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Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities For Integrated Microwave Photonics Applications, Marcin Malinowski Jan 2019

Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities For Integrated Microwave Photonics Applications, Marcin Malinowski

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The field of integrated photonics aims at compressing large and environmentally-sensitive optical systems to micron-sized circuits that can be mass-produced through existing semiconductor fabrication facilities. The integration of optical components on single chips is pivotal to the realization of miniature systems with high degree of complexity. Such novel photonic chips find abundant applications in optical communication, spectroscopy and signal processing. This work concentrates on harnessing nonlinear phenomena to this avail. The first part of this dissertation discusses, both from component and system level, the development of a frequency comb source with a semiconductor mode-locked laser at its heart. New nonlinear ...


High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder Jan 2019

High Performance Liquid Crystal Devices For Augmented Reality And Virtual Reality, Md Javed Rouf Talukder

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

See-through augmented reality and virtual reality displays are emerging due to their widespread applications in education, engineering design, medical, retail, transportation, automotive, aerospace, gaming, and entertainment. For augmented reality and virtual reality displays, high-resolution density, high luminance, fast response time and high ambient contrast ratio are critically needed. High-resolution density helps eliminate the screen-door effect, high luminance and fast response time enable low duty ratio operation, which plays a key role for suppressing image blurs. A dimmer placed in front of AR display helps to control the incident background light, which in turn improves the image contrast. In this dissertation ...


Fundamental Properties Of Metallic Nanolasers, William Hayenga Jan 2019

Fundamental Properties Of Metallic Nanolasers, William Hayenga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The last two decades have witnessed tremendous advancements in the area of nanophotonics and plasmonics, which has helped propel the development of integrated photonic sources. Of central importance to such circuits is compact, scalable, low threshold, and efficient coherent sources that can be driven at high modulation frequencies. In this regard, metallic nanolasers offer a unique platform. Their introduction has enabled confinement of light at a subwavelength scale and the ultra-small size of the modes afforded by these structures allows for cavity enhancing effects that can help facilitate thresholdless lasing and large direct modulation bandwidths. In this report, I present ...


Holographic Optical Elements For Visible Light Applications In Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Fedor Kompan Jan 2019

Holographic Optical Elements For Visible Light Applications In Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Fedor Kompan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation reports on design and fabrication of various optical elements in Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass. An ability to produce complex holographic optical elements (HOEs) for the visible spectral region appears very beneficial for variety of applications, however, it is limited due to photosensitivity of the glass confined within the UV region. First two parts of this dissertation present two independent approaches to the problem of holographic recording using visible radiation. The first method involves modification of the original PTR glass rendering it photosensitive to radiation in the visible spectral region and, thus, making possible the recording of holograms in PTR ...


Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru Jan 2019

Broadband Mid-Infrared Frequency Combs Generated Via Frequency Division, Qitian Ru

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Frequency combs have revolutionized metrology and demonstrated numerous applications in science and technology. Combs operating in the mid-infrared region could be beneficial for molecular spectroscopy for several reasons. First, numerous molecules have their spectroscopic signatures in this region. Furthermore, the atmospheric window (3-5μm and 8-14μm) is located here. Additionally, a mid-infrared frequency comb could be employed as a diagnostic tool for the many components of human breath, as well as for detection of harmful gases and contaminants in the atmosphere. In this thesis, I used synchronously pumped subharmonic optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) operating at degeneracy to produce ultra-broadband outputs near ...


Development Of A Tabletop Coherent Soft X-Ray Source, Hanfu Kong Jan 2018

Development Of A Tabletop Coherent Soft X-Ray Source, Hanfu Kong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this thesis is to design a tabletop coherent soft X-ray source for attosecond high resolution imaging. We collect signals from gas cells with different length and lens with different focal length. A spectrometer with a grating and a CCD camera is applied to observe and measure the spectrum of the X-ray attosecond pulses. This thesis first introduces the theory background of ultrafast lasers, then mainly explains high harmonic generation, which is the key method for attosecond pulses generation, subsequently presents the experiment system and analyzes the results from the experiment, also compares different combinations of parameters of ...


Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li Jan 2018

Generation And Characterization Of Isolated Attosecond Pulse In The Soft X-Ray Regime, Jie Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The observation of any atomic and molecular dynamics requires a probe that has a timescale comparable to the dynamics itself. Ever since the invention of laser, the temporal duration of the laser pulse has been incrementally reduced from several nanoseconds to just attoseconds. Picosecond and femtosecond laser pulses have been widely used to study molecular rotation and vibration. In 2001, the first single isolated attosecond pulse (1 attosecond = 10^-18 seconds.) was demonstrated. Since this breakthrough, "attoscience" has become a hot topic in ultrafast physics. Attosecond pulses typically have span between EUV to X-ray photon energies and sub-femtosecond pulse duration ...


Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao Jan 2018

Thin-Film Lithium Niobate Photonics For Electro-Optics, Nonlinear Optics, And Quantum Optics On Silicon, Ashutosh Rao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ion-sliced thin-film lithium niobate (LN) compact waveguide technology has facilitated the resurgence of integrated photonics based on lithium niobate. These thin-film LN waveguides offer over an order of magnitude improvement in optical confinement, and about two orders of magnitude reduction in waveguide bending radius, compared to conventional LN waveguides. Harnessing the improved confinement, a variety of miniaturized and efficient photonic devices are demonstrated in this work. First, two types of compact electrooptic modulators are presented – microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators. Next, two distinct approaches to nonlinear optical frequency converters are implemented – periodically poled lithium niobate, and mode shape modulation (grating ...


Non-Hermitian Optics, Absar Ulhassan Jan 2018

Non-Hermitian Optics, Absar Ulhassan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

From the viewpoint of quantum mechanics, a system must always be Hermitian since all its corresponding eigenvalues must be real. In contrast, the eigenvalues of open systems-unrestrained because of either decay or amplification-can be in general complex. Not so long ago, a certain class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians was discovered that could have a completely real eigenvalue spectrum. This special class of Hamiltonians was found to respect the property of commutation with the parity-time (PT) operator. Translated into optics, this implies a balance between regions exhibiting gain and loss. Traditionally, loss has been perceived as a foe in optics and something ...


Nonlinear Dynamics In Multimode Optical Fibers, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar Jan 2018

Nonlinear Dynamics In Multimode Optical Fibers, Mohammad Amin Eftekhar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multimode optical fibers have recently reemerged as a viable platform for addressing a number of long-standing issues associated with information bandwidth requirements and power-handling capabilities. The complex nature of heavily multimoded systems can be effectively exploited to observe altogether novel physical effects arising from spatiotemporal and intermodal linear and nonlinear processes. Here, we have studied nonlinear dynamics in multimode optical fibers (MMFs) in both the normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. In the anomalous dispersion regime, the nonlinearity leads to a formation of spatiotemporal 3-D solitons. Unlike in single-mode fibers, these solitons are not unique and their properties can be modified ...


Mode Evolution In Fiber Based Devices For Optical Communication Systems, Bin Huang Jan 2017

Mode Evolution In Fiber Based Devices For Optical Communication Systems, Bin Huang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Space division multiplexing (SDM) is the most promising way of increasing the capacity of a single fiber. To enable the few mode fiber (FMF) or multi-mode fiber (MMF) transmission system, several major challenges have to be overcome. One is the urgent need of ideal mode multiplexer, the second is the perfect amplification for all spatial modes, another one is the modal delay spread (MDS) due to group velocity difference of spatial modes. The main subject of this dissertation is to model, fabricate and characterize the mode multiplexer for FMF transmission. First, we designed a novel resonant mode coupler (structured directional ...


Generation Of High-Flux Attosecond Pulses And Towards Attosecond-Attosecond Pump-Probe Experiments, Yang Wang Jan 2017

Generation Of High-Flux Attosecond Pulses And Towards Attosecond-Attosecond Pump-Probe Experiments, Yang Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

At present, the energy of a single isolated attosecond pulse is limited to nanojoule levels. As a result, an intense femtosecond pulse has always been used in combination with a weak attosecond pulse in time-resolved experiments. To reach the goal of conducting true attosecond pump-attosecond probe experiments, a high flux laser source has been developed that can potentially deliver microjoule level isolated attosecond pulses in the 50 eV range, and a unique experimental end station has been fabricated and implemented that can provide precision control of the attosecond-attosecond pump-probe pulses. In order to scale up the attosecond flux, a unique ...


High Dynamic Range Display Systems, Ruidong Zhu Jan 2017

High Dynamic Range Display Systems, Ruidong Zhu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

High contrast ratio (CR) enables a display system to faithfully reproduce the real objects. However, achieving high contrast, especially high ambient contrast (ACR), is a challenging task. In this dissertation, two display systems with high CR are discussed: high ACR augmented reality (AR) display and high dynamic range (HDR) display. For an AR display, we improved its ACR by incorporating a tunable transmittance liquid crystal (LC) film. The film has high tunable transmittance range, fast response time, and is fail-safe. To reduce the weight and size of a display system, we proposed a functional reflective polarizer, which can also help ...


