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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Perturbative Generalization Of Nonparaxial Ultrashort Tightly-Focused Elegant Laguerre-Gaussian Beams, Andrew M. Vikartofsky Apr 2019

Perturbative Generalization Of Nonparaxial Ultrashort Tightly-Focused Elegant Laguerre-Gaussian Beams, Andrew M. Vikartofsky

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

An analytical method for calculating the electromagnetic fields of a nonparaxial elegant Laguerre-Gaussian (eLG) vortex beam is presented for arbitrary pulse duration, spot size, and LG mode. This perturbative approach provides a numerically tractable model for the calculation of arbitrarily high radial and azimuthal LG modes in the nonparaxial regime, without requiring integral representations of the fields. A key feature of this perturbative model is its use of a Poisson-like frequency spectrum, which allows for the proper description of pulses of arbitrarily short duration. The time-domain representation of this model is presented as a non-recursive closed-form expression to any order ...


Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace Feb 2018

Time-Resolved Electron (E,2E) Momentum Spectroscopy: Application To Laser-Driven Electron Population Transfer In Atoms, Hua-Chieh Shao, Anthony F. Starace

Anthony F. Starace Publications

Owing to its ability to provide unique information on electron dynamics, time-resolved electron momentum spectroscopy (EMS) is used to study theoretically a laser-driven electronic motion in atoms. Specifically, a chirped laser pulse is used to adiabatically transfer the populations of lithium atoms from the ground state to the first excited state. During this process, impact ionization near the Bethe ridge by time-delayed ultrashort, high-energy electron pulses is used to image the instantaneous momentum density of this electronic population transfer. Simulations with 100 fs and 1 fs pulse durations demonstrate the capability of EMS to image the time-varying momentum density, including ...


Generalized Ellipsometry On Complex Nanostructures And Low-Symmetry Materials, Alyssa Mock Dec 2017

Generalized Ellipsometry On Complex Nanostructures And Low-Symmetry Materials, Alyssa Mock

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this thesis, complex anisotropic materials are investigated and characterized by generalized ellipsometry. In recent years, anisotropic materials have gained considerable interest for novel applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices, mostly due to unique properties that originate from reduced crystal symmetry. Examples include white solid-state lighting devices which have become ubiquitous just recently, and the emergence of high-power, high-voltage electronic transistors and switches in all-electric vehicles. The incorporation of single crystalline material with low crystal symmetry into novel device structures requires reconsideration of existing optical characterization approaches. Here, the generalized ellipsometry concept is extended to include applications for materials with ...


Superpositioning High Power Lasers For Mid-Air Image Formations, Auston Viotto Apr 2017

Superpositioning High Power Lasers For Mid-Air Image Formations, Auston Viotto

UCARE Research Products

This research evaluates different methods to create voxels, 3-dimensional pixels, in air without the need for special glasses or reflections off of surfaces. Research on the advantages of superimposing or the culmination, focusing, of laser light will be conducted. The point of superpositioning/culmination will be evaluated by the brightness of the voxel due to the Rayleigh Scatter Effect. The voxel’s brightness is dependent on the laser output strength and inversely proportional to its wavelength. Once a superimposed/culminated voxel has been created in the lab the next step will be to manipulate the location of the voxel through ...


Diffractive Imaging Of A Rotational Wavepacket In Nitrogen Molecules With Femtosecond Megaelectronvolt Electron Pulses, Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S. Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Martin Centurion, Xijie Wang Apr 2016

Diffractive Imaging Of A Rotational Wavepacket In Nitrogen Molecules With Femtosecond Megaelectronvolt Electron Pulses, Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Theodore Vecchione, Matthew S. Robinson, Renkai Li, Nick Hartmann, Xiaozhe Shen, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Kelly Gaffney, Tais Gorkhover, Carsten Hast, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Alexander Reid, Joseph Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Fenglin Wang, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Martin Centurion, Xijie Wang

Martin Centurion Publications

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Shielded Radiography With A Laser-Driven Mev-Energy X-Ray Source, Shouyuan Chen, Grigory V. Golovin, Cameron Miller, Daniel Haden, Sudeep Banerjee, Ping Zhang, Cheng Liu, Jun Zhang, Baozhen Zhao, Shaun Clarke, Sara Pozzi, Donald Umstadter Jan 2016

Shielded Radiography With A Laser-Driven Mev-Energy X-Ray Source, Shouyuan Chen, Grigory V. Golovin, Cameron Miller, Daniel Haden, Sudeep Banerjee, Ping Zhang, Cheng Liu, Jun Zhang, Baozhen Zhao, Shaun Clarke, Sara Pozzi, Donald Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

We report the results of experimental and numerical-simulation studies of shielded radiography using narrowband MeVenergy X-rays from a compact all-laser-driven inverse-Compton-scattering X-ray light source. This recently developed Xray light source is based on a laser-wakefield accelerator with ultra-high-field gradient (GeV/cm). We demonstrate experimentally high-quality radiographic imaging (image contrast of 0.4 and signal-to-noise ratio of 2:1) of a target composed of 8-mm thick depleted uranium shielded by 80-mm thick steel, using a 6-MeV X-ray beam with a spread of 45% (FWHM) and 107 photons in a single shot. The corresponding dose of the X-ray pulse measured in front ...


