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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Model For Light Scalars In Qcd, Joseph Schechter, Amir H. Fariborz, Renata Jora Dec 2006

Model For Light Scalars In Qcd, Joseph Schechter, Amir H. Fariborz, Renata Jora

Physics

We propose a systematic procedure to study a generalized linear sigma model which can give a physical picture of possible mixing between q{\bar q} and qq{\bar q}{\bar q} low lying spin zero states. In the limit of zero quark masses, we derive the model independent results for the properties of the Nambu Goldstone pseudoscalar particles. For getting information on the scalars it is necessary to make a specific choice of terms. We impose two plausible physical criteria - the modeling of the axial anomaly and the suppression of effective vertices representing too many fermion lines - for limiting the ...


Why Should Primordial Perturbations Be In A Vacuum State?, Christian Armendariz-Picon Dec 2006

Why Should Primordial Perturbations Be In A Vacuum State?, Christian Armendariz-Picon

Physics

In order to calculate the power spectrum generated during a stage of inflation, we have to specify the quantum state of the inflaton perturbations, which is conventionally assumed to be the Bunch-Davies vacuum. We argue that this choice is justified only if the interactions of cosmological perturbations are strong enough to drive excited states toward the vacuum. We quantify this efficiency by calculating the decay probabilities of excited states to leading order in the slow-roll expansion in canonical single-field inflationary models. These probabilities are suppressed by a slow-roll parameter and the squared Planck mass, and enhanced by ultraviolet and infrared ...


Are Domain Walls In Spin Glasses Described By Stochastic Loewner Evolutions?, Alan Middleton, Denis Bernard, Pierre Le Doussal Nov 2006

Are Domain Walls In Spin Glasses Described By Stochastic Loewner Evolutions?, Alan Middleton, Denis Bernard, Pierre Le Doussal

Physics

Domain walls for spin glasses are believed to be scale invariant invariant; a stronger symmetry, conformal invariance, has the potential to hold. The statistics of zero-temperature Ising spin glass domain walls in two dimensions are used to test the hypothesis that these domain walls are described by a Schramm-Loewner evolution SLE$_\kappa$. Multiple tests are consistent with SLE$_\kappa$, where $\kappa=2.30(5)$. Both conformal invariance and the domain Markov property are tested. The latter does not hold in small systems, but detailed numerical evidence suggests that it holds in the continuum limit.


A Critique Of The Link Approach To Exact Lattice Supersymmetry, Simon Catterall, Falk Bruckmann, Mark De Kok Nov 2006

A Critique Of The Link Approach To Exact Lattice Supersymmetry, Simon Catterall, Falk Bruckmann, Mark De Kok

Physics

We examine the link approach to constructing a lattice theory of N=2 super Yang Mills theory in two dimensions. The goal of this construction is to provide a discretization of the continuum theory which preserves all supersymmetries at non-zero lattice spacing. We show that this approach suffers from an inconsistency and argue that a maximum of just one of the supersymmetries can be implemented on the lattice.


Twisted Supersymmetric Sigma Model On The Lattice, Simon Catterall, Sofiane Ghadab Oct 2006

Twisted Supersymmetric Sigma Model On The Lattice, Simon Catterall, Sofiane Ghadab

Physics

In this paper we conduct a numerical study of the supersymmetric O(3) non-linear sigma model. The lattice formulation we employ was derived in \cite{sigma1} and corresponds to a discretization of a {\it twisted} form of the continuum action. The twisting process exposes a {\it nilpotent} supercharge Q and allows the action to be rewritten in Q-exact form. These properties may be maintained on the lattice. We show how to deform the theory by the addition of potential terms which preserve the supersymmetry. A Wilson mass operator may be introduced in this way with a minimal breaking of supersymmetry ...


Near Scale Invariance With Modified Dispersion Relations, Christian Armendariz-Picon Jun 2006

Near Scale Invariance With Modified Dispersion Relations, Christian Armendariz-Picon

Physics

No abstract provided.


