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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Emp And Geomagnetic Storm Protection Of Critical Infrastructure, George H. Baker Iii May 2012

Emp And Geomagnetic Storm Protection Of Critical Infrastructure, George H. Baker Iii

George H Baker

EMP and solar storm wide geographic coverage and ubiquitous system effects beg the question of “Where to begin?” with protection efforts. Thus, in addressing these “wide area electromagnetic (EM) effects,” we must be clever in deciding where to invest limited resources. Based on simple risk analysis, the electric power and communication infrastructures emerge as the highest priority for EM protection. Programs focused on these highest risk infrastructures will go a long way in lessoning societal impact. Given the national scope of the effects, such programs must be coordinated at the national level but implemented at local level. Because wide-area EM ...


Risk-Based Critical Infrastructure Priorities For Emp And Solar Storms, George H. Baker Iii Oct 2011

Risk-Based Critical Infrastructure Priorities For Emp And Solar Storms, George H. Baker Iii

George H Baker

Two electromagnetic phenomena have the potential to create continental-scale disasters. The first, nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP), results from a nuclear detonation high above the tropopause. The second, a major solar storm, or "solar tsunami" occurs naturally when an intense wave of charged particles from the sun perturbs the earth's magnetic field. Both phenomena can debilitate electrical and electronic systems necessary for the operation of infrastructure systems and services. One reason why a U.S. protection program has yet to be initiated is that policy makers continue to wrestle with the question of where to begin, given the Department of ...


Risk-Based Critical Infrastructure Protection Priorities For Emp And Solar Storms, George H. Baker Iii Sep 2011

Risk-Based Critical Infrastructure Protection Priorities For Emp And Solar Storms, George H. Baker Iii

George H Baker

The Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack has provided a compelling case for protecting civilian infrastructure against the effects of EMP. As with protecting infrastructure against any hazard, it will be important to take a risk-based priority approach for EMP, recognizing that it is fiscally impracticable to protect everything. In this regard, EMP is particularly challenging in that it interferes with electrical and electronic data, control, transmission, and communication systems organic to nearly all infrastructures in a simultaneous and wide-scale manner. And, for nuclear burst altitudes of 100s of kilometers, the exposed geography ...


Cascading Infrastructure Failures: Avoidance And Response, George H. Baker, Cheryl J. Elliott Dec 2007

Cascading Infrastructure Failures: Avoidance And Response, George H. Baker, Cheryl J. Elliott

George H Baker

No critical infrastructure is self-sufficient. The complexity inherent in the interdependent nature of infrastructure systems complicates planning and preparedness for system failures. Recent wide-scale disruption of infrastructure on the Gulf Coast due to weather, and in the Northeast due to electric power network failures, dramatically illustrate the problems associated with mitigating cascading effects and responding to cascading infrastructure failures once they have occurred.

The major challenge associated with preparedness for cascading failures is that they transcend system, corporate, and political boundaries and necessitate coordination among multiple, disparate experts and authorities. This symposium brought together concerned communities including government and industry ...


Mil-Std-188-125-2, High-Altitude Emp Protection For Transportable Systems Mar 1999

Mil-Std-188-125-2, High-Altitude Emp Protection For Transportable Systems

George H Baker

This standard establishes minimum requirements and design objectives for high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) hardening of transportable1 ground-based systems that perform critical, time-urgent command, control, communications, computer, and intelligence (C4I) missions. Systems required to fully comply with the provisions of the standard will be designated by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a Military Department Headquarters, or a Major Command.

The standard prescribes minimum performance requirements for low-risk protection from mission-aborting damage or upset due to HEMP threat environments. The standard also addresses minimum testing requirements for demonstrating that prescribed performance has been achieved and for verifying that the installed protection measures ...


Nuclear Emp Hardening Approach As The Basis For Unified Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Protection, George H. Baker Iii Dec 1991

Nuclear Emp Hardening Approach As The Basis For Unified Electromagnetic Environmental Effects Protection, George H. Baker Iii

George H Baker

Operation DESERT STORM demonstrated the clear military advantage that was provided by our sophisticated electronic C4I and weapons systems. High tech means so dominate the battlefield that the outcome of future conflicts could be decided by electronics attrition rather than human casualties. However, the electromagnetic threat landscape is highly complex. The already formidable list of environments (EMI, lighting, ESD, EMP, HERO, TEMPEST, EW, etc.) is lengthened by emerging threats from high power microwave (HPM) and ultra-wide band (UWB) electromagnetic weapons. Many of these environments overlap in the frequency and amplitude of the electrical stresses they create.

The large number of ...