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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez May 2015

Fast Super-Resolution With Affine Motion Using An Adaptive Wiener Filter And Its Application To Airborne Imaging, Russell C. Hardie, Kenneth J. Barnard, Raúl Ordóñez

Raúl Ordóñez

Fast nonuniform interpolation based super-resolution (SR) has traditionally been limited to applications with translational interframe motion. This is in part because such methods are based on an underlying assumption that the warping and blurring components in the observation model commute. For translational motion this is the case, but it is not true in general. This presents a problem for applications such as airborne imaging where translation may be insufficient. Here we present a new Fourier domain analysis to show that, for many image systems, an affine warping model with limited zoom and shear approximately commutes with the point spread function ...


Finite-Temperature Superconducting Correlations Of The Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Richard T. Scalettar, Rajiv R.P. Singh Dec 2014

Finite-Temperature Superconducting Correlations Of The Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Richard T. Scalettar, Rajiv R.P. Singh

Ehsan Khatami

We utilize numerical linked-cluster expansions (NLCEs) and the determinantal quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to study pairing correlations in the square-lattice Hubbard model. To benchmark the NLCE, we first locate the finite-temperature phase transition of the attractive model to a superconducting state away from half filling. We then explore the superconducting properties of the repulsive model for the d-wave and extended s-wave pairing symmetries. The pairing structure factor shows a strong tendency to d-wave pairing and peaks at an interaction strength comparable to the bandwidth. The extended s-wave structure factor and correlation length are larger at higher temperatures but clearly saturate ...


Geometry Dependence Of The Sign Problem In Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations, V. I. Iglovikov, Ehsan Khatami, R. T. Scalettar Dec 2014

Geometry Dependence Of The Sign Problem In Quantum Monte Carlo Simulations, V. I. Iglovikov, Ehsan Khatami, R. T. Scalettar

Ehsan Khatami

The sign problem is the fundamental limitation to quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the statistical mechanics of interacting fermions. Determinant quantum Monte Carlo (DQMC) is one of the leading methods to study lattice fermions, such as the Hubbard Hamiltonian, which describe strongly correlated phenomena including magnetism, metal-insulator transitions, and possibly exotic superconductivity. Here, we provide a comprehensive dataset on the geometry dependence of the DQMC sign problem for different densities, interaction strengths, temperatures, and spatial lattice sizes. We supplement these data with several observations concerning general trends in the data, including the dependence on spatial volume and how this can ...


Nuclear Proliferation And Testing: A Tale Of Two Treaties, Pierce S. Corden, David Hafemeister Apr 2014

Nuclear Proliferation And Testing: A Tale Of Two Treaties, Pierce S. Corden, David Hafemeister

David W. Hafemeister

Despite progress in reducing stockpiles after the end of the Cold War, the disturbing actions of some nations could spread nuclear weapon capabilities and enlarge existing arsenals.


Magnetic Correlations And Pairing In The 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Rajiv R.P. Singh, Warren E. Pickett, Richard T. Scalettar Dec 2013

Magnetic Correlations And Pairing In The 1/5-Depleted Square Lattice Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Rajiv R.P. Singh, Warren E. Pickett, Richard T. Scalettar

Ehsan Khatami

We study the single-orbital Hubbard model on the 1/5-depleted square-lattice geometry, which arises in such diverse systems as the spin-gap magnetic insulator CaV4O9 and ordered-vacancy iron selenides, presenting new issues regarding the origin of both magnetic ordering and superconductivity in these materials. We find a rich phase diagram that includes a plaquette singlet phase, a dimer singlet phase, a Néel and a block-spin antiferromagnetic phase, and stripe phases. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations show that the dominant pairing correlations at half filling change character from d wave in the plaquette phase to extended s wave upon transition to the Néel ...


Linked-Cluster Expansion For The Green's Function Of The Infinite-U Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Edward Perepelitsky, Marcos Rigol, Sriram B. Shastry Dec 2013

Linked-Cluster Expansion For The Green's Function Of The Infinite-U Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Edward Perepelitsky, Marcos Rigol, Sriram B. Shastry

Ehsan Khatami

We implement a highly efficient strong-coupling expansion for the Green's function of the Hubbard model. In the limit of extreme correlations, where the onsite interaction is infinite, the evaluation of diagrams simplifies dramatically enabling us to carry out the expansion to the eighth order in powers of the hopping amplitude. We compute the finite-temperature Green's function analytically in the momentum and Matsubara frequency space as a function of the electron density. Employing Padé approximations, we study the equation of state, Kelvin thermopower, momentum distribution function, quasiparticle fraction, and quasiparticle lifetime of the system at temperatures lower than, or ...