Measuring Functional Renormalization Group Fixed-Point Functions For Pinned Manifolds, Alan Middleton, Pierre Le Doussal, Kay Jorg Wiese Jun 2006

Measuring Functional Renormalization Group Fixed-Point Functions For Pinned Manifolds, Alan Middleton, Pierre Le Doussal, Kay Jorg Wiese

Physics

Exact numerical minimization of interface energies is used to test the functional renormalization group (FRG) analysis for interfaces pinned by quenched disorder. The fixed-point function R(u) (the correlator of the coarse-grained disorder) is computed. In dimensions D=d+1, a linear cusp in R''(u) is confirmed for random bond (d=1,2,3), random field (d=0,2,3), and periodic (d=2,3) disorders. The functional shocks that lead to this cusp are seen. Small, but significant, deviations from 1-loop FRG results are compared to 2-loop corrections. The cross-correlation for two copies of disorder is compared with ...


An Approach To Permutation Symmetry For The Electroweak Theory, Joseph Schechter, Renata Jora, Salah Nasri May 2006

An Approach To Permutation Symmetry For The Electroweak Theory, Joseph Schechter, Renata Jora, Salah Nasri

Physics

The form of the leptonic mixing matrix emerging from experiment has, in the last few years, generated a lot of interest in the so-called tribimaximal type. This form may be naturally associated with the possibility of a discrete permutation symmetry (S_3) among the three generations. However, trying to implement this attractive symmetry has resulted in some problems and it seems to have fallen out of favor. We suggest an approach in which the S_3 holds to first approximation, somewhat in the manner of the old SU(3) flavor symmetry of the three flavor quark model. It is shown that in ...


Sound-Propagation Gap In Fluid Mixtures, Supurna Sinha, M. Cristina Marchetti May 2006

Sound-Propagation Gap In Fluid Mixtures, Supurna Sinha, M. Cristina Marchetti

Physics

We discuss the behavior of the extended sound modes of a dense binary hard-sphere mixture. In a dense simple hard-sphere fluid the Enskog theory predicts a gap in the sound propagation at large wave vectors. In a binary mixture the gap is only present for low concentrations of one of the two species. At intermediate concentrations sound modes are always propagating. This behavior is not affected by the mass difference of the two species, but it only depends on the packing fractions. The gap is absent when the packing fractions are comparable and the mixture structurally resembles a metallic glass.


Mode-Coupling Theory Of The Stress-Tensor Autocorrelation Function Of A Dense Binary Fluid Mixture, Supurna Sinha, M. Cristina Marchetti May 2006

Mode-Coupling Theory Of The Stress-Tensor Autocorrelation Function Of A Dense Binary Fluid Mixture, Supurna Sinha, M. Cristina Marchetti

Physics

We present a generalized mode-coupling theory for a dense binary fluid mixture. The theory is used to calculate molecular-scale renormalizations to the stress-tensor autocorrelation function (STAF) and to the long-wavelength zero-frequency shear viscosity. As in the case of a dense simple fluid, we find that the STAF appears to decay as t−3/2 over an intermediate range of time. The coefficient of this long-time tail

is more than two orders of magnitude larger than that obtained from conventional mode-coupling theory. Our study focuses on the effect of compositional disorder on the decay of the STAF in a dense mixture.


Intracellular Signaling: How Do Cells Respond To Single And Multiple Inputs, Latoya Crayton May 2006

Intracellular Signaling: How Do Cells Respond To Single And Multiple Inputs, Latoya Crayton

Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects

One important biological question is how the cell processes input information and decides what to respond. The cell can integrate the multiple inputs using linear and nonlinear dynamics to generate an appropriate output. This study focuses on the computerized recording of phototaxis (movement in relation to light direction) of Chlamydomonas cell populations response to green light, which activates the rhodopsin photoreceptor at their eyespots. The inputs are light stimulation of various wavelengths and intensities; and chemicals (IBMX, a PDE inhibitor; 2'5'-dideoxyadenosine, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 8-Br-cAMP-Na and Dibutyryl cAMP, cAMP analogs) affecting an important intracellular messenger, cAMP. The ...