Noise, Stability, And Linewidth Performance Of 10-Ghz Optical Frequency Combs Generated From The Nested Cavity Architecture, Kristina Bagnell Jan 2017

Noise, Stability, And Linewidth Performance Of 10-Ghz Optical Frequency Combs Generated From The Nested Cavity Architecture, Kristina Bagnell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Optical frequency combs with wide mode spacing and low timing jitter are relied upon for both time domain and frequency domain applications. It has been previously demonstrated that surrounding a low-Q semiconductor laser chip with a long external fiber cavity and inserting a high finesse Fabry–Pérot etalon into this cavity can produce a mode-locked laser with the desired high repetition rate and narrow optical mode linewidths which are of benefit to applications like photonic analog-to-digital conversion and astronomical spectrograph calibration. With this nested cavity architecture, the quality factor of the resonator is effectively determined by the product of the ...


Harnessing Spatial Intensity Fluctuations For Optical Imaging And Sensing, Milad Akhlaghi Bouzan Jan 2017

Harnessing Spatial Intensity Fluctuations For Optical Imaging And Sensing, Milad Akhlaghi Bouzan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Properties of light such as amplitude and phase, temporal and spatial coherence, polarization, etc. are abundantly used for sensing and imaging. Regardless of the passive or active nature of the sensing method, optical intensity fluctuations are always present! While these fluctuations are usually regarded as noise, there are situations where one can harness the intensity fluctuations to enhance certain attributes of the sensing procedure. In this thesis, we developed different sensing methodologies that use statistical properties of optical fluctuations for gauging specific information. We examine this concept in the context of three different aspects of computational optical imaging and sensing ...


Advanced Liquid Crystal Displays With Supreme Image Qualities, Haiwei Chen Jan 2017

Advanced Liquid Crystal Displays With Supreme Image Qualities, Haiwei Chen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several metrics are commonly used to evaluate the performance of display devices. In this dissertation, we analyze three key parameters: fast response time, wide color gamut, and high contrast ratio, which affect the final perceived image quality. Firstly, we investigate how response time affects the motion blur, and then discover the 2-ms rule. With advanced low-viscosity materials, new operation modes, and backlight modulation technique, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with an unnoticeable image blur can be realized. Its performance is comparable to an impulse-type display, like cathode ray tube (CRT). Next, we propose two novel backlight configurations to improve an LCD ...


Laser-Induced Crystallization Mechanisms In Chalcogenide Glass Materials For Advanced Optical Functionality, Laura Sisken Jan 2017

Laser-Induced Crystallization Mechanisms In Chalcogenide Glass Materials For Advanced Optical Functionality, Laura Sisken

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glass-ceramics (GC) are promising candidates for gradient refractive index (GRIN) optics. These multi-phase, composite materials also exhibit improved physical properties as compared to the parent base glass resulting from the formation of a secondary crystalline phase(s). Nanocrystal phase formation in a multi-component chalcogenide glass (ChG), (GeSe2-3As2Se3)(1-x)-(PbSe)x glass where x = 0-40 has been investigated, and the role of the starting material morphology has been correlated to the resulting composite's optical properties including refractive index, transmission, dispersion, and thermo-optic coefficient. Optical property evolution was related to the type and amount of the crystal phases formed, since through ...


Novel Photonic Resonance Arrangements Using Non-Hermitian Exceptional Points, Hossein Hodaei Jan 2017

Novel Photonic Resonance Arrangements Using Non-Hermitian Exceptional Points, Hossein Hodaei

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In recent years, non-Hermitian degeneracies also known as exceptional points (EPs) have emerged as a new paradigm for engineering the response of optical systems. EPs can appear in a wide class of open non-Hermitian configurations. Among different types of non-conservative photonic systems, parity-time (PT) symmetric arrangements are of particular interest since they provide an excellent platform to explore the physics of exceptional points. In this work, the intriguing properties of exceptional points are utilized to address two of the long standing challenges in the field of integrated photonics- enforcing single mode lasing in intrinsically multimode cavities and enhancing the sensitivity ...