Finite-Temperature Properties Of Strongly Correlated Fermions In The Honeycomb Lattice, Baoming Tang, Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Marchos Rigol Sep 2013

Finite-Temperature Properties Of Strongly Correlated Fermions In The Honeycomb Lattice, Baoming Tang, Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Marchos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We study finite-temperature properties of strongly interacting fermions in the honeycomb lattice using numerical linked-cluster expansions and determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We analyze a number of thermodynamic quantities, including the entropy, the specific heat, uniform and staggered spin susceptibilities, short-range spin correlations, and the double occupancy at and away from half filling. We examine the viability of adiabatic cooling by increasing the interaction strength for homogeneous as well as for trapped systems. For the homogeneous case, this process is found to be more efficient at finite doping than at half filling. That, in turn, leads to an efficient adiabatic ...


Laminar Flow Of Two Miscible Fluids In A Simple Network, Casey Karst, Brian Storey, John B. Geddes Sep 2013

Laminar Flow Of Two Miscible Fluids In A Simple Network, Casey Karst, Brian Storey, John B. Geddes

Brian Storey

When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow ...


Electronic Spectral Properties Of The Two-Dimensional Infinite-U Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Daniel Hansen, Edward Perepelitsky, Marcos Rigol, Sriram B. Shastry Mar 2013

Electronic Spectral Properties Of The Two-Dimensional Infinite-U Hubbard Model, Ehsan Khatami, Daniel Hansen, Edward Perepelitsky, Marcos Rigol, Sriram B. Shastry

Ehsan Khatami

A strong-coupling series expansion for the Green's function and the extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) theory are used to calculate the moments of the electronic spectral functions of the infinite-U Hubbard model. Results from these two complementary methods agree very well at both low densities, where the ECFL solution is the most accurate, and at high to intermediate temperatures, where the series converge. We find that a modified first moment, which underestimates the contributions from the occupied states and is accessible in the series through the time-dependent Green's function, best describes the peak location of the spectral function ...


A Short Introduction To Numerical Linked-Cluster Expansions, Baoming Tang, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol Feb 2013

A Short Introduction To Numerical Linked-Cluster Expansions, Baoming Tang, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We provide a pedagogical introduction to numerical linked-cluster expansions (NLCEs). We sketch the algorithm for generic Hamiltonians that only connect nearest-neighbor sites in a finite cluster with open boundary conditions. We then compare results for a specific model, the Heisenberg model, in each order of the NLCE with the ones for the finite cluster calculated directly by means of full exact diagonalization. We discuss how to reduce the computational cost of the NLCE calculations by taking into account symmetries and topologies of the linked clusters. Finally, we generalize the algorithm to the thermodynamic limit, and discuss several numerical resummation techniques ...


Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem In An Isolated System Of Quantum Dipolar Bosons After A Quench, Ehsan Khatami, Guido Pupillo, Mark Srednicki, Marcos Rigol Dec 2012

Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem In An Isolated System Of Quantum Dipolar Bosons After A Quench, Ehsan Khatami, Guido Pupillo, Mark Srednicki, Marcos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We examine the validity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in isolated quantum systems taken out of equilibrium by a sudden quench. We focus on the dynamics of trapped hard-core bosons in one-dimensional lattices with dipolar interactions whose strength is changed during the quench. We find indications that fluctuation-dissipation relations hold if the system is nonintegrable after the quench, as well as if it is integrable after the quench if the initial state is an equilibrium state of a nonintegrable Hamiltonian. On the other hand, we find indications that they fail if the system is integrable both before and after quenching.


Workshop Addresses Aviation Community, Jennifer Meehan, Joseph Kunches Aug 2012

Workshop Addresses Aviation Community, Jennifer Meehan, Joseph Kunches

Jennifer (Jinni) Meehan

No abstract provided.


Effect Of Particle Statistics In Strongly Correlated Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol Jul 2012

Effect Of Particle Statistics In Strongly Correlated Two-Dimensional Hubbard Models, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We study the onset of particle statistics effects as the temperature is lowered in strongly correlated two-dimensional Hubbard models. We utilize numerical linked-cluster expansions and focus on the properties of interacting lattice fermions and two-component hard-core bosons. In the weak-coupling regime, where the ground state of the bosonic system is a superfluid, the thermodynamic properties of the two systems at half filling exhibit very large differences even at high temperatures. In the strong-coupling regime, where the low-temperature behavior is governed by a Mott insulator for either particle statistics, the agreement between the thermodynamic properties of both systems extends to regions ...