Simulations Of {\Cal N}=2 Super Yang-Mills Theory In Two Dimensions, Simon Catterall Mar 2006

Simulations Of {\Cal N}=2 Super Yang-Mills Theory In Two Dimensions, Simon Catterall

Physics

We present results from lattice simulations of {\cal N}=2 super Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions. The lattice formulation we use was developed in \cite{2dpaper} and retains both gauge invariance and an exact (twisted) supersymmetry for any lattice spacing. Results for both U(2) and SU(2) gauge groups are given. We focus on supersymmetric Ward identities, the phase of the Pfaffian resulting from integration over the Grassmann fields and the nature of the quantum moduli space.


String Gas Cosmology, Scott Watson, Thorsten Battefeld Feb 2006

String Gas Cosmology, Scott Watson, Thorsten Battefeld

Physics

We present a critical review and summary of String Gas Cosmology. We include a pedagogical derivation of the effective action starting from string theory, emphasizing the necessary approximations that must be invoked. Working in the effective theory, we demonstrate that at late-times it is not possible to stabilize the extra dimensions by a gas of massive string winding modes. We then consider additional string gases that contain so-called enhanced symmetry states. These string gases are very heavy initially, but drive the moduli to locations that minimize the energy and pressure of the gas. We consider both classical and quantum gas ...


Generalized Sigma Model Description Of The Light J=0 Mesons, Joseph Schechter, Amir H. Fariborz, Renata Jora Jan 2006

Generalized Sigma Model Description Of The Light J=0 Mesons, Joseph Schechter, Amir H. Fariborz, Renata Jora

Physics

Within a linear sigma model framework, possible mixing between two chiral nonets (a two quark nonet, and a four quark nonet) below 2 GeV is studied. Incorporating the U(1)_A behavior of the underlying QCD, and working in the isospin invariant limit, the mass spectra of the I=0, I=1/2 and I=1 pseudoscalars, and the I=1/2 scalars are studied, and estimates of their quark content are presented. It is found, as expected, that the ordinary and the excited pseudoscalars generally have much less two and four quark admixtures compared to the respective scalars. As ...


Dilaton Dynamics From Production Of Tensionless Membranes, Scott Watson, Sera Cremonini Jan 2006

Dilaton Dynamics From Production Of Tensionless Membranes, Scott Watson, Sera Cremonini

Physics

In this paper we consider classical and quantum corrections to cosmological solutions of 11D SUGRA coming from dynamics of membrane states. We first consider the supermembrane spectrum following the approach of Russo and Tseytlin for consistent quantization. We calculate the production rate of BPS membrane bound states in a cosmological background and find that such effects are generically suppressed by the Planck scale, as expected. However, for a modified brane spectrum possessing enhanced symmetry, production can be finite and significant. We stress that this effect could not be anticipated given only a knowledge of the low-energy effective theory. Once on-shell ...


Chiral Approach To Phi Radiative Decays, Joseph Schechter, Deirdre Black, Masayasu Harada Jan 2006

Chiral Approach To Phi Radiative Decays, Joseph Schechter, Deirdre Black, Masayasu Harada

Physics

The radiative decays of the phi meson are known to be a good source of information about the a0(980) and f0(980) scalar mesons. We discuss these decays starting from a non-linear model Lagrangian which maintains the (broken) chiral symmetry for the pseudoscalar (P), scalar (S) and vector (V) nonets involved. The characteristic feature is derivative coupling for the SPP interaction. In an initial approximation which models all the scalar nonet radiative processes together with the help of a point like vertex, it is noted that the derivative coupling prevents the a0 and f0 resonance peaks from getting washed ...


