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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Electron-Impact Ionization Of H₂O At Low Projectile Energy: Internormalized Triple-Differential Cross Sections In Three-Dimensional Kinematics, Xueguang Ren, Sadek Amami, Khokon Hossen, Esam Ali, Chuangang Ning, James Colgan, Don H. Madison, Andrew Dorn Oct 2018

Electron-Impact Ionization Of H₂O At Low Projectile Energy: Internormalized Triple-Differential Cross Sections In Three-Dimensional Kinematics, Xueguang Ren, Sadek Amami, Khokon Hossen, Esam Ali, Chuangang Ning, James Colgan, Don H. Madison, Andrew Dorn

Don H. Madison

We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the electron-impact ionization of water (H2O) at the relatively low incident energy of E0=81eV in which either the 1b1 or 3a1 orbitals are ionized leading to the stable H2O cation. The experimental data were measured by using a reaction microscope, which can cover nearly the entire 4π solid angle for the secondary electron emission over a range of ejection energies. We present experimental data for the scattering angles of 6⁰ and 10⁰ for the faster of the two outgoing electrons as a function ...


Target Electron Ionization In Li2+-L-Li Collisions: A Multi-Electron Perspective, Maciej Dominik Piewanowski, Laszlo Gulyas, Marko W. Horbatsch, Johannes Goullon, Natalia Ferreira, Renate Hubele, Vitor L B D De Jesus, H. Lindenblatt, Katharina R. Schneider, Michael Schulz, Michael Schuricke, Z. Song, Shaofeng Zhang, Daniel Fischer, Tom Kirchner Feb 2018

Target Electron Ionization In Li2+-L-Li Collisions: A Multi-Electron Perspective, Maciej Dominik Piewanowski, Laszlo Gulyas, Marko W. Horbatsch, Johannes Goullon, Natalia Ferreira, Renate Hubele, Vitor L B D De Jesus, H. Lindenblatt, Katharina R. Schneider, Michael Schulz, Michael Schuricke, Z. Song, Shaofeng Zhang, Daniel Fischer, Tom Kirchner

Michael Schulz

Target electron removal in Li2+-Li collisions at 2290 keV/amu is studied experimentally and theoretically for ground and excited lithium target configurations. It is shown that in outer-shell ionization a single-electron process plays the dominant part. However, the K-shell ionization results are more difficult to interpret. According to our calculations, the process is shown to be strongly single-particle like. On one hand, a high resemblance between theoretical single-particle ionization and exclusive inner-shell ionization is demonstrated, and contributions from multi-electron processes are found to be weak. On the other hand, it is indicated by the discrepancy between experimental and ...


Probing Scattering Wave Functions Close To The Nucleus, Don H. Madison, Daniel Fischer, Matthew S. Foster, Michael Schulz, Robert Moshammer, Stephenie J. Jones, Joachim Hermann Ullrich Feb 2018

Probing Scattering Wave Functions Close To The Nucleus, Don H. Madison, Daniel Fischer, Matthew S. Foster, Michael Schulz, Robert Moshammer, Stephenie J. Jones, Joachim Hermann Ullrich

Michael Schulz

Recently, three-dimensional imaging of the ejected electrons following 100  MeV/amu C6+ single ionization of helium led to the observation of a new structure not predicted by theory [M. Schulz et al., Nature (London) 422, 48 (2003)]. Instead of the usual “recoil lobe” centered on the momentum-transfer axis, a ring-shaped structure centered on the beam axis was observed. New measurements at 2  MeV/amu exhibit a similar structure, which is now predicted by theory. We argue that the same theory failed at 100  MeV/amu because the faster projectiles probe distances much closer to the nucleus, where our multiple-scattering ...