The Second Annual Space Weather Community Operations Workshop: Advancing Operations Into The Next Decade, Jennifer Meehan, Jared Fulgham, Kent Tobiska Jul 2012

The Second Annual Space Weather Community Operations Workshop: Advancing Operations Into The Next Decade, Jennifer Meehan, Jared Fulgham, Kent Tobiska

Jennifer (Jinni) Meehan

No abstract provided.


Double Layer In Ionic Liquids: Overscreening Versus Crowding, Martin Z. Bazant, Brian D. Storey, Alexei A. Kornyshev Jul 2012

Double Layer In Ionic Liquids: Overscreening Versus Crowding, Martin Z. Bazant, Brian D. Storey, Alexei A. Kornyshev

Brian Storey

We develop a simple Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum theory of solvent-free ionic liquids and use it to predict the structure of the electrical double layer. The model captures overscreening from short-range correlations, dominant at small voltages, and steric constraints of finite ion sizes, which prevail at large voltages. Increasing the voltage gradually suppresses overscreening in favor of the crowding of counterions in a condensed inner layer near the electrode. This prediction, the ion profiles, and the capacitance-voltage dependence are consistent with recent computer simulations and experiments on room-temperature ionic liquids, using a correlation length of order the ion size.


Mixture Segregation Within Sonoluminescence Bubbles, Brian D. Storey, Andrew J. Szeri Jul 2012

Mixture Segregation Within Sonoluminescence Bubbles, Brian D. Storey, Andrew J. Szeri

Brian Storey

This paper concerns a relaxation of the assumption of uniform mixture composition in the interior of sonoluminescence bubbles. Intense temperature and pressure gradients within the bubble drive relative mass diffusion which overwhelms diffusion driven by concentration gradients. This thermal and pressure diffusion results in a robust compositional inhomogeneity in the bubble which lasts several orders of magnitude longer than the temperature peak or light pulse at the main collapse of the bubble. This effect has important consequences for control of sonoluminescence, gas dynamics, sonochemistry, and the physics of light production.


Tension-Induced Straightening Transition Of Self-Assembled Helical Ribbons, Yevgeniya V. Zastavker, Brice Smith, George B. Benedek Jun 2012

Tension-Induced Straightening Transition Of Self-Assembled Helical Ribbons, Yevgeniya V. Zastavker, Brice Smith, George B. Benedek

Yevgeniya V. Zastavker

Helical ribbons with pitch angles of either 11° or 54° self-assemble in a wide variety of quaternary surfactant-phospholipid/fatty acid-sterol-water systems. By elastically deforming these helices, we examined their response to uniaxial forces. Under sufficient tension, a low pitch helix reversibly separates into a straight domain with a pitch angle of 90° and a helical domain with a pitch angle of 16.5°. Using a newly developed continuum elastic free energy model, we have shown that this phenomenon can be understood as a first order mechanical phase transition.


Quantum Quenches In Disordered Systems: Approach To Thermal Equilibrium Without A Typical Relaxation Time, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol, Armando Relaño, Antonio M. García-García Apr 2012

Quantum Quenches In Disordered Systems: Approach To Thermal Equilibrium Without A Typical Relaxation Time, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol, Armando Relaño, Antonio M. García-García

Ehsan Khatami

We study spectral properties and the dynamics after a quench of one-dimensional spinless fermions with short-range interactions and long-range random hopping. We show that a sufficiently fast decay of the hopping term promotes localization effects at finite temperature, which prevents thermalization even if the classical motion is chaotic. For slower decays, we find that thermalization does occur. However, within this model, the latter regime falls in an unexpected universality class, namely, observables exhibit a power-law (as opposed to an exponential) approach to their thermal expectation values.


A Depth-Averaged Electrokinetic Flow Model For Shallow Microchannels, Hao Lin, Brian D. Storey, Juan G. Santiago Mar 2012

A Depth-Averaged Electrokinetic Flow Model For Shallow Microchannels, Hao Lin, Brian D. Storey, Juan G. Santiago

Brian Storey

Electrokinetic flows with heterogeneous conductivity configuration occur widely in microfluidic applications such as sample stacking and multidimensional assays. Electromechanical coupling in these flows may lead to complex flow phenomena, such as sample dispersion due to electro-osmotic velocity mismatch, and electrokinetic instability (EKI). In this work we develop a generalized electrokinetic model suitable for the study of microchannel flows with conductivity gradients and shallow-channel geometry. An asymptotic analysis is performed with the channel depth-to-width ratio as a smallness parameter, and the three-dimensional equations are reduced to a set of depth-averaged equations governing in-plane flow dynamics. The momentum equation uses a Darcy ...


