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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Kaon Decays And A Determination Of The Scale Of Chiral Symmetry, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Kaon Decays And A Determination Of The Scale Of Chiral Symmetry, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Using effective chiral Lagrangians, we consider the occurrence of quadratic terms in the ΔI=1/2 K→3π matrix element. The inclusion of higher-derivative Lagrangians leads to a significant improvement over the usual current-algebra analysis. This allows an extraction directly from experimental data of Λχ, a measure of the scale of chiral symmetry. We give an operational definition of the chiral scale, and find Λχ≈1 GeV. The issue of uncertainty in the phenomenological determination of the B parameter is clarified.


Chiral Symmetry And The Parity-Violating Nn Pi Yukawa Coupling, Sl Zhu, Sj Puglia, Br Holstein, Mj Ramsey-Musolf Feb 2011

Chiral Symmetry And The Parity-Violating Nn Pi Yukawa Coupling, Sl Zhu, Sj Puglia, Br Holstein, Mj Ramsey-Musolf

Barry R Holstein

We construct the complete SU(2) parity-violating (PV) π,N,Δ interaction Lagrangian with one derivative, and calculate the chiral corrections to the PV Yukawa NNπ coupling constant hπ through O(1/Λχ3) in the leading order of heavy baryon expansion. We discuss the relationship between the renormalized hπ, the measured value of hπ, and the corresponding quantity calculated microscopically from the standard model four-quark PV interaction. We observe that the renormalized hπ depends strongly on a number of a priori unknown parameters in the PV effective Lagrangian.


Quantum Corrections To The Reissner-Nordstrom And Kerr-Newman Metrics, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein, B Garbrecht, T Konstandin Feb 2011

Quantum Corrections To The Reissner-Nordstrom And Kerr-Newman Metrics, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein, B Garbrecht, T Konstandin

Barry R Holstein

We use effective field theory techniques to examine the quantum corrections to the gravitational metrics of charged particles, with and without spin. In momentum space the masslessness of the photon implies the presence of non-analytic pieces Image , q2log(−q2), etc. in the form factors of the energy–momentum tensor. We show how the former reproduces the classical non-linear terms of the Reissner–Nordström and Kerr–Newman metrics while the latter can be interpreted as quantum corrections to these metrics, of order Gαplanck constant over two pi/mr3.


Chiral Anomaly And Gamma 3 Pi, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Chiral Anomaly And Gamma 3 Pi, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Measurement of the γ3π process has revealed a possible conflict with what should be a solid prediction generated by the chiral anomaly. We show that inclusion of appropriate energy-momentum dependence in the matrix element reduces the discrepancy.


Allowed Eta-Decay Modes And Chiral Symmetry, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Allowed Eta-Decay Modes And Chiral Symmetry, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Recently, the development of chiral perturbation theory has allowed the generation of rigorous low-energy theorems for various hadronic processes based only on the chiral invariance of the underlying QCD Lagrangian. Such techniques are highly developed and well-tested in the domain of pionic and kaonic reactions. In this note we point out that with the addition of a few additional and reasonable assumptions similar predictive power is available for processes involving the eta meson


Quantum Gravitational Corrections To The Nonrelativistic Scattering Potential Of Two Masses, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Quantum Gravitational Corrections To The Nonrelativistic Scattering Potential Of Two Masses, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We treat general relativity as an effective field theory, obtaining the full nonanalytic component of the scattering matrix potential to one-loop order. The lowest order vertex rules for the resulting effective field theory are presented and the one-loop diagrams which yield the leading nonrelativistic post-Newtonian and quantum corrections to the gravitational scattering amplitude to second order in G are calculated in detail. The Fourier transformed amplitudes yield a nonrelativistic potential and our result is discussed in relation to previous calculations. The definition of a potential is discussed as well, and we show that the ambiguity of the potential under coordinate ...


Chiral Anomaly And Eta-Eta ' Mixing, Ep Venugopal, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Chiral Anomaly And Eta-Eta ' Mixing, Ep Venugopal, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We determine the η-η′ mixing angle via a procedure relatively independent of theoretical assumptions by simultaneously fitting η,η′ reactions involving the anomaly η,η′→γγ, π+π-γ. We extract reasonably precise renormalized values of the octet and singlet pseudoscalar decay constants F8, F0, as well as the mixing angle θ.


