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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Ucna/Ucna+, Robert Pattie Aug 2019

Ucna/Ucna+, Robert Pattie

Robert W. Pattie Jr.

The neutron provides a simple yet dynamic nuclear system to study the Standard Model of Particle Physics. The process of transforming a neutron into a proton, an electron, and an anti-neutrino contains a wealth of information in the decay rate and the kinematics of the emitted particles. Precision measurements of angular correlations in neutron β-decay can lend insight to the structure of the weak interaction and probe for physics beyond the Standard Model. The UCNA experiment at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center is the only experiment to use ultracold neutrons to perform such a measurement, determining the β-asymmetry parameter ...


Dielectric Function And Bowing Parameter Of Zn_{1-X}Mg_Xse And Zn_{1-X}Be_Xse Alloys, Frank Peiris, Et Al. Feb 2017

Dielectric Function And Bowing Parameter Of Zn_{1-X}Mg_Xse And Zn_{1-X}Be_Xse Alloys, Frank Peiris, Et Al.

Frank Peiris

We report pseudodielectric function data < > = < 1 > + i < 2 > of Zn1−xMg x Se and Zn1−xBexSe samples grown on GaAs substrates. Critical point parameters were obtained by fitting model lineshapes to numerically calculated second energy derivatives of < >, from which the bowing parameters and spin-orbit-splitting ∆1 of the E1 and the E1 + ∆1 gaps were obtained. We discuss the bowing parameters and spin-orbit-splitting ∆1 of the E1 and the E1 + ∆1 gaps.


Volume Holographic Optical Elements, Ching-Cherng Sun, Partha P. Banerjee Apr 2016

Volume Holographic Optical Elements, Ching-Cherng Sun, Partha P. Banerjee

Partha Banerjee

The final two papers are concerned with the analysis of novel holograms. Banerjee et al. investigate holographic recording and reconstruction for edge-lit holograms recorded in a 90-degree geometry. Various cases of recording and readout that incorporate propagational diffraction have been modeled. It is shown that the 90-degree geometry can result in beam shaping, as evidenced through preliminary experimental results with photorefractive lithium niobate. Nguyen et al. propose a new approach for designing computer-generated holograms. An artificial neural network is used to initiate the genetic algorithm so that the high computation cost of genetic algorithms for synthesizing holograms is significantly reduced ...


Chemical Dynamics Of Aluminum Nanoparticles In Ammonium Nitrate And Ammonium Perchlorate Matrices: Enhanced Reactivity Of Organically Capped Aluminum, William K. Lewis, Barbara A. Harruff-Miller, Joseph R. Gord, Andrew T. Rosenberger, Thomas M. Sexton, Elena A. Guliants, Christopher E. Bunker Apr 2016

Chemical Dynamics Of Aluminum Nanoparticles In Ammonium Nitrate And Ammonium Perchlorate Matrices: Enhanced Reactivity Of Organically Capped Aluminum, William K. Lewis, Barbara A. Harruff-Miller, Joseph R. Gord, Andrew T. Rosenberger, Thomas M. Sexton, Elena A. Guliants, Christopher E. Bunker

Elena A. Guliants

Aluminum nanoparticles have been a subject of active investigation in recent years because of their potential to enhance the energy content of energetic materials. The associated kinetics of the chemical reaction and energy release are, in many cases, governed by the properties of the passivation layer protecting the particle rather than those of the underlying metal core. The passivation layer of Al particles is typically an oxide shell several nanometers thick, but other possibilities are now available. We have previously developed synthesis routes to produce air-stable Al nanoparticles that are capped by oleic acid. In the present study, we examine ...


Carbon Nanoparticles As Visible-Light Photocatalysts For Efficient Co2 Conversion And Beyond, Li Cao, Sushant Sahu, Parambath Anilkumar, Christopher E. Bunker, Juan Xu, K. A. Shiral Fernando, Ping Wang, Elena A. Guliants, Kenneth N. Tackett Ii, Ya-Ping Sun Apr 2016

Carbon Nanoparticles As Visible-Light Photocatalysts For Efficient Co2 Conversion And Beyond, Li Cao, Sushant Sahu, Parambath Anilkumar, Christopher E. Bunker, Juan Xu, K. A. Shiral Fernando, Ping Wang, Elena A. Guliants, Kenneth N. Tackett Ii, Ya-Ping Sun

Elena A. Guliants

Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels have generated much concern, driving the ongoing carbon sequestration effort. A compelling CO2 sequestration option is its photocatalytic conversion to hydrocarbons, for which the use of solar irradiation represents an ultimate solution. Here we report a new strategy of using surface-functionalized small carbon nanoparticles to harvest visible photons for subsequent charge separation on the particle surface in order to drive the efficient photocatalytic process. The aqueous solubility of the catalysts enables photoreduction under more desirable homogeneous reaction conditions. Beyond CO2 conversion, the nanoscale carbon-based photocatalysts are also useful for the photogeneration of H2 from water under ...