Instability Of Electro-Osmotic Channel Flow With Streamwise Conductivity Gradients, Jose Santos, Brian D. Storey Mar 2012

Instability Of Electro-Osmotic Channel Flow With Streamwise Conductivity Gradients, Jose Santos, Brian D. Storey

Brian Storey

This work considers the stability of an electro-osmotic microchannel flow with streamwise electrical conductivity gradients, a configuration common in microfluidic applications such as field amplified sample stacking. Previous work on such flows has focused on how streamwise conductivity gradients set a nonuniform electro-osmotic velocity which results in dispersion of the conductivity field. However, it has been known for many years that electric fields can couple with conductivity gradients to generate unstable flows. This work demonstrates that at high electric fields such an electrohydrodynamic instability arises in this configuration and the basic mechanisms are explored through numerical simulations. The instability is ...


Nonlinear Electrokinetics At Large Voltages, Martin Z. Bazant, Mustafa Sabri Kilic, Brian D. Storey, Armand Ajdari Mar 2012

Nonlinear Electrokinetics At Large Voltages, Martin Z. Bazant, Mustafa Sabri Kilic, Brian D. Storey, Armand Ajdari

Brian Storey

Part of Focus on Micro- and Nanofluidics The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, kBT/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts 100kBT/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the ...


Steric Effects On Ac Electro-Osmosis In Dilute Electrolytes, Brian D. Storey, Lee Edwards, Mustafa Sabri Kilic, Martin Z. Bazant Mar 2012

Steric Effects On Ac Electro-Osmosis In Dilute Electrolytes, Brian D. Storey, Lee Edwards, Mustafa Sabri Kilic, Martin Z. Bazant

Brian Storey

The current theory of alternating-current electro-osmosis (ACEO) is unable to explain the experimentally observed flow reversal of planar ACEO pumps at high frequency (above the peak, typically 10–100 kHz), low salt concentration (1–1000 μM), and moderate voltage (2–6 V), even taking into account Faradaic surface reactions, nonlinear double-layer capacitance, and bulk electrothermal flows. We attribute this failure to the breakdown of the classical Poisson-Boltzmann model of the diffuse double layer, which assumes a dilute solution of pointlike ions. In spite of low bulk salt concentration, the large voltage induced across the double layer leads to crowding of ...


Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Of Violently Collapsing Bubbles, Hao Lin, Brian D. Storey, Andrew J. Szeri Mar 2012

Rayleigh-Taylor Instability Of Violently Collapsing Bubbles, Hao Lin, Brian D. Storey, Andrew J. Szeri

Brian Storey

In a classical paper Plesset has determined conditions under which a bubble changing in volume maintains a spherical shape. The stability analysis was further developed by Prosperetti to include the effects of liquid viscosity on the evolving shape modes. In the present work the theory is further modified to include the changing density of the bubble contents. The latter is found to be important in violent collapses where the densities of the gas and vapor within a bubble may approach densities of the liquid outside. This exerts a stabilizing influence on the Rayleigh–Taylor mechanism of shape instability of spherical ...


Bulk Electroconvective Instability At High Péclet Numbers, Brian D. Storey, Boris Zaltzman, Isaak Rubinstein Mar 2012

Bulk Electroconvective Instability At High Péclet Numbers, Brian D. Storey, Boris Zaltzman, Isaak Rubinstein

Brian Storey

Bulk electroconvection pertains to flow induced by the action of a mean electric field upon the residual space charge in the macroscopic regions of a locally quasielectroneutral strong electrolyte. For a long time, controversy has existed in the literature as to whether quiescent electric conduction from such an electrolyte into a uniform charge-selective solid, such as a metal electrode or ion exchange membrane, is stable with respect to bulk electroconvection. While it was recently claimed that bulk electroconvective instability could not occur, this claim pertained to an aqueous, low-molecular-weight electrolyte characterized by an order-unity electroconvection Péclet number. In this paper ...


