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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Unbounded Derivations Of C*-Algebras And The Heisenberg Commutation Relation, Lara M. Ismert May 2019

Unbounded Derivations Of C*-Algebras And The Heisenberg Commutation Relation, Lara M. Ismert

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics

This dissertation investigates the properties of unbounded derivations on C*-algebras, namely the density of their analytic vectors and a property we refer to as "kernel stabilization." We focus on a weakly-defined derivation δD which formalizes commutators involving unbounded self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. These commutators naturally arise in quantum mechanics, as we briefly describe in the introduction.

A first application of kernel stabilization for δD shows that a large class of abstract derivations on unbounded C*-algebras, defined by O. Bratteli and D. Robinson, also have kernel stabilization. A second application of kernel stabilization provides a ...


Free Electron Sources And Diffraction In Time, Eric R. Jones May 2019

Free Electron Sources And Diffraction In Time, Eric R. Jones

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The quantum revolution of the last century advanced synergistically with technology, for example, with control of the temporal and spatial coherence, and the polarization state of light. Indeed, experimental confirmation of the quirks of quantum theory, as originally highlighted by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, through Bohm, and then Bell, have been performed with photons, i.e., electromagnetic wave packets prepared in the same quantum states. Experimental tests of quantum mechanics with matter wave packets have been limited due to challenges in preparing all of the packets with similar quantum states. While great strides have been made for trapped atoms and ...


Testing Quantum Coherence In Stochastic Electrodynamics With Squeezed Schrödinger Cat States, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan Apr 2019

Testing Quantum Coherence In Stochastic Electrodynamics With Squeezed Schrödinger Cat States, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

The interference pattern in electron double-slit diffraction is a hallmark of quantum mechanics. A long-standing question for stochastic electrodynamics (SED) is whether or not it is capable of reproducing such effects, as interference is a manifestation of quantum coherence. In this study, we used excited harmonic oscillators to directly test this quantum feature in SED. We used two counter-propagating dichromatic laser pulses to promote a ground-state harmonic oscillator to a squeezed Schrödinger cat state. Upon recombination of the two well-separated wavepackets, an interference pattern emerges in the quantum probability distribution but is absent in the SED probability distribution. We thus ...


Numerical And Analytical Bounds On Threshold Error Rates For Hypergraph-Product Codes, Alexey Kovalev, Sanjay Prabhakar, Ilya Dumer, Leonid P. Pryadko Jun 2018

Numerical And Analytical Bounds On Threshold Error Rates For Hypergraph-Product Codes, Alexey Kovalev, Sanjay Prabhakar, Ilya Dumer, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We study analytically and numerically decoding properties of finite-rate hypergraph-product quantum low density parity-check codes obtained from random (3,4)-regular Gallager codes, with a simple model of independent X and Z errors. Several nontrivial lower and upper bounds for the decodable region are constructed analytically by analyzing the properties of the homological difference, equal minus the logarithm of the maximum-likelihood decoding probability for a given syndrome. Numerical results include an upper bound for the decodable region from specific heat calculations in associated Ising models and a minimum-weight decoding threshold of approximately 7%.


Distance Verification For Classical And Quantum Ldpc Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko Jul 2017

Distance Verification For Classical And Quantum Ldpc Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

The techniques of distance verification known for general linear codes are first applied to the quantum stabilizer codes. Then, these techniques are considered for classical and quantum (stabilizer) low-density-parity-check (LDPC) codes. New complexity bounds for distance verification with provable performance are derived using the average weight spectra of the ensembles of LDPC codes. These bounds are expressed in terms of the erasure-correcting capacity of the corresponding ensemble. We also present a new irreducible-cluster technique that can be applied to any LDPC code and takes advantage of parity-checks’ sparsity for both the classical and quantum LDPC codes. This technique reduces complexity ...


Two-Color Multiphoton Emission From Nanotips, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Maria Becker, Joshua Beck, Herman Batelaan Feb 2017

Two-Color Multiphoton Emission From Nanotips, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Maria Becker, Joshua Beck, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Two-color multiphoton emission from polycrystalline tungsten nanotips has been demonstrated using two-color laser fields. The two-color photoemission is assisted by a three-photon multicolor quantum channel, which leads to a twofold increase in quantum efficiency. Weak-field control of two- color multiphoton emission was achieved by changing the efficiency of the quantum channel with pulse delay. The result of this study complements two-color tunneling photoemission in strong fields, and has potential applications for nanowire-based photonic devices. Moreover, the demonstrated two-color multiphoton emission may be important for realizing ultrafast spin-polarized electron sources via optically injected spin current.