Quantum Corrections To The Schwarzschild And Kerr Metrics, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Quantum Corrections To The Schwarzschild And Kerr Metrics, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

No abstract provided.


Overview Of Hadronic Parity Violation, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Overview Of Hadronic Parity Violation, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The subject of hadronic parity violation is nearly fifty years old, but a good deal of uncertainty remains, despite many efforts both theoretical and experimental. A brief summary of the field is presented and a plan is proposed for new experimental work which, when combined with a new theoretical tack based on effective field theory, should lead to resolution of the present difficulties.


An Eft For The Weak Lambda N Interaction, A Parreno, C Bennhold, Br Holstein Feb 2011

An Eft For The Weak Lambda N Interaction, A Parreno, C Bennhold, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The nonleptonic weak |ΔS|=1 ΛN interaction, responsible for the dominant, nonmesonic decay of all but the lightest hypernuclei, is studied in the framework of an effective field theory. The long-range physics is described through tree-level exchange of the SU(3) Goldstone bosons (π and K), while the short-range potential is parametrized in terms of lowest-order contact terms obtained from the most general non-derivative local four-fermion interaction. Fitting to available weak hypernuclear decay rates for 5ΛHe, 11ΛB and 12ΛC yields reasonable values for the low-energy constants.


The Delta-S=2 Matrix Element For K0-Kbar0 Mixing, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein Feb 2011

The Delta-S=2 Matrix Element For K0-Kbar0 Mixing, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We use SU(3) and PACAC to relate the ΔS = 2 matrix element Image Full-size image (1K) to experimental information on the Image contribution to K → 2π. Our results is Image which is about 33% of the vacuum insertion value.


Chiral Corrections To The Vector And Axial Couplings Of Quarks And Baryons, A Faessler, T Gutsche, Br Holstein, Ve Lyubovitskij Feb 2011

Chiral Corrections To The Vector And Axial Couplings Of Quarks And Baryons, A Faessler, T Gutsche, Br Holstein, Ve Lyubovitskij

Barry R Holstein

We calculate chiral corrections to the semileptonic vector and axial quark coupling constants using a manifestly Lorentz covariant chiral quark approach up to order O(p4) in the two- and three-flavor pictures. These couplings are then used in the evaluation of the corresponding couplings which govern the semileptonic transitions between octet baryon states. In the calculation of baryon matrix elements we use a general ansatz for the spatial form of the quark wave function, without referring to a specific realization of hadronization and confinement of quarks in baryons. Matching the physical amplitudes calculated within our approach to the model-independent predictions ...


Components Of A Chiral Coefficient, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Components Of A Chiral Coefficient, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

One of the coefficients that parametrizes the chiral Lagrangian of QCD is expressible in terms of a sum rule for which the integrand is known from experiment. We confront two model calculations of this coefficient with the behavior of the data. The model related to vector dominance reproduces the sumrule behavior very well, whereas a one-loop chiral quark model calculation fails badly. The sum rule allows one to identify those ingredients which are needed to make the quark method more realistic.


Systematic 1/M Expansion For Spin 3/2 Particles In Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory, Tr Hemmert, Br Holstein, J Kambor Feb 2011

Systematic 1/M Expansion For Spin 3/2 Particles In Baryon Chiral Perturbation Theory, Tr Hemmert, Br Holstein, J Kambor

Barry R Holstein

Starting from a relativistic formulation of the pion-nucleon-delta system, the most general structure of 1/M corrections for a heavy baryon chiral lagrangian including spin 3/2 resonances is given. The heavy components of relativistic nucleons and delta fields are integrated out and their contributions to the next-to-leaing order lagrangians are constructed explicitly. The effective theory obtained admits a systematic expansion in terms of soft momenta, the pion mass $m_\pi$ and the delta-nucleon mass difference $\Delta$. As an application, we consider neutral pion photoproduction at threshold to third order in this small scale expansion.