Doubly Differential Electron-Emission Spectra In Single And Multiple Ionization Of Noble-Gas Atoms By Fast Highly-Charged-Ion Impact, Tom Kirchner, Laszlo Gulyas, Robert Moshammer, Michael Schulz, Joachim Hermann Ullrich Feb 2018

Doubly Differential Electron-Emission Spectra In Single And Multiple Ionization Of Noble-Gas Atoms By Fast Highly-Charged-Ion Impact, Tom Kirchner, Laszlo Gulyas, Robert Moshammer, Michael Schulz, Joachim Hermann Ullrich

Michael Schulz

Low-energy electron emission spectra are studied in collisions of 3.6 MeV/amu Au53+ ions with neon and argon atoms for well-defined degrees of target ionization. We calculate doubly differential cross sections as functions of the recoil-ion charge state in the continuum-distorted-wave with eikonal initial-state approximation using a binomial analysis of the total and differential ionization probabilities, and compare them with the present and with previously published experimental data. Very good agreement is found for the single-ionization spectra and for double ionization of neon, while some discrepancies are observed in the spectra for double and triple ionization of argon.


Probing Scattering Wave Functions Close To The Nucleus, Don H. Madison, Daniel Fischer, Matthew S. Foster, Michael Schulz, Robert Moshammer, Stephenie J. Jones, Joachim Hermann Ullrich Feb 2018

Probing Scattering Wave Functions Close To The Nucleus, Don H. Madison, Daniel Fischer, Matthew S. Foster, Michael Schulz, Robert Moshammer, Stephenie J. Jones, Joachim Hermann Ullrich

Daniel Fischer

Recently, three-dimensional imaging of the ejected electrons following 100  MeV/amu C6+ single ionization of helium led to the observation of a new structure not predicted by theory [M. Schulz et al., Nature (London) 422, 48 (2003)]. Instead of the usual “recoil lobe” centered on the momentum-transfer axis, a ring-shaped structure centered on the beam axis was observed. New measurements at 2  MeV/amu exhibit a similar structure, which is now predicted by theory. We argue that the same theory failed at 100  MeV/amu because the faster projectiles probe distances much closer to the nucleus, where our multiple-scattering ...


Triple-Differential Cross Sections For Target Ionization With Simultaneous Projectile Detachment In 200-Kev H⁻ + He Collisions, T. Ferger, Michael Schulz, Daniel Fischer, B. Najjari, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich Aug 2016

Triple-Differential Cross Sections For Target Ionization With Simultaneous Projectile Detachment In 200-Kev H⁻ + He Collisions, T. Ferger, Michael Schulz, Daniel Fischer, B. Najjari, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich

Michael Schulz

We have performed a kinematically complete experiment for target ionization with simultaneous projectile detachment (TIPD) in 200-keV H + He collisions. From the data we extracted triple-differential cross sections (TDCSs) for each electron separately. These TDCSs closely resemble corresponding data for single ionization by charged-particle impact. Surprisingly, the contributions from higher-order processes to TIPD, proceeding through two independent interactions of each electron with the core of the respective other collision partner, are found to be somewhat larger than the first-order process proceeding through the electron-electron interaction.


Mutual Ionization In 200-Kev H⁻+ He Collisions, T. Ferger, Daniel Fischer, Michael Schulz, R. Moshammer, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, J. Ullrich Aug 2016

Mutual Ionization In 200-Kev H⁻+ He Collisions, T. Ferger, Daniel Fischer, Michael Schulz, R. Moshammer, A. B. Voitkiv, B. Najjari, J. Ullrich

Michael Schulz

We studied mutual ionization in 200-keV H-+He collisions in a kinematically complete experiment by measuring the fully momentum-analyzed recoil ions and both active electrons in coincidence. Comparison of the data to our calculations, based on various theoretical models, show that mutual ionization proceeds predominantly through the interaction between both electrons. The post-collision interaction between the outgoing ejected electrons as well as higher order processes involving the interaction between the core of both collision partners are also important.


Multiple Scattering Mechanisms In Simultaneous Projectile-Electron And Target-Electron Ejection In H⁻ + He Collisions, Michael Schulz, T. Ferger, Daniel Fischer, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich Aug 2016

Multiple Scattering Mechanisms In Simultaneous Projectile-Electron And Target-Electron Ejection In H⁻ + He Collisions, Michael Schulz, T. Ferger, Daniel Fischer, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich

Michael Schulz

We studied simultaneous electron ejection from both collision partners in 200-keV H-+He collisions in a kinematically complete experiment by measuring the fully momentum-analyzed recoil ions and both active electrons in coincidence. The data were analyzed in terms of Dalitz spectra, in which the momentum exchange between three particles is plotted simultaneously in a single spectrum. We found that the energy transfer occurs predominantly between the active electrons, but most of the momentum is exchanged in elastic scattering between the cores of the collision partners.


