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## Full-Text Articles in Physics

The Analytical Evolution Of Nls Solitons Due To The Numerical Discretization Error, Prof. Tim Marchant

#### The Analytical Evolution Of Nls Solitons Due To The Numerical Discretization Error, Prof. Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Soliton perturbation theory is used to obtain analytical solutions describing solitary wave tails or shelves, due to numerical discretization error, for soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Two important implicit numerical schemes for the nonlinear Schrodinger equation, with second-order temporal and spatial discretization errors, are considered. These are the Crank-Nicolson scheme and a scheme, due to Taha [1], based on the inverse scattering transform. The first-order correction for the solitary wave tail, or shelf, is in integral form and an explicit expression is found for large time. The shelf decays slowly, at a rate of t(-1/2), which ...

Evolution Of Solitary Waves For A Perturbed Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, Tim Marchant

#### Evolution Of Solitary Waves For A Perturbed Nonlinear Schrodinger Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Soliton perturbation theory is used to determine the evolution of a solitary wave described by a perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Perturbation terms, which model wide classes of physically relevant perturbations, are considered. An analytical solution is found for the first-order correction of the evolving solitary wave. This solution for the solitary wave tail is in integral form and an explicit expression is found, for large time. Singularity theory, usually used for combustion problems, is applied to the large time expression for the solitary wave tail. Analytical results are obtained, such as the parameter regions in which qualitatively different types of ...

Soliton Perturbation Theory For A Higher-Order Hirota Equation, Tim Marchant

#### Soliton Perturbation Theory For A Higher-Order Hirota Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Solitary wave evolution for a higher order Hirota equation is examined. For the higher order Hirota equation resonance between the solitary waves and linear radiation causes radiation loss. Soliton perturbation theory is used to determine the details of the evolving wave and its tail. An analytical expression for the solitary wave tail is derived and compared to numerical solutions. An excellent comparison between numerical and theoretical solutions is obtained for both right- and left-moving waves. Also, a two-parameter family of higher order asymptotic embedded solitons is identified.

Evolution Of Higher-Order Gray Hirota Solitary Waves, Tim Marchant

#### Evolution Of Higher-Order Gray Hirota Solitary Waves, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

The defocusing Hirota equation has dark and gray soliton solutions which are stable on a background of periodic waves of constant amplitude. In this paper, gray solitary wave evolution for a higher-order defocusing Hirota equation is examined. A direct analysis is used to identify families of higher-order gray Hirota solitary waves, which are embedded for certain parameter values. Soliton perturbation theory is used to detmine the detailed behavior of an evolving higher-order gray Hirota solitary wave. An integral expression for the first-order correction to the wave is found and analytical expressions for the steady-state and transient components of the solitary ...

Undular Bores And The Initial-Boundary Value Problem For The Modified Korteweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

#### Undular Bores And The Initial-Boundary Value Problem For The Modified Korteweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Two types of analytical undular bore solutions, of the initial value problem for the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV), are found. The first, an undular bore composed of cnoidal waves, is qualitatively similar to the bore found for the KdV equation, with solitons occurring at the leading edge and small amplitude linear waves occurring at the trailing edge. The second, a newly identified type of undular bore, consists of finite amplitude sinusiodal waves, which have a rational form. At the leading edge is the mKdV algebraic soliton, while, again, small amplitude linear waves occur at the trailing edge. The initial-boundary value ...

Asymptotic Solitons On A Non-Zero Mean Level., Tim Marchant

#### Asymptotic Solitons On A Non-Zero Mean Level., Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

The collision of solitary waves for a higher-order modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation is examined. In particular, the collision between solitary waves with sech-type and algebraic (which only exist on a non-zero mean level) profiles is considered. An asymptotic transformation, valid if the higher-order coefficients satisfy a certain algebraic relationship, is used to transform the higher-order mKdV equation to an integrable member of the mKdV hierarchy. The transformation is used to show that the higher-order collision is asymptotically elastic and to derive the higher-order phase shifts. Numerical simulations of both elastic and inelastic collisions are performed. For the example covered ...

An Undular Bore Solution For The Higher-Order Korteweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

#### An Undular Bore Solution For The Higher-Order Korteweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Undular bores describe the evolution and smoothing out of an initial step in mean height and are frequently observed in both oceanographic and meteorological applications. The undular bore solution for the higher-order Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation is derived, using an asymptotic transformation which relates the KdV equation and its higher-order counterpart. The higher-order KdV equation considered includes all possible third-order correction terms (where the KdV equation retains second-order terms). The asymptotic transformation is then applied to the KdV undular bore solution to obtain the higher-order undular bore. Examples of higher-order undular bores, describing both surface and internal waves, are presented ...