Chiral Symmetry And The Large-Nc Limit In Kl4 Decays, C Riggenbach, J Gasser, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Chiral Symmetry And The Large-Nc Limit In Kl4 Decays, C Riggenbach, J Gasser, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The treatment of kaon decays using chiral symmetry yields predictions for thè form factors in K→ππeν. In addition, the large-Nc limit of QCD implies that a particular combination of low-energy constants should be suppressed. We present the chiral predictions for Kl4 decays at next-to-leading order in the energy expansion. By combining the phenomenologies of Kl4 and ππ scattering, we test these predictions and provide a determination of the parameters in the chiral Lagrangian of QCD.


Long-Distance Chiral Contributions To The Kl-Ks Mass Difference, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein Feb 2011

Long-Distance Chiral Contributions To The Kl-Ks Mass Difference, Jf Donoghue, Eugene Golowich, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We use chiral symmetry to calculate the very long distance contributions to the KL–KS mass difference. We determine that the dominant effect arises from the two-pion dispersive contribution, which by itself produces a large result comparable to or greater than the experimental mass difference (with the correct sign). Some contributions from intermediate distance are also estimated and could be significant. These conclusions reinforce the need, first pointed out by Wolfenstein, to include an additive parameter to account for the long distance contributions in phenomenological studies of the KL–KS mass difference. This parameter may be determined from the data ...


Neutrons And Hadronic Parity Violation, Br Holstein Sep 2009

Neutrons And Hadronic Parity Violation, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The history and phenomenology of hadronic parity violation are reviewed, and the important role of the neutron in unlocking the physics of this subject is outlined.


Hadronic Parity Violation And Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein Jun 2009

Hadronic Parity Violation And Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The history and phenomenology of hadronic parity violation is reviewed and a new modelindependent approach based on effective field theory is developed. Possible future developments are discussed.


The Mysterious Disappearance Of Ettore Majorana - Art. No. 012019, Br Holstein Dec 2008

The Mysterious Disappearance Of Ettore Majorana - Art. No. 012019, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We review the short but interesting life of Ettore Majorana.


Long Range Electromagnetic Effects Involving Neutral Systems And Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein Jul 2008

Long Range Electromagnetic Effects Involving Neutral Systems And Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We analyze the electromagnetic scattering of massive particles with and without spin wherein one particle (or both) is electrically neutral. Using the techniques of effective field theory, we isolate the leading long distance effects, both classical and quantum mechanical. For spinless systems results are identical to those obtained earlier via more elaborate dispersive methods. However, we also find new results if either or both particles carry spin.


Chiral Perturbation Theory: An Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein Jun 2008

Chiral Perturbation Theory: An Effective Field Theory, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The concept of an effective field theory (EFT), i.e. a theory which is valid only in a limited range of parameter space, is one which has become highly developed recently. After presenting familiar examples from the realms of classical and quantum mechanics together with condensed matter physics, we show that QCD has an intriguing parallel with superconductivity in that, by using quark–antiquark (mesonic) degrees of freedom and exploiting the symmetries of the theory, a useful and powerful theory–chiral perturbation theory–results, which offers a complete and rigorous description of low energy particle and nuclear physics.


Spin Effects In The Effective Quantum Field Theory Of General Relativity, A Ross, Br Holstein Jun 2007

Spin Effects In The Effective Quantum Field Theory Of General Relativity, A Ross, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The calculation of gravitational scattering of particles with various spin configurations in the framework of effective quantum field theory of general relativity is presented. We find that the long-range quantum and classical corrections to the spin-independent piece and the spin–orbit coupling piece of the scattering amplitude and the scattering potential are universal for different spin configurations, which leads us to propose this universality to be true for arbitrary spins. Furthermore, we give the leading corrections to the spin–spin coupling, and a comparison with scattering in QED is made.


Parametrization Dependence Of The Energy-Momentum Tensor And The Metric, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein May 2007

Parametrization Dependence Of The Energy-Momentum Tensor And The Metric, Nej Bjerrum-Bohr, Jf Donoghue, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We use results by Kirilin to comment that in general relativity the nonleading terms in the energy-momentum tensor of a particle depends on the parameterization of the gravitational field. The classical observables are parameterization independent after a change in coordinates. The quantum effects that emerge within the same calculation of the metric also depend on the parameterization and a full quantum calculation requires the inclusion of further diagrams. However, within a given parameterization the quantum effects calculated by us in a previous paper are well defined. Flaws of Kirilin’s proposed alternate metric definition are described and we explain why ...