Double Ionization Of Helium By Ion Impact Analyzed Using Four-Body Dalitz Plots, M. F. Ciappina, Michael Schulz, T. Kirchner, Daniel Fischer, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich Aug 2016

Double Ionization Of Helium By Ion Impact Analyzed Using Four-Body Dalitz Plots, M. F. Ciappina, Michael Schulz, T. Kirchner, Daniel Fischer, R. Moshammer, J. D. Ullrich

Michael Schulz

We have performed experimental and theoretical studies of double ionization of helium by 6 MeV proton impact using a recently developed tool, four-particle Dalitz plots [Schulz et al., J. Phys. B 22, 3091 (2007)] which enable the representation of multiple differential cross sections as a function of all four fragments in a single spectrum without loss of any part of the total cross section. As a result, the relative importance of the various interactions between the fragments can be studied in great detail. Comparisons of experimental data with theoretical first-order calculations and simulations for the higher-order (TS-2) process show that ...


A Long-Channel Model For The Asymmetric Double-Gate Mosfet Valid In All Regions Of Operation, Abhishek Kammula, Bradley Minch Jul 2012

A Long-Channel Model For The Asymmetric Double-Gate Mosfet Valid In All Regions Of Operation, Abhishek Kammula, Bradley Minch

Bradley Minch

We present a physically based, continuous analytical model for long-channel double-gate MOSFETs. The model is particularly well suited for implementation in circuit simulators due to the simple expressions for the current andthe continuous nature of the derivatives of the current which improves convergence behavior.


Multiple-Scattering Theory Of Itinerant Electron Magnetism In Random Muffin-Tin Alloys, S. Kaprzyk, A. Bansil Apr 2012

Multiple-Scattering Theory Of Itinerant Electron Magnetism In Random Muffin-Tin Alloys, S. Kaprzyk, A. Bansil

Arun Bansil

We discuss the equilibrium electronic structure of a random binary alloy within the framework of a spin-dependent muffin-tin Hamiltonian. The disorder is treated on the basis of the single-site approximations (SSA), especially the average t-matrix and the coherent potential approximations. The local-spin-density (LSD) functional approach is employed to relate the electron and the spin densities with the atomic potentials, thus providing a fully self-consistent description of the ground-state properties of the random alloy. By using the atomic magnetic moments as expansion parameters, a Stoner-type linearized form of the full SSA-LSD formalism is developed. This analysis yields insights into the nature ...


Modeling Free-Carrier Absorption And Avalanching By Ultrashort Laser Pulses, Jeremy Gulley Aug 2011

Modeling Free-Carrier Absorption And Avalanching By Ultrashort Laser Pulses, Jeremy Gulley

Jeremy R. Gulley

In the past decade it was demonstrated experimentally that negatively-chirped laser pulses can lower the surface LIDT for wide band-gap materials by decreasing the number of photons required for photoionization on the leading edge of the pulse. Similarly, simulations have shown that positively-chirped pulses resulting from selffocusing and self-phase modulation in bulk dielectrics can alter the onset of laser-induced material modifications by increasing the number of photons required for photoionization on the leading edge of the pulse. However, the role of multi-chromatic effects in free-carrier absorption and avalanching has yet to be addressed. In this work a frequency-selective model of ...


Simulation And Analysis Of Ultrafast Laser Pulse Induced Plasma Generation In Dielectric Materials, Jeremy Gulley, Sebastian Winkler, William Dennis Mar 2007

Simulation And Analysis Of Ultrafast Laser Pulse Induced Plasma Generation In Dielectric Materials, Jeremy Gulley, Sebastian Winkler, William Dennis

Jeremy R. Gulley

Recent experiments on optical damage by ultrashort laser pulses have demonstrated that the temporal pulseshape can dramatically influence plasma generation in fused silica and sapphire. In this work a modified 3+1D nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the pulse propagation coupled to a rate equation for the plasma density in the dielectric material is used to simulate pulse propagation and plasma formation in a range of dielectric materials. We use these simulations to analyze the influence of pulse-width, pulse-shape and beam geometry on the formation of the electron plasma and hence damage in the bulk material. In particular, when possible, we ...