Solitary Wave Interaction And Evolution For A Higher-Order Hirota Equation, Tim Marchant

#### Solitary Wave Interaction And Evolution For A Higher-Order Hirota Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Solitary wave interaction and evolution for a higher-order Hirota equation is examined. The higher-order Hirota equation is asymptotically transformed to a higher-order member of the NLS hierarchy of integrable equations, if the higher-order coefficients satisfy a certain algebraic relationship. The transformation is used to derive higher-order one- and two-soliton solutions. It is shown that the interaction is asymptotically elastic and the higher-order corrections to the coordinate and phase shifts are derived. For the higher-order Hirota equation resonance occurs between the solitary waves and linear radiation, so soliton perturbation theory is used to determine the details of the evolving wave and ...

Approximate Solutions For Magmon Propagation From A Reservoir, Tim Marchant

#### Approximate Solutions For Magmon Propagation From A Reservoir, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

A 1D partial differential equation (pde) describing the flow of magma in the Earth's mantle is considered, this equation allowing for compaction and distension of the surrounding matrix due to the magma. The equation has periodic travelling wave solutions, one limit of which is a solitary wave, called a magmon. Modulation equations for the magma equation are derived and are found to be either hyperbolic or of mixed hyperbolic/elliptic type, depending on the specific values of the wave number, mean height and amplitude of the underlying modulated wave. The periodic wave train is stable in the hyperbolic case ...

Asymptotic Solitons For A Third-Order Kortweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

#### Asymptotic Solitons For A Third-Order Kortweg-De Vries Equation, Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Solitary wave interaction for a higher-order version of the Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation is considered. The equation is obtained by retaining third-order terms in the perturbation expansion, where for the KdV equation only first-order terms are retained. The third-order KdV equation can be asymptotically transformed to the KdV equation, if the third-order coefficients satisfy a certain algebraic relationship. The third-order two-soliton solution is derived using the transformation. The third-order phase shift corrections are found and it is shown that the collision is asymptotically elastic. The interaction of two third-order solitary waves is also considered numerically. Examples of an elastic ...

Asymptotic Solitons For A Higher-Order Modified Korteweg–De Vries Equation, T. Marchant

#### Asymptotic Solitons For A Higher-Order Modified Korteweg–De Vries Equation, T. Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Solitary wave interaction for a higher-order modified Korteweg–de Vries (mKdV) equation is examined. The higher-order mKdV equation can be asymptotically transformed to the mKdV equation, if the higher-order coefficients satisfy a certain algebraic relationship. The transformation is used to derive the higher-order two-soliton solution and it is shown that the interaction is asymptotically elastic. Moreover, the higher-order phase shifts are derived using the asymptotic theory. Numerical simulations of the interaction of two higher-order solitary waves are also performed. Two examples are considered, one satisfies the algebraic relationship derived from the asymptotic theory, and the other does not. For the ...

High-Order Interaction Of Solitary Waves On Shallow Water, Prof. Tim Marchant

#### High-Order Interaction Of Solitary Waves On Shallow Water, Prof. Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

The interaction of solitary waves on shallow water is examined to fourth order. At first order the interaction is governed by the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, and it is shown that the unidirectional assumption, of right-moving waves only, is incompatible with mass conservation at third order. To resolve this, a mass conserving system of KdV equations, involving both right- and left-moving waves, is derived to third order. A fourth-order interaction term, in which the right- and left-moving waves are coupled, is also derived as this term is crucial in determining the fourth-order change in solitary wave amplitude. The form of ...

The Initial Boundary Problem For The Korteweg-De Vries Equation On The Negative Quarter-Plane, Prof. Tim Marchant

#### The Initial Boundary Problem For The Korteweg-De Vries Equation On The Negative Quarter-Plane, Prof. Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

The initial boundary-value problem for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation on the negative quarter-plane, x < 0 and t > 0, is considered. The formulation of this problem is different to the usual initial boundary-value problem on the positive quarter-plane, for which x > 0 and t > 0. Two boundary conditions are required at x = 0 for the negative quarter-plane problem, in contrast to the one boundary condition needed at x = 0 for the positive quarter-plane problem. Solutions of the KdV equation on the infinite line, such as the soliton, cnoidal wave, mean height variation and undular bore solution, are used to find approximate solutions to ...

Numerical Solitary Wave Interaction: The Order Of The Inelastic Effect, Prof. Tim Marchant

#### Numerical Solitary Wave Interaction: The Order Of The Inelastic Effect, Prof. Tim Marchant

*Tim Marchant*

Solitary wave interaction is examined using an extended Benjamin-Bona-Mahony (eBBM) equation. This equation includes higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects and is is asymptotically equivalent to the extended Korteweg-de Vries (eKdV) equation. The eBBM formulation is preferable to the eKdV equation for the numerical modelling of solitary wave collisions, due to the stability of its finite-difference scheme. In particular, it allows the interaction of steep waves to be modelled, which due to numerical instability, is not possible using the eKdV equation. Numerical simulations of a number of solitary wave collisions of varying nonlinearity are performed for two special cases corresponding to ...