Second Born Approximation And Coulomb Scattering, Br Holstein Dec 2006

Second Born Approximation And Coulomb Scattering, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

We examine the problem of calculating higher order contributions to the Coulomb scattering amplitude. To make contact with the well known result, it is necessary to modify the conventional definition of the scattering amplitude.


Metric Modifications For A Massive Spin 1 Particle, Br Holstein Dec 2005

Metric Modifications For A Massive Spin 1 Particle, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Previous evaluations of long range one-photon and one-graviton-loop corrections to the energy-momentum tensor and the metric tensor describing spacetime in the vicinity of massive spinless and spin 1/2 systems have been extended to particles with unit spin and speculations are confirmed concerning universal properties of such forms.


Metric Modifications For A Massive Spin 1 Particle, Barry R. Holstein Dec 2005

Metric Modifications For A Massive Spin 1 Particle, Barry R. Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Previous evaluations of long range one-photon and one-graviton-loop corrections to the energy-momentum tensor and the metric tensor describing spacetime in the vicinity of massive spinless and spin 1/2 systems have been extended to particles with unit spin and speculations are confirmed concerning universal properties of such forms.


Gyroscope Precession And General Relativity, Br Holstein Dec 2000

Gyroscope Precession And General Relativity, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

Precession of a gyroscope in the presence of a gravitational field is of considerable interest, on account of the soon to be launched satellite test and because of its connection to Mach's principle. Nevertheless, this topic is not generally covered in the curriculum because of the mathematical sophistication required. We examine some of the simple physics involved and argue that by examining simple graviton-elementary particle couplings one can easily understand this phenomenon.


Comment On "The Van Der Waals Interaction," By Barry R. Holstein [Am. J. Phys. 69 (4), 441-449 (2001)], Br Holstein Dec 2000

Comment On "The Van Der Waals Interaction," By Barry R. Holstein [Am. J. Phys. 69 (4), 441-449 (2001)], Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

No abstract provided.


Determination Of The Quadratic Slope Parameter In Eta -> 3 Pi(0) Decay, Wb Tippens, S Prakhov, Ce Allgower, V Bekrenev, E Berger, Wj Briscoe, M Clajus, Jr Comfort, K Craig, A Efendiev, D Grosnick, Br Holstein, Gm Huber, D Isenhower, N Knecht, D Koetke, A Koulbardis, N Kozlenko, S Kruglov, Gj Lolos, I Lopatin, Dm Manley, A Marusic, R Manweiler, S Mcdonald, Bmk Nefkens, J Olmsted, Z Papandreou, N Phaisangittisakul, Jw Price, M Pulver, Af Ramirez, Me Sadler, A Shafi, H Spinka, S Stanislaus, A Starostin, Hm Staudenmaier Dec 2000

Determination Of The Quadratic Slope Parameter In Eta -> 3 Pi(0) Decay, Wb Tippens, S Prakhov, Ce Allgower, V Bekrenev, E Berger, Wj Briscoe, M Clajus, Jr Comfort, K Craig, A Efendiev, D Grosnick, Br Holstein, Gm Huber, D Isenhower, N Knecht, D Koetke, A Koulbardis, N Kozlenko, S Kruglov, Gj Lolos, I Lopatin, Dm Manley, A Marusic, R Manweiler, S Mcdonald, Bmk Nefkens, J Olmsted, Z Papandreou, N Phaisangittisakul, Jw Price, M Pulver, Af Ramirez, Me Sadler, A Shafi, H Spinka, S Stanislaus, A Starostin, Hm Staudenmaier

Barry R Holstein

We have determined the quadratic slope parameter α for η→3π0 to be α = -0.031(4) from a 99% pure sample of 106η→3π0 decays produced in the reaction π-p→nη close to the η threshold using the Crystal Ball detector at the AGS. The result is four times more precise than the present world data and disagrees with current chiral perturbation theory calculations by about four standard deviations.


Evaluating The Effective Action, Br Holstein Dec 1999

Evaluating The Effective Action, Br Holstein

Barry R Holstein

The use of effective field theory, in situations wherein the energy-momentum of light particles is much lower than the rest mass of heavy degrees of freedom, has become an important one in contemporary physics. Herein we examine various means by which this effective action can be evaluated, using the effective photon–photon interaction—the Euler–Heisenberg Lagrangian—as a pedagogical example.