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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Discrete Nonlinear Wave Propagation In Kerr Nonlinear Media, Joachim Meier Jan 2004

Discrete Nonlinear Wave Propagation In Kerr Nonlinear Media, Joachim Meier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Discrete optical systems are a subgroup of periodic structures in which the evolution of a continuous electromagnetic field can be described by a discrete model. In this model, the total field is the sum of localized, discrete modes. Weakly coupled arrays of single mode channel waveguides have been known to fall into this class of systems since the late 1960's. Nonlinear discrete optics has received a considerable amount of interest in the last few years, triggered by the experimental realization of discrete solitons in a Kerr nonlinear AlGaAs waveguide array by H. Eisenberg and coworkers in 1998. In this ...


Chemical Structure - Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorene Molecules, Joel Mccajah Hales Jan 2004

Chemical Structure - Nonlinear Optical Property Relationships For A Series Of Two-Photon Absorbing Fluorene Molecules, Joel Mccajah Hales

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports on the investigation of two-photon absorption (2PA) in a series of fluorenyl molecules. Several current and emerging technologies exploit this optical nonlinearity including two-photon fluorescence imaging, three-dimensional microfabrication, site-specific photodynamic cancer therapy and biological caging studies. The two key features of this nonlinearity which make it an ideal candidate for the above applications are its quadratic dependence on the incident irradiance and the improved penetration into absorbing media that it affords. As a consequence of the burgeoning field which exploits 2PA, it is a goal to find materials that exhibit strong two-photon absorbing capabilities. Organic materials are ...


Monolithic Integration Of Dual Optical Elements On High Power Semicond, Laurent Vaissie Jan 2004

Monolithic Integration Of Dual Optical Elements On High Power Semicond, Laurent Vaissie

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates the monolithic integration of dual optical elements on high power semiconductor lasers for emission around 980nm wavelength. In the proposed configuration, light is coupled out of the AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide by a low reflectivity grating coupler towards the substrate where a second monolithic optical element is integrated to improve the device performance or functionality. A fabrication process based on electron beam lithography and plasma etching was developed to control the grating coupler duty cycle and shape. The near-field intensity profile outcoupled by the grating is modeled using a combination of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of the ...


Electron Injection-Induced Effects In Iii-Nitrides: Physics And Applications, William Charles Burdett Jan 2004

Electron Injection-Induced Effects In Iii-Nitrides: Physics And Applications, William Charles Burdett

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research investigated the effect of electron injection in III-Nitrides. The combination of electron beam induced current and cathodoluminescence measurements was used to understand the impact of electron injection on the minority carrier transport and optical properties. In addition, the application of the electron injection effect in optoelectronic devices was investigated. The impact of electron injection on the minority carrier diffusion length was studied at various temperatures in Mg-doped p-GaN, p-Al[subscript x]Ga[subscript 1-x]N, and p-Al[subscript x]Ga[subscript 1-x] N/GaN superlattices. It was found that Lsubscript n] experienced a multi-fold linear increase and that ...


Selective Mode Excitation In Specialty Waveguides Using Micro Optical, Waleed Mohammed Jan 2004

Selective Mode Excitation In Specialty Waveguides Using Micro Optical, Waleed Mohammed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Although optical fibers and specialty waveguides are the base of majority of today's telecom and light delivery applications, fabrication deformation, nonlinearity and attenuation limit the bandwidth of the data being transmitted or the amount of power carried by these systems. One-way to overcome these limitations without changing the fibers design or fabrication is to engineer the input light in order to excite a certain mode or a group of modes with unique optical properties. Diffractive and micro optics are highly effective for selectively coupling light to specific modes. Using micro optics, mode selective coupling can be achieved through several ...


Multiple Scattering Of Light In Inhomogeneous Media And Applications, Claudia Mujat Jan 2004

Multiple Scattering Of Light In Inhomogeneous Media And Applications, Claudia Mujat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Light scattering-based techniques are being developed for non-invasive diagnostics of inhomogeneous media in various fields, such as medicine, biology, and material characterization. However, as most media of interest are highly scattering and have a complex structure, it is difficult to obtain a full analytical solution of the scattering problem without introducing approximations and assumptions about the properties of the system under consideration. Moreover, most of the previous studies deal with idealized scattering situations, rarely encountered in practice. This dissertation provides new analytical, numerical, and experimental solutions to describe subtle effects introduced by the properties of the light sources, and by ...


Towards Direct Writing Of 3-D Photonic Circuits Using Ultrafast Lasers, Arnaud Zoubir Jan 2004

Towards Direct Writing Of 3-D Photonic Circuits Using Ultrafast Lasers, Arnaud Zoubir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The advent of ultrafast lasers has enabled micromachining schemes that cannot be achieved by other current techniques. Laser direct writing has emerged as one of the possible routes for fabrication of optical waveguides in transparent materials. In this thesis, the advantages and limitations of this technique are explored. Two extended-cavity ultrafast lasers were built and characterized as the laser sources for this study, with improved performance over existing systems. Waveguides are fabricated in oxide glass, chalcogenide glass, and polymers, these being the three major classes of materials for the telecommunication industry. Standard waveguide metrology is performed on the fabricated waveguides ...


