched from the International Space Station (ISS) at an altitude of about 400 km. This vantage point is ...


The Development Of Hydrodynamic And Kinetic Models For The Plasmasphere Refilling Problem Following A Geomagnetic Storm, Kausik Chatterjee Dec 2018

The Development Of Hydrodynamic And Kinetic Models For The Plasmasphere Refilling Problem Following A Geomagnetic Storm, Kausik Chatterjee

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this dissertation is the development of computer simulation-based models for the modeling of upper ionosphere, starting from the first principles. The models were validated by exact analytical benchmarks and are seen to be consistent with experimentally obtained results. This area of research has significant implications in the area of global communication. In addition, these models would lead to a better understanding of the physical processes taking place in the upper ionosphere.