Advanced Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Displays, Daming Xu Jan 2016

Advanced Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Displays, Daming Xu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Thin-film transistor (TFT) liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have become indispensable in our daily lives. Their widespread applications range from smartphones, laptops, TVs to navigational devices, data projectors and wearable displays. Over past decades, massive efforts have been invested in device development, material characterization and manufacturing technology. As a result, the performance of LCDs, such as viewing angle, contrast ratio, color gamut and resolution, have been improved significantly. Nonetheless, there are still urgent needs for fast response time and low power consumption. Fast response time helps reduce motion image blurs and enable color sequential displays. The latter is particularly attractive since ...


Broad Bandwidth Optical Frequency Combs From Low Noise, High Repetition Rate Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers, Anthony Klee Jan 2016

Broad Bandwidth Optical Frequency Combs From Low Noise, High Repetition Rate Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers, Anthony Klee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mode-locked lasers have numerous applications in the areas of communications, spectroscopy, and frequency metrology. Harmonically mode-locked semiconductor lasers with external ring cavities offer a unique combination of benefits in that they can produce high repetition rate pulse trains with low timing jitter, achieve narrow axial mode linewidths, have the potential for entire monolithic integration on-chip, feature high wall-plug efficiency due to direct electrical pumping, and can be engineered to operate in different wavelength bands of interest. However, lasers based on InP/InGaAsP quantum well devices which operate in the important telecom C-band have thus far been relatively limited in bandwidth ...


Multi-Purpose Device For Analyzing And Measuring Ultra-Short Pulses, Naman Anilkumar Mehta Jan 2016

Multi-Purpose Device For Analyzing And Measuring Ultra-Short Pulses, Naman Anilkumar Mehta

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intensity auto correlator is device to measure pulse widths of ultrashort pulses on the order of picoseconds and femtoseconds. I have built an in-house, compact, portable, industry standard intensity auto correlator for measuring ultrashort pulse-widths. My device is suitable for pulse-widths from 500 ps to 50 fs. The impetus for developing this instrument stemmed from our development of a multicore-fiber laser for high power laser applications, which also produces very short pulses that cannot be measured with an oscilloscope. As techniques for measuring short pulse-widths have been well studied, what made my journey exciting was the process of taking an ...


Sensing Using Specialty Optical Fibers, Amy Van Newkirk Jan 2016

Sensing Using Specialty Optical Fibers, Amy Van Newkirk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fiber optic based sensing is a growing field with many applications in civil and aerospace engineering, oil and gas industries, and particularly in harsh environments where electronics are not able to function. Optical fibers can be easily integrated into structures, are immune to electromagnetic interference, can be interrogated from remote distances, and can be multiplexed for distributed measurements. Because of these properties, specialty fiber designs and devices are being explored for sensing temperature, strain, pressure, curvature, refractive index, and more. Here we show a detailed analysis of a multicore fiber (MCF) for sensing, including its design and optimization in simulation ...


True Linearized Intensity Modulation For Photonic Analog To Digital Conversion Using An Injection-Locked Mode-Locked Laser, Edris Sarailou Jan 2015

True Linearized Intensity Modulation For Photonic Analog To Digital Conversion Using An Injection-Locked Mode-Locked Laser, Edris Sarailou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A true linearized interferometric intensity modulator for pulsed light has been proposed and experimentally presented in this thesis. This has been achieved by introducing a mode-locked laser into one of the arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and injection-locking it to the input light (which is pulsed and periodic). By modulating the injection-locked laser, and combining its output light with the light from the other arm of interferometer in quadrature, one can achieve true linearized intensity modulator. This linearity comes from the arcsine phase response of the injection-locked mode-locked laser (as suggested by steady-state solution of Adler's equation) when it ...


Two-Photon Absorption In Bulk Semiconductors And Quantum Well Structures And Its Applications, Himansu Pattanaik Jan 2015

Two-Photon Absorption In Bulk Semiconductors And Quantum Well Structures And Its Applications, Himansu Pattanaik

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to provide a study and possible applications of two-photon absorption (2PA), in direct-gap semiconductors and quantum-well (QW) semiconductor structures. One application uses extremely nondegenerate (END) 2PA, for mid-infrared (mid-IR) detection in uncooled semiconductors. The use of END, where the two photons have very different energies gives strong enhancement comapared to degenerate 2PA. This END-2PA enhanced detection is also applied to mid-IR imaging and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) in uncooled direct-gap photodiodes. A theoretical study of degenerate 2PA (D-2PA) in quantum wells, QWs, is presented, along with a new theory of ND 2PA in ...