Field-Amplified Sample Stacking And Focusing In Nanofluidic Channels, Jess M. Sustarich, Brian D. Storey, Sumita Pennathur Mar 2012

Field-Amplified Sample Stacking And Focusing In Nanofluidic Channels, Jess M. Sustarich, Brian D. Storey, Sumita Pennathur

Brian Storey

Nanofluidic technology is gaining popularity for bioanalytical applications due to advances in both nanofabrication and design. One major obstacle in the widespread adoption of such technology for bioanalytical systems is efficient detection of samples due to the inherently low analyte concentrations present in such systems. This problem is exacerbated by the push for electronic detection, which requires an even higher sensor-local sample concentration than optical detection. This paper explores one of the most common preconcentration techniques, field-amplified sample stacking, in nanofluidic systems in efforts to alleviate this obstacle. Holding the ratio of background electrolyte concentrations constant, the parameters of channel ...


Heat-Capacity And Magnetic Measurements On The Y(Ni2-XCoX)B2C System, C. C. Hoellwarth, P. Klavins, R. N. Shelton Mar 2012

Heat-Capacity And Magnetic Measurements On The Y(Ni2-XCoX)B2C System, C. C. Hoellwarth, P. Klavins, R. N. Shelton

Chance Hoellwarth

We have performed field-and temperature-dependent magnetization, resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements on polycrystalline samples of the Y(Ni2-xCox)B2C system with 0.0≤x≤0.4. Values of Tc ,x0,Hc2,ΘD,λ and N(Ed) were determined for various samples. We observe that ΘD increases with x, while all the other parameters decrease with x. The Tc vs x data can be described using the BCS theory and the measured values of N(Ef)and ΘD. The results suggest that the decrease in Tc is due to the decrease in N(Ef), in agreement with the results from band structure ...


Exposing Students To The Idea That Theories Can Change, Chance Hoellwarth, Matthew J. Moelter Feb 2012

Exposing Students To The Idea That Theories Can Change, Chance Hoellwarth, Matthew J. Moelter

Chance Hoellwarth

No abstract provided.


A Direct Comparison Of Conceptual Learning And Problem Solving Ability In Traditional And Studio Style Classrooms, Chance Hoellwarth, Matthew J. Moelter, Randall D. Knight Feb 2012

A Direct Comparison Of Conceptual Learning And Problem Solving Ability In Traditional And Studio Style Classrooms, Chance Hoellwarth, Matthew J. Moelter, Randall D. Knight

Chance Hoellwarth

We present data on student performance on conceptual understanding and on quantitative problem-solving ability in introductory mechanics in both studio and traditional classroom modes. The conceptual measures used were the Force Concept Inventory and the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation. Quantitative problem-solving ability was measured with standard questions on the final exam. Our data compare three different quarters over the course of 2 years. In all three quarters, the normalized learning gain in conceptual understanding was significantly larger for students in the studio sections. At the same time, students in the studio sections performed the same or slightly worse on ...


Numerical Study Of The Thermodynamics Of Clinoatacamite, Ehsan Khatami, Joel S. Helton, Marcos Rigol Jan 2012

Numerical Study Of The Thermodynamics Of Clinoatacamite, Ehsan Khatami, Joel S. Helton, Marcos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We study the thermodynamic properties of the clinoatacamite compound, Cu2(OH)3Cl, by considering several approximate models. They include the Heisenberg model on (i) the uniform pyrochlore lattice, (ii) a very anisotropic pyrochlore lattice, and (iii) a kagome lattice weakly coupled to spins that sit on a triangular lattice. We utilize the exact diagonalization of small clusters with periodic boundary conditions and implement a numerical linked-cluster expansion approach for quantum lattice models with reduced symmetries, which allows us to solve model (iii) in the thermodynamic limit. We find a very good agreement between the experimental uniform susceptibility and the numerical ...


Short-Range Correlations And Cooling Of Ultracold Fermions In The Honeycomb Lattice, Baoming Tang, Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol Dec 2011

Short-Range Correlations And Cooling Of Ultracold Fermions In The Honeycomb Lattice, Baoming Tang, Thereza Paiva, Ehsan Khatami, Marcos Rigol

Ehsan Khatami

We use determinantal quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical linked-cluster expansions to study thermodynamic properties and short-range spin correlations of fermions in the honeycomb lattice. We find that, at half filling and finite temperatures, nearest-neighbor spin correlations can be stronger in this lattice than in the square lattice, even in regimes where the ground state in the former is a semimetal or a spin liquid. The honeycomb lattice also exhibits a more pronounced anomalous region in the double occupancy that leads to stronger adiabatic cooling than in the square lattice. We discuss the implications of these findings for optical lattice ...