Temperature Dependence Of The Electron Diffusion Coefficient In Electrolyte-Filled Tio2, Nikos Kopidakis, Kurt D. Benkstein, Arthur J. Frank, Quan Yuan, Eric A. Schiff Jan 2006

Temperature Dependence Of The Electron Diffusion Coefficient In Electrolyte-Filled Tio2, Nikos Kopidakis, Kurt D. Benkstein, Arthur J. Frank, Quan Yuan, Eric A. Schiff

Physics

The temperature and photoexcitation density dependences of the electron transport dynamics in electrolytefilled mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticle films were investigated by transient photocurrent measurements. The thermal activation energy of the diffusion coefficient of photogenerated electrons ranged from 0.19–0.27 eV, depending on the specific sample studied. The diffusion coefficient also depends strongly on the photoexcitation density; however, the activation energy has little, if any, dependence on the photoexcitation density. The light intensity dependence can be used to infer temperature-independent dispersion parameters in the range 0.3–0.5. These results are inconsistent with the widely used transport model that ...


Temperature Dependence Of The Electron Diffusion Coefficient In Electrolyte-Filled Tio2 Nanoparticle Films: Evidence Against Multiple Trapping In Exponential Conduction-Band Tails, Nikos Kopidakis, Kurt D. Benkstein, Jao Van De Lagemaat, Quan Yuan, Eric A. Schiff Jan 2006

Temperature Dependence Of The Electron Diffusion Coefficient In Electrolyte-Filled Tio2 Nanoparticle Films: Evidence Against Multiple Trapping In Exponential Conduction-Band Tails, Nikos Kopidakis, Kurt D. Benkstein, Jao Van De Lagemaat, Quan Yuan, Eric A. Schiff

Physics

The temperature and photoexcitation density dependences of the electron transport dynamics in electrolytefilled mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticle films were investigated by transient photocurrent measurements. The thermal activation energy of the diffusion coefficient of photogenerated electrons ranged from 0.19–0.27 eV, depending on the specific sample studied. The diffusion coefficient also depends strongly on the photoexcitation density; however, the activation energy has little, if any, dependence on the photoexcitation density. The light intensity dependence can be used to infer temperature-independent dispersion parameters in the range 0.3–0.5. These results are inconsistent with the widely used transport model that ...


Hole Mobilities And The Physics Of Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Eric A. Schiff Jan 2006

Hole Mobilities And The Physics Of Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Eric A. Schiff

Physics

The effects of low hole mobilities in the intrinsic layer of pin solar cells are illustrated using general computer modeling; in these models electron mobilities are assumed to be much larger than hole values. The models reveal that a low hole mobility can be the most important photocarrier transport parameter in determining the output power of the cell, and that the effects of recombination parameters are much weaker. Recent hole drift-mobility measurements in a-Si:H are compared. While hole drift mobilities in intrinsic a-Si:H are now up to tenfold larger than two decades ago, even with recent materials a-Si ...


Hole Mobility Limit Of Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Jiang Liang, Eric A. Schiff, S. Guha, Baojie Yan, Jeff Yang Jan 2006

Hole Mobility Limit Of Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells, Jiang Liang, Eric A. Schiff, S. Guha, Baojie Yan, Jeff Yang

Physics

We present temperature-dependent measurements and modeling for a thickness series of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nip solar cells. The comparison indicates that the maximum power density (PMAX) from the as-deposited cells has achieved the hole-mobility limit established by valence bandtail trapping, and PMAX is thus not significantly limited by intrinsic-layer dangling bonds or by the doped layers and interfaces. Measurements of the temperature-dependent properties of light-soaked cells show that the properties of as-deposited and light-soaked cells converge below 250 K; a model perturbing the valence band tail traps with a density of dangling bonds accounts adequately for the convergence effect.