Spin-Dependent Two-Color Kapitza-Dirac Effects, Scot Mcgregor, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan, Bradley Allan Shadwick Aug 2015

Spin-Dependent Two-Color Kapitza-Dirac Effects, Scot Mcgregor, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan, Bradley Allan Shadwick

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

In this paper we present an analysis of the spin behavior of electrons propagating through a laser field. We present an experimentally realizable scenario in which spin-dependent effects of the interaction between the laser and the electrons are dominant. The laser interaction strength and incident electron velocity are in the nonrelativistic domain. This analysis may thus lead to novel methods of creating and characterizing spin-polarized nonrelativistic femtosecond electron pulses.


Discrete Excitation Spectrum Of A Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan Mar 2015

Discrete Excitation Spectrum Of A Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

We report that upon excitation by a single pulse, a classical harmonic oscillator immersed in the classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation exhibits a discrete harmonic spectrum in agreement with that of its quantum counterpart. This result is interesting in view of the fact that the vacuum field is needed in the classical calculation to obtain the agreement.


Below Gap Optical Absorption In Gaas Driven By Intense, Single-Cycle Coherent Transition Radiation, J. Goodfellow, Matthias Fuchs, D. Daranciang, S. Ghimire, F. Chen, H. Loos, D. A. Reis, A. S. Fisher, A. M. Lindenberg Jul 2014

Below Gap Optical Absorption In Gaas Driven By Intense, Single-Cycle Coherent Transition Radiation, J. Goodfellow, Matthias Fuchs, D. Daranciang, S. Ghimire, F. Chen, H. Loos, D. A. Reis, A. S. Fisher, A. M. Lindenberg

Matthias Fuchs Publications

Single-cycle terahertz fields generated by coherent transition radiation from a relativistic electron beam are used to study the high field optical response of single crystal GaAs. Large amplitude changes in the sub-band-gap optical absorption are induced and probed dynamically by measuring the absorption of a broad-band optical beam generated by transition radiation from the same electron bunch, providing an absolutely synchronized pump and probe geometry. This modification of the optical properties is consistent with strong-field-induced electroabsorption. These processes are pertinent to a wide range of nonlinear terahertz-driven lightmatter interactions anticipated at accelerator-based sources.


A Low-Power Optical Electron Switch, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Roger Bach, Peter Beierle, Herman Batelaan Feb 2014

A Low-Power Optical Electron Switch, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Roger Bach, Peter Beierle, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

An electron beam is deflected when it passes over a silicon-nitride surface, if the surface is illuminated by a low-power continuous-wave diode laser. A deflection angle of up to 1.2 mrad is achieved for an electron beam of 29 μrad divergence. A mechanical beam-stop is used to demonstrate that the effect can act as an optical electron switch with a rise and fall time of 6 μs. Such a switch provides an alternative means to control electron beams, which may be useful in electron lithography and microscopy.


Dynamics Underlying The Gaussian Distribution Of The Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan Oct 2013

Dynamics Underlying The Gaussian Distribution Of The Classical Harmonic Oscillator In Zero-Point Radiation, Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang, Herman Batelaan

Faculty Publications, Department of Physics and Astronomy

Stochastic electrodynamics (SED) predicts a Gaussian probability distribution for a classical harmonic oscillator in the vacuum field. This probability distribution is identical to that of the ground state quantum harmonic oscillator. Thus, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation is recovered in SED. To understand the dynamics that give rise to the uncertainty relation and the Gaussian probability distribution, we perform a numerical simulation and follow the motion of the oscillator. The dynamical information obtained through the simulation provides insight to the connection between the classic double-peak probability distribution and the Gaussian probability distribution. A main objective for SED research is to ...


Upgrade To The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory's Lidar System, Emily B. Petermann May 2010

Upgrade To The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory's Lidar System, Emily B. Petermann

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Physics and Astronomy

The Pierre Auger Cosmic Ray Observatory currently operates four elastic lidar systems in order to characterize the atmospheric aerosol content above the observatory. The atmospheric information gained by the lidar system is then used in the calibration of the observatory’s four fluorescence detectors. Currently the four lidars in operation are unable to accurately determine the aerosol content below a distance of 1 km. A project is currently underway to upgrade the current lidar system by adding an additional detector to each of the existing lidar systems. The considered designs for this upgrade and the initial results from the upgrade ...


Einstein’S Impact On Optics At The Frontier, Donald Umstadter Jan 2005

Einstein’S Impact On Optics At The Frontier, Donald Umstadter

Donald Umstadter Publications

The seminal contributions made by Einstein a century ago have enabled a new frontier area of science, called high-field science. This research involves the physics of the interactions of matter with electromagnetic fields at its highest levels ever achieved in the laboratory. Besides being of fundamental importance to physics research, the discoveries being made in this area are also leading to a new generation of compact and ultrashort-duration particle accelerators and X-ray light sources, with applications ranging from nuclear fusion to cancer therapy.


Altering The Photorefractive Properties Of Batio3 By Reduction And Oxidation At 650 °C, Stephen Ducharme, Jack Feinberg Feb 1986

Altering The Photorefractive Properties Of Batio3 By Reduction And Oxidation At 650 °C, Stephen Ducharme, Jack Feinberg

Stephen Ducharme Publications

The photorefractive Properties of a nominally pure single crystal of BaTiO3 were altered by treating the crystal at 650 °C in oxygen at different partial pressures. Treatment altered the effective density of photorefractive charge carriers in the crystal and couls convert an inactive crystal into an active one. Treatment at low oxygen pressure (reduction) decreased the temperature of the tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition of the crystal and also decreased the measured optical band gap, implying that oxygen vacancies had been introduced into the bulk crystal. These oxygen vacancies are associated with negative photorefractive charge sonors. Either hole transport or electron transport ...