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Full-Text Articles in Physics

From Excited Charge Dynamics To Cluster Diffusion: Development And Application Of Techniques Beyond Dft And Kmc, Shree Ram Acharya Jan 2018

From Excited Charge Dynamics To Cluster Diffusion: Development And Application Of Techniques Beyond Dft And Kmc, Shree Ram Acharya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on developing reliable and accurate computational techniques which enable the examination of static and dynamic properties of various activated phenomena using deterministic and stochastic approaches. To explore ultrafast electron dynamics in materials with strong electron-electron correlation, under the influence of a laser pulse, an ab initio electronic structure method based on time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in combination with dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) is developed and applied to: 1) single-band Hubbard model; 2) multi-band metal Ni; and 3) multi-band insulator MnO. The ultrafast demagnetization in Ni reveal the importance of memory and correlation effects, leading to ...


Development Of A Tabletop Coherent Soft X-Ray Source, Hanfu Kong Jan 2018

Development Of A Tabletop Coherent Soft X-Ray Source, Hanfu Kong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this thesis is to design a tabletop coherent soft X-ray source for attosecond high resolution imaging. We collect signals from gas cells with different length and lens with different focal length. A spectrometer with a grating and a CCD camera is applied to observe and measure the spectrum of the X-ray attosecond pulses. This thesis first introduces the theory background of ultrafast lasers, then mainly explains high harmonic generation, which is the key method for attosecond pulses generation, subsequently presents the experiment system and analyzes the results from the experiment, also compares different combinations of parameters of ...


Resonant Anisotropic Emission In Rabbitt Spectroscopy, Bejan M. Ghomashi Jan 2018

Resonant Anisotropic Emission In Rabbitt Spectroscopy, Bejan M. Ghomashi

Honors Undergraduate Theses

A variant of RABBITT pump-probe spectroscopy in which the attosecond pulse train comprises both even and odd harmonics of the fundamental IR probe frequency is explored to measure time-resolved photoelectron emission in systems that exhibit autoionizing states. It is shown that the group delay of both one-photon and two-photon resonant transitions is directly encoded in the energy-resolved photoelectron anisotropy as a function of the pump-probe time-delay. This principle is illustrated for a 1D model with symmetric zero-range potentials that supports both bound states and shape-resonances. The model is studied using both perturbation theory and solving the time-dependent Schodinger equation on ...


Investigating Compositional Variations Of S-Complex Near-Earth Asteroids: (1627) Ivar, Jenna Jones Jan 2018

Investigating Compositional Variations Of S-Complex Near-Earth Asteroids: (1627) Ivar, Jenna Jones

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We seek to investigate the complexity and heterogeneity of the surfaces of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). In particular, we are studying the S-complex NEAs, which account for a large portion of the observed near-Earth objects. Here we present our results for (1627) Ivar, an Amor class NEA with taxonomic type Sqw. In 2013, Ivar's large size and close approach to Earth (minimum distance 0.32 AU) provided an opportunity to observe the asteroid over many different viewing angles for an extended period of time. We collected delay-Doppler radar images and Doppler spectra using the Arecibo Observatory's 2380 MHz radar ...


Mathematical Foundations Of Adaptive Quantum Processing, Daniel Bonior Jan 2018

Mathematical Foundations Of Adaptive Quantum Processing, Daniel Bonior

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantum information has the potential to revolutionize the way we store, process, transfer and acquire information [1,14,15,21,37]. In particular, quantum information offers exciting new approaches to secure communication, computation and sensing. However, in order to realize such technologies, we must first understand the effect that environmental noise has on a quantum system. This dissertation builds upon recent studies that have explored the underlying structure of quantum information and the effects of qubit channels in quantum communication protocols. This work is divided into five main chapters, with Chapter 1 being a brief introduction to quantum information. We ...


Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li Jan 2018

Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The observation of any atomic and molecular dynamics requires a probe that has a timescale comparable to the dynamics itself. Ever since the invention of laser, the temporal duration of the laser pulse has been incrementally reduced from several nanoseconds to just attoseconds. Picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses have been widely used to study molecular rotation and vibration. In 2001, the first single isolated attosecond pulse (1 attosecond = 10^-18 seconds.) was demonstrated. Since this breakthrough, "attoscience" has become a hot topic in ultrafast physics. Attosecond pulses typically have span between EUV to X-ray photon energies and sub-femtosecond pulse duration ...


Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao Jan 2018

Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ion-sliced thin-film lithium niobate (LN) compact waveguide technology has facilitated the resurgence of integrated photonics based on lithium niobate. These thin-film LN waveguides offer over an order of magnitude improvement in optical confinement, and about two orders of magnitude reduction in waveguide bending radius, compared to conventional LN waveguides. Harnessing the improved confinement, a variety of miniaturized and efficient photonic devices are demonstrated in this work. First, two types of compact electrooptic modulators are presented – microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators. Next, two distinct approaches to nonlinear optical frequency converters are implemented – periodically poled lithium niobate, and mode shape modulation (grating ...