Individual Carbon Nanotube Probes And Field Emitters Fabrication And T, Guangyu Chai Jan 2004

Individual Carbon Nanotube Probes And Field Emitters Fabrication And T, Guangyu Chai

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in 1999, they have attracted much attention due to their unique mechanical and electrical properties and potential applications. Yet their nanosize makes the study of individual CNTs easier said than done. In our laboratory, carbon fibers with nanotube cores have been synthesized with conventional chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The single multiwall carbon nanotube (MWNT) sticks out as a tip of the carbon fiber. In order to pick up the individual CNT tips, focused ion beam (FIB) technique is applied to cut and adhere the samples. The carbon fiber with nanotube tip was ...


Thermal Management, Beam Control,And Packaging Designs For High Power, Te-Yuan Chung Jan 2004

Thermal Management, Beam Control,And Packaging Designs For High Power, Te-Yuan Chung

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several novel techniques for controlling, managing and utilizing high power diode lasers are described. Low pressure water spray cooling for a high heat flux system is developed and proven to be an ideal cooling method for high power diode laser arrays. In order to enable better thermal and optical performance of diode laser arrays, a new and simple optical element, the beam control prism, is invented. It provides the ability to accomplish beam shaping and beam tilting at the same time. Several low thermal resistance diode packaging designs using beam control prisms are proposed, studied and produced. Two pump cavity ...


Evaluation Of The Photo-Induced Structural Mechanisms In Chalcogenide, Cedric Lopez Jan 2004

Evaluation Of The Photo-Induced Structural Mechanisms In Chalcogenide, Cedric Lopez

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chalcogenide glasses and their use in a wide range of optical, electronic and memory applications, has created a need for a more thorough understanding of material property variation as a function of composition and in geometries representative of actual devices. This study evaluates compositional dependencies and photo-induced structural mechanisms in As-S-Se chalcogenide glasses. An effective fabrication method for the reproducible processing of bulk chalcogenide materials has been demonstrated and an array of tools developed, for the systematic characterization of the resulting material's physical and optical properties. The influence of compositional variation on the physical properties of 13 glasses within ...


Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser, Bojan Resan Jan 2004

Dispersion-Managed Breathing-Mode Semiconductor Mode-Locked Ring Laser, Bojan Resan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A novel dispersion-managed breathing-mode semiconductor mode-locked ring laser is developed. The "breathing-mode" designation derives from the fact that intracavity pulses are alternately stretched and compressed as they circulate around the ring resonator. The pulses are stretched before entering the semiconductor gain medium to minimize the detrimental strong integrating self-phase modulation and to enable efficient pulse amplification. Subsequently compressed pulses facilitate bleaching the semiconductor saturable absorber. The intracavity pulse compression ratio is higher than 50. Down chirping when compared to up chirping allows broader mode-locked spectra and shorter pulse generation owing to temporal and spectral semiconductor gain dynamics. Pulses as short ...


Quadratic Spatial Soliton Interactions, Ladislav Jankovic Jan 2004

Quadratic Spatial Soliton Interactions, Ladislav Jankovic

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quadratic spatial soliton interactions were investigated in this Dissertation. The first part deals with characterizing the principal features of multi-soliton generation and soliton self-reflection. The second deals with two beam processes leading to soliton interactions and collisions. These subjects were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The experiments were performed by using potassium niobate (KNBO3) and periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystals. These particular crystals were desirable for these experiments because of their large nonlinear coefficients and, more importantly, because the experiments could be performed under non-critical-phase-matching (NCPM) conditions. The single soliton generation measurements, performed on KNBO3 by launching the ...


Stable Spatial Solitons In Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Erdem Ultanir Jan 2004

Stable Spatial Solitons In Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers, Erdem Ultanir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A spatial soliton is a shape invariant self guided beam of light or a self induced waveguide. Spatial solitons appear as a result of the balance of diffraction and nonlinear focusing in a system. They have been observed in many different conservative media in the last couple of years. Solitons are ubiquitous, because of the probability of using their interactions in optical data processing, communications etc. Up to now due to the power required to generate the solitons, and the response times of the soliton supporting media, these special waves of nature could not penetrate the applications arena. Semiconductors, with ...


Polarimetric Characterization Of Random Electromagnetic Beams And Applications, Mircea Mujat Jan 2004

Polarimetric Characterization Of Random Electromagnetic Beams And Applications, Mircea Mujat

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Polarimetry is one of the principal means of investigating the interaction of light with matter. Theoretical models and experimental techniques are presented in this dissertation for polarimetric characterization of random electromagnetic beams and of signatures of random media in different scattering regimes and configurations. The degree of polarization rather than the full description of the state of polarization is of interest in multiple scattering and free space propagation where the statistical nature and not the deterministic component of light bears the relevant information. A new interferometric technique for determining the degree of polarization by measuring the intensity fluctuations in a ...


Study Of The Excited-State Absorption Properties Of Polymethine Molecules, Richard Stanley Lepkowicz Jan 2004

Study Of The Excited-State Absorption Properties Of Polymethine Molecules, Richard Stanley Lepkowicz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation investigates excited-state nonlinearities in a series of polymethine dyes for the application of nanosecond optical limiting. Optical limiters are devices that for low intensity light exhibit a high linear transmittance, but for high intensity light strongly attenuate the incident radiation. These devices would serve to protect optical sensors from intense laser radiation by clamping the maximum energy allowed through an optical system below the damage threshold of the sensor. The search is ongoing for optical materials that are both broadband and have high damage thresholds to be effective materials for limiting applications. Polymethine dyes are promising compounds due ...