On The Ising Character Of The Quantum-Phase Transition In Lihof4, Ralph Skomski Jan 2016

On The Ising Character Of The Quantum-Phase Transition In Lihof4, Ralph Skomski

Ralph Skomski Publications

It is investigated how a transverse magnetic field affects the quantum-mechanical character of LiHoF4, a system generally considered as a textbook example for an Ising-like quantum-phase transition. In small magnetic fields, the low-temperature behavior of the ions is Ising-like, involving the nearly degenerate low-lying Jz = ± 8 doublet. However, as the transverse field increases, there is a substantial admixture of states having | Jz | < 8. Near the quantum-phase-transition field, the system is distinctively non-Ising like, and all Jz eigenstates yield ground-state contributions of comparable magnitude. A classical analog to this mechanism is the micromagnetic single point in magnets with uniaxial anisotropy. Since Ho3+ has J = 8, the ion’s behavior ...


Event Generator Tunes Obtained From Underlying Event And Multiparton Scattering Measurements, Cms Collaboration, Ekaterina Cms Avdeeva, Kenneth A. Bloom, S. Bose, Daniel Claes, Aaron Dominguez, Caleb Fangmeier, Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez, Rami Kamalieddin, J. Keller, D. Knowlton, Ilya Kravchenko, F. Meier, Jose Monroy, F. Ratnikov, J. E. Siado, Gregory Snow Jan 2016

Event Generator Tunes Obtained From Underlying Event And Multiparton Scattering Measurements, Cms Collaboration, Ekaterina Cms Avdeeva, Kenneth A. Bloom, S. Bose, Daniel Claes, Aaron Dominguez, Caleb Fangmeier, Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez, Rami Kamalieddin, J. Keller, D. Knowlton, Ilya Kravchenko, F. Meier, Jose Monroy, F. Ratnikov, J. E. Siado, Gregory Snow

Kenneth Bloom Publications

New sets of parameters (“tunes”) for the underlying-event (UE) modelling of the PYTHIA8, PYTHIA6 and HERWIG++ MonteCarlo event generators are constructed using different parton distribution functions. Combined fits to CMS UE proton–proton (pp) data at √s = 7 TeV and to UE proton–antiproton (pp) data from the CDF experiment at lower √s, are used to study the UE models and constrain their parameters, providing thereby improved predictions for proton–proton collisions at 13 TeV. In addition, it is investigated whether the values of the parameters obtained from fits to UE observables are consistent with the values determined from fitting ...


Measurement Of The Differential Cross Section And Charge Asymmetry For Inclusive Pp → W± + X Production At √S = 8 Tev, Ekaterina Avdeeva, Rachel Bartek, Kenneth A. Bloom, Suvadeep Bose, Daniel R. Claes, Aaron Dominguez, Caleb Fangmeier, Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez, Rami Kamalieddin, Daniel Knowlton, Ilya Kravchenko, Jose Monroy, F. Meier, F. Ratnikov, J. E. Siado, Gregory Snow, B. Stieger, Cms Collaboration Jan 2016

Measurement Of The Differential Cross Section And Charge Asymmetry For Inclusive Pp → W± + X Production At √S = 8 Tev, Ekaterina Avdeeva, Rachel Bartek, Kenneth A. Bloom, Suvadeep Bose, Daniel R. Claes, Aaron Dominguez, Caleb Fangmeier, Rebeca Gonzalez Suarez, Rami Kamalieddin, Daniel Knowlton, Ilya Kravchenko, Jose Monroy, F. Meier, F. Ratnikov, J. E. Siado, Gregory Snow, B. Stieger, Cms Collaboration

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

The differential cross section and charge asymmetry for inclusive pp → W± + Xμ±ν + X production at √s = 8 TeV are measured as a function of muon pseudorapidity. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18.8 fb−1 recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. These results provide important constraints on the parton distribution functions of the proton in the range of the Bjorken scaling variable x from 10−3 to 10−1.


Momentum Exchange In The Electron Double-Slit Experiment, Herman Batelaan, Eric Jones, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Roger Bach Jan 2016

Momentum Exchange In The Electron Double-Slit Experiment, Herman Batelaan, Eric Jones, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Roger Bach

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We provide support for the claim that momentum is conserved for individual events in the electron double slit experiment. The natural consequence is that a physical mechanism is responsible for this momentum exchange, but that even if the fundamental mechanism is known for electron crystal diffraction and the Kapitza–Dirac effect, it is unknown for electron diffraction from nano-fabricated double slits. Work towards a proposed explanation in terms of particle trajectories affected by a vacuum field is discussed. The contentious use of trajectories is discussed within the context of oil droplet analogues of double slit diffraction.