Electronic, Optical, And Magnetic Properties Of Graphene And Single-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides In The Presence Of Defects, Mahtab Khan Jan 2018

Electronic, Optical, And Magnetic Properties Of Graphene And Single-Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides In The Presence Of Defects, Mahtab Khan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene and single-layer (SL) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), have attracted a lot of attention due to their fascinating electronic and optical properties. Graphene was the first 2D material that has successfully been exfoliated from bulk graphite in 2004. In graphene, charge carriers interacting with the honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms of graphene to appear as massless Dirac fermions. Massless quasiparticles with linear dispersion are also observed in surface states of 3D topological insulators and quantum Hall edge states. My first project deals with the two-dimensional Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) type interference experiment for massless Dirac fermions in ...


Far-Infrared Bands In Plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal Absorbers Optimized For Long Wave Infrared, Rachel Evans Jan 2018

Far-Infrared Bands In Plasmonic Metal-Insulator-Metal Absorbers Optimized For Long Wave Infrared, Rachel Evans

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metal–insulator–metal (MIM) resonant absorbers comprise a conducting ground plane, a thin dielectric, and thin separated metal top-surface structures. Long-wave infrared (LWIR) fundamental absorptions are experimentally shown to be optimized for a ratio of dielectric thickness to top-structure dimension t/l > 0.08. The fundamental resonance wavelength is predicted by different analytic standing-wave theories to be ~2nl, where n is the dielectric refractive index. Thus, for the dielectrics SiO2, AlN, and TiO2, l values of a few microns give fundamentals in the 8-12 micron LWIR wavelength region. Agreement of observed fundamental resonance wavelength with theory is better for t ...


Non-Hermitian Optics, Absar Ulhassan Jan 2018

Non-Hermitian Optics, Absar Ulhassan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

From the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, a system must always be Hermitian since all its corresponding eigenvalues must be real. In contrast, the eigenvalues of open systems-unrestrained because of either decay or amplification-can be in general complex. Not so long ago, a certain class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians was discovered that could have a completely real eigenvalue spectrum. This special class of Hamiltonians was found to respect the property of commutation with the parity-time (PT) operator. Translated into optics, this implies a balance between regions exhibiting gain and loss. Traditionally, loss has been perceived as a foe in optics and something ...


Impact Of Ionizing Radiation And Electron Injection On Carrier Transport Properties In Narrow And Wide Bandgap Semiconductors, Jonathan Lee Jan 2018

Impact Of Ionizing Radiation And Electron Injection On Carrier Transport Properties In Narrow And Wide Bandgap Semiconductors, Jonathan Lee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the minority carrier properties of wide and narrow bandgap semiconductors. Included specifically are wide bandgap materials GaN and β-Ga2O3, and narrow bandgap InAs/GaSb type-II strain-layer superlattice. The importance of minority carrier behavior in bipolar device performance is utmost because it is the limiting component in current conduction. The techniques used to determine minority carrier properties include electron beam induced current (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. The CL spectroscopy is complemented with time-resolved CL (TRCL) for direct measurement of carrier radiative recombination lifetime. The minority carrier properties and effect of high energy radiation is explored. The GaN ...


Undergraduate Student Agreement With Reformed Introductory Physics Classes, Matthew Wilcox Jan 2018

Undergraduate Student Agreement With Reformed Introductory Physics Classes, Matthew Wilcox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this study, I investigate student "buy-in", defined as students' proper understanding of and agreement with the class format, for introductory studio physics classes that incorporate lectures, labs, and group problem-solving activities into one interactive environment. I also investigate the ways in which instructors try to gain student buy-in to their class. Research has shown that student resistance to reformed instruction is a barrier to an instructor's use of research-based instructional strategies that are common to the studio class. Expectancy value theory suggests that by gaining student buy-in to the reformed class format, student resistance will decrease thus allowing ...


Nonlinear Dynamics In Multimode Optical Fibers, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar Jan 2018

Nonlinear Dynamics In Multimode Optical Fibers, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multimode optical fibers have recently reemerged as a viable platform for addressing a number of long-standing issues associated with information bandwidth requirements and power-handling capabilities. The complex nature of heavily multimoded systems can be effectively exploited to observe altogether novel physical effects arising from spatiotemporal and intermodal linear and nonlinear processes. Here, we have studied nonlinear dynamics in multimode optical fibers (MMFs) in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. In the anomalous dispersion regime, the nonlinearity leads to a formation of spatiotemporal 3-D solitons. Unlike in single-mode fibers, these solitons are not unique and their properties can be modified ...


Tuning Chemical And Optical Properties Of Nanomaterials: From Extended Surfaces To Finite Nanoclusters, Zahra Hooshmand Gharehbagh Jan 2018

Tuning Chemical And Optical Properties Of Nanomaterials: From Extended Surfaces To Finite Nanoclusters, Zahra Hooshmand Gharehbagh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Modifying the electronic and optical properties of surfaces and nanostructures are in the forefront of surface science. This dissertation's focus is on this problem. The first part is on the adsorption of functionalized naphthalene molecules on Cu(111) surface. The results show that changing the functional group results in modification of charge redistribution at the interface of molecule and surface and the electronic structure of Cu changes. The second part discusses the new Moire structure of h-BN on Rh(111) induced by intrinsic carbon impurities of Rh single crystals. We found that these impurities intercalate between h-BN and Rh ...