Conservation Laws And Electromagnetic Interactions, Veerachart Kajorndejnukul Jan 2015

Conservation Laws And Electromagnetic Interactions, Veerachart Kajorndejnukul

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aside from energy, light carries linear and angular momenta that can be transferred to matter. The interaction between light and matter is governed by conservation laws that can manifest themselves as mechanical effects acting on both matter and light waves. This interaction permits remote, precise, and noninvasive manipulation and sensing at microscopic levels. In this dissertation, we demonstrated for the first time a complete set of opto-mechanical effects that are based on nonconservative forces and act at the interface between dielectric media. Without structuring the light field, forward action is provided by the conventional radiation pressure while a backward movement ...


Photon Statistics In Disordered Lattices, Hasan Kondakci Jan 2015

Photon Statistics In Disordered Lattices, Hasan Kondakci

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Propagation of coherent waves through disordered media, whether optical, acoustic, or radio waves, results in a spatially redistributed random intensity pattern known as speckle -- a statistical phenomenon. The subject of this dissertation is the statistics of monochromatic coherent light traversing disordered photonic lattices and its dependence on the disorder class, the level of disorder and the excitation configuration at the input. Throughout the dissertation, two disorder classes are considered, namely, diagonal and off-diagonal disorders. The latter exhibits disorder-immune chiral symmetry -- the appearance of the eigenmodes in skew-symmetric pairs and the corresponding eigenvalues in opposite signs. When a disordered photonic lattice ...


Broadband Coherent Perfect Absorption In One-Dimensional Optical Systems, Massimo Maximilian Villinger Jan 2015

Broadband Coherent Perfect Absorption In One-Dimensional Optical Systems, Massimo Maximilian Villinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Absorption plays a critical role in a variety of optical applications – sometimes it is desirable to minimize it as in optical fibers and waveguides, or to enhance it as in solar cells and photodetectors. We describe here a new optical scheme that controllably produces high optical absorption over a broad wavelength range (hundreds of nm) in systems that have low intrinsic absorption over the same range. This effect, 'coherent perfect absorption' or CPA, arises from a subtle interplay between interference and absorption of two beams incident on a weakly absorbing medium. In the first part of this study, we present ...


Nanoscale Control Of Gap-Plasmon Enhanced Optical Processes, Chatdanai Lumdee Jan 2015

Nanoscale Control Of Gap-Plasmon Enhanced Optical Processes, Chatdanai Lumdee

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Surface plasmon resonances of metal nanostructures have been studied intensely in recent years. The strong plasmon-mediated electric field enhancement and field confinement well beyond the diffraction limit has been demonstrated to improve the performance of optical devices including ultrasensitive sensors, light emitters, and optical absorbers. A plasmon resonance mode of particular recent interest is the gap plasmon resonance that occurs on closely spaced metallic structures. In contrast to plasmon resonances supported by isolated metal nanostructures, coupled nanostructures provide additional spectral and spatial control over the plasmon resonance response. For example, the resonance frequencies of metal nanoparticle dimers depend strongly on ...


Entanglement And Coherence In Classical And Quantum Optics, Kumel Kagalwala Jan 2015

Entanglement And Coherence In Classical And Quantum Optics, Kumel Kagalwala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explore the concepts of coherence and entanglement as they apply to both the classical and quantum natures of light. In the classical domain, we take inspiration from the tools and concepts developed in foundational quantum mechanics and quantum information science to gain a better understanding of classical coherence theory of light with multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs). First, we use polarization and spatial parity DoFs to demonstrate the notion of classical entanglement, and show that Bell's measure can serve as a useful tool in distinguishing between classical optical coherence theory. Second, we establish a methodical yet versatile approach ...


Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Functional Oxide Materials For Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Kristopher Davis Jan 2015

Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Functional Oxide Materials For Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells, Kristopher Davis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Functional oxides are versatile materials that can simultaneously enable efficiency gains and cost reductions in crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. In this work, the deposition of functional oxide materials using atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) and the integration of these materials into c-Si solar cells are explored. Specifically, thin oxide films and multi-layer film stacks are utilized for the following purposes: (1) to minimize front surface reflectance without increasing parasitic absorption within the anti-reflection coating(s); (2) to maximize internal back reflectance of rear passivated cells, thereby increasing optical absorption of weakly absorbed long wavelength photons (? > 900 nm); (3 ...