Spin-Dependent Two-Color Kapitza-Dirac Effects, Scot Mcgregor, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan, Bradley Allan Shadwick Aug 2015

Spin-Dependent Two-Color Kapitza-Dirac Effects, Scot Mcgregor, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan, Bradley Allan Shadwick

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

In this paper we present an analysis of the spin behavior of electrons propagating through a laser field. We present an experimentally realizable scenario in which spin-dependent effects of the interaction between the laser and the electrons are dominant. The laser interaction strength and incident electron velocity are in the nonrelativistic domain. This analysis may thus lead to novel methods of creating and characterizing spin-polarized nonrelativistic femtosecond electron pulses.


Discrete Excitation Spectrum Of A Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan Mar 2015

Discrete Excitation Spectrum Of A Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We report that upon excitation by a single pulse, a classical harmonic oscillator immersed in the classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation exhibits a discrete harmonic spectrum in agreement with that of its quantum counterpart. This result is interesting in view of the fact that the vacuum field is needed in the classical calculation to obtain the agreement.


Thresholds For Correcting Errors, Erasures, And Faulty Syndrome Measurements In Degenerate Quantum Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko Jan 2015

Thresholds For Correcting Errors, Erasures, And Faulty Syndrome Measurements In Degenerate Quantum Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We suggest a technique for constructing lower (existence) bounds for the fault-tolerant threshold to scalable quantum computation applicable to degenerate quantum codes with sublinear distance scaling. We give explicit analytic expressions combining probabilities of erasures, depolarizing errors, and phenomenological syndrome measurement errors for quantum low-density parity-check codes with logarithmic or larger distances. These threshold estimates are parametrically better than the existing analytical bound based on percolation.


Spin Glass Reflection Of The Decoding Transition For Quantum Error Correcting Codes, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko Jan 2015

Spin Glass Reflection Of The Decoding Transition For Quantum Error Correcting Codes, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We study the decoding transition for quantum error correcting codes with the help of a mapping to random-bond Wegner spin models. Families of quantum low density parity-check (LDPC) codes with a finite decoding threshold lead to both known models (e.g., random bond Ising and random plaquette Z2 gauge models) as well as unexplored earlier generally non-local disordered spin models with non-trivial phase diagrams. The decoding transition corresponds to a transition from the ordered phase by proliferation of "post-topological" extended defects which generalize the notion of domain walls to non-local spin models. In recently discovered quantum LDPC code families ...


Parafermion Stabilizer Codes, Utkan Güngördü, Rabindra Nepal, Alexey Kovalev Jan 2014

Parafermion Stabilizer Codes, Utkan Güngördü, Rabindra Nepal, Alexey Kovalev

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We define and study parafermion stabilizer codes, which can be viewed as generalizations of Kitaev’s onedimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions. Parafermion stabilizer codes can protect against lowweight errors acting on a small subset of parafermion modes in analogy to qudit stabilizer codes. Examples of several smallest parafermion stabilizer codes are given. A locality-preserving embedding of qudit operators into parafermion operators is established that allows one to map known qudit stabilizer codes to parafermion codes. We also present a local 2D parafermion construction that combines topological protection of Kitaev’s toric code with additional protection relying on parity ...


Numerical Techniques For Finding The Distances Of Quantum Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko Jan 2014

Numerical Techniques For Finding The Distances Of Quantum Codes, Ilya Dumer, Alexey Kovalev, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We survey the existing techniques for calculating code distances of classical codes and apply these techniques to generic quantum codes. For classical and quantum LDPC codes, we also present a new linked-cluster technique. It reduces complexity exponent of all existing deterministic techniques designed for codes with small relative distances (which include all known families of quantum LDPC codes), and also surpasses the probabilistic technique for sufficiently high code rates.


Demonstrating Entanglement By Testing Bell's Theorem In Majorana Wires, David E. Drummond, Alexey Kovalev, Chang-Yu Hou, Kirill Shtengel, Leonid P. Pryadko Jan 2014

Demonstrating Entanglement By Testing Bell's Theorem In Majorana Wires, David E. Drummond, Alexey Kovalev, Chang-Yu Hou, Kirill Shtengel, Leonid P. Pryadko

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We propose an experiment that would establish the entanglement of Majorana zero modes in semiconductor nanowires by testing the Bell and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequalities. Our proposal is viable with realistic system parameters, simple “keyboard” gating, and projective measurement. Theoretical models and simulation results indicate entanglement can be demonstrated with moderately accurate gate operations. In addition to providing further evidence for the existence of the Majorana bound states, our proposal could be used as an experimental stepping stone to more complicated braiding experiments.


Dynamics Underlying The Gaussian Distribution Of The Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan Oct 2013

Dynamics Underlying The Gaussian Distribution Of The Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) predicts a Gaussian probability distribution for a classical harmonic oscillator in the vacuum field. This probability distribution is identical to that of the ground state quantum harmonic oscillator. Thus, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation is recovered in SED. To understand the dynamics that give rise to the uncertainty relation and the Gaussian probability distribution, we perform a numerical simulation and follow the motion of the oscillator. The dynamical information obtained through the simulation provides insight to the connection between the classic double-peak probability distribution and the Gaussian probability distribution. A main objective for SED research is to ...


Electron-Phonon Coupling And Structural Phase Transitions On Au/Mo(112), Keisuke Fukutani Nov 2012

Electron-Phonon Coupling And Structural Phase Transitions On Au/Mo(112), Keisuke Fukutani

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The electronic structures, many-body interactions and Fermi surface topologies of Au/Mo(112) were investigated in detail and were found to play important roles in the newly discovered order-disorder structural phase transition of the system. First, the high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy was utilized to characterize the electronic band structure of Mo(112) in far greater details than before. This elucidated the existence of several surface-derived states and their dispersion relations in high precisions near the Fermi level, as well as the symmetries of the bulk and surface electronic states, which are in good quantitative agreement with the ab-initio calculations. Such ...


Feynman’S Relativistic Electrodynamics Paradox And The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Adam Caprez, Herman Batelaan Jan 2009

Feynman’S Relativistic Electrodynamics Paradox And The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Adam Caprez, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

An analysis is done of a relativistic paradox posed in the Feynman Lectures of Physics involving two interacting charges. The physical system presented is compared with similar systems that also lead to relativistic paradoxes. The momentum conservation problem for these systems is presented. The relation between the presented analysis and the ongoing debates on momentum conservation in the Aharonov-Bohm problem is discussed.


A Macroscopic Test Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Adam Caprez, Brett E. Barwick, Herman Batelaan Jan 2007

A Macroscopic Test Of The Aharonov-Bohm Effect, Adam Caprez, Brett E. Barwick, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

The Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect is a purely quantum mechanical effect. The original (classified as Type-I) AB-phase shift exists in experimental conditions where the electromagnetic fields and forces are zero. It is the absence of forces that makes the ABeffect entirely quantum mechanical. Although the AB-phase shift has been demonstrated unambiguously, the absence of forces in Type-I AB-effects has never been shown. Here, we report the observation of the absence of time delays associated with forces of the magnitude needed to explain the AB-phase shift for a macroscopic system.


Electrons, Stern–Gerlach Magnets, And Quantum Mechanical Propagation, Herman Batelaan Mar 2002

Electrons, Stern–Gerlach Magnets, And Quantum Mechanical Propagation, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Quantum corrections to Newton’s equations are obtained and used to illustrate that classical dynamics is embedded explicitly in quantum dynamics. Originally, the resultant set of dynamical equations has been used to shed light on quantum chaos. We show that the method can provide insight into the dynamics of free particles and the harmonic oscillator. We then use it to determine whether Stern–Gerlach magnets can be constructed for free electrons.


Phase And Absorption Gratings For Electrons, Hong Gao, Glen Gronniger, Daniel Friemund, Alex Cronin Jan 2002

Phase And Absorption Gratings For Electrons, Hong Gao, Glen Gronniger, Daniel Friemund, Alex Cronin

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We report the experimental realization of phase and absorption gratings for electrons. Phase gratings made with standing waves of light with a periodicity of 266 nm are used to diffract 380 eV electrons [1]. Material gratings of 100 and 200 nm periodicity are used to diffract 500 eV electrons. We are exploring the possibility to use these gratings for low energy electron interferometry.


Observation Of The Kapitza-Dirac Effect, Daniel L. Freimund, Kayvan Aflatooni, Herman Batelaan Sep 2001

Observation Of The Kapitza-Dirac Effect, Daniel L. Freimund, Kayvan Aflatooni, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

In their famous 1927 experiment, Davisson and Germer observed the diffraction of electrons by a periodic material structure, so showing that electrons can behave like waves. Shortly afterwards, Kapitza and Dirac predicted that electrons should also be diffracted by a standing light wave. This Kapitza-Dirac effect is analogous to the diffraction of light by a grating, but with the roles of the wave and matter reversed. The electron and the light grating interact extremely weakly, via the ‘ponderomotive potential,’ so attempts to measure the Kapitza-Dirac effect had to wait for the development of the laser. The idea that the underlying ...