Spatio-Spectral Sampling And Color Filter Array Design, Keigo Hirakawa, Patrick Wolfe Mar 2016

Spatio-Spectral Sampling And Color Filter Array Design, Keigo Hirakawa, Patrick Wolfe

Keigo Hirakawa

Owing to the growing ubiquity of digital image acquisition and display, several factors must be considered when developing systems to meet future color image processing needs, including improved quality, increased throughput, and greater cost-effectiveness. In consumer still-camera and video applications, color images are typically obtained via a spatial subsampling procedure implemented as a color filter array (CFA), a physical construction whereby only a single component of the color space is measured at each pixel location. Substantial work in both industry and academia has been dedicated to post-processing this acquired raw image data as part of the so-called image processing pipeline ...


Revisiting Hafemeister’S ‘Science And Society’ Tests, Robert Brecha, Rex Berney, Bruce Craver Feb 2016

Revisiting Hafemeister’S ‘Science And Society’ Tests, Robert Brecha, Rex Berney, Bruce Craver

Robert J. Brecha

We revisit a series of papers on science and society issues by David Hafemeister in the 1970s and 1980s. The emphasis in the present work is on world oil production limits and some consequences of various possible scenarios for the near future. Some of the data and scenarios used by Hafemeister are updated for U.S. oil production in the past two decades and extended to an analysis of a peak in world oil production in the future. We discuss some simple scenarios for future energy use patterns and look at the consequence of these scenarios as world oil production ...


Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert Brecha Feb 2016

Emissions Scenarios In The Face Of Fossil-Fuel Peaking, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the ...


Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, Giovanni Modugno, Gabriele Ferrari, Giacomo Roati, Robert Brecha, A. Simoni, Massimo Inguscio Feb 2016

Bose-Einstein Condensation Of Potassium Atoms By Sympathetic Cooling, Giovanni Modugno, Gabriele Ferrari, Giacomo Roati, Robert Brecha, A. Simoni, Massimo Inguscio

Robert J. Brecha

We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of potassium atoms, whereby quantum degeneracy is achieved by sympathetic cooling with evaporatively cooled rubidium. Because of the rapid thermalization of the two different atoms, the efficiency of the cooling process is high. The ability to achieve condensation by sympathetic cooling with a different species may provide a route to the production of degenerate systems with a larger choice of components.


Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, Giovanni Modugno, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Massimo Inguscio Feb 2016

Collapse Of A Degenerate Fermi Gas, Giovanni Modugno, Giacomo Roati, Francesco Riboli, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Massimo Inguscio

Robert J. Brecha

A degenerate gas of identical fermions is brought to collapse by the interaction with a Bose-Einstein condensate. We used an atomic mixture of fermionic potassium-40 and bosonic rubidium-87, in which the strong interspecies attraction leads to an instability above a critical number of particles. The observed phenomenon suggests a direction for manipulating fermion-fermion interactions on the route to superfluidity.


Cost Optimization With Solar And Conventional Energy Production, Energy Storage, And Real Time Pricing, Ata Raziei, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha Feb 2016

Cost Optimization With Solar And Conventional Energy Production, Energy Storage, And Real Time Pricing, Ata Raziei, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Research is presented that investigates the potential for solar power generation with battery energy storage for reducing the effective cost of energy delivered to residential customers if real time pricing is present. A linear optimization approach is developed based upon a two-step process. In step one, given a specified solar array area and battery capacity, the optimal means to meet loads based upon grid power, solar power, and/or battery power is determined. This analysis considers an expected lifespan of the solar panel. With these results established, in the next step, the capital costs for the solar arrays and batteries ...


Dipolar Oscillations In A Quantum Degenerate Fermi–Bose Atomic Mixture, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Peter Hannaford, Francesco Riboli, Giacomo Roati, Giovanni Modugno, Massimo Inguscio Feb 2016

Dipolar Oscillations In A Quantum Degenerate Fermi–Bose Atomic Mixture, Francesca Ferlaino, Robert Brecha, Peter Hannaford, Francesco Riboli, Giacomo Roati, Giovanni Modugno, Massimo Inguscio

Robert J. Brecha

We study the dynamics of coupled dipolar oscillations in a Fermi–Bose mixture of 40K and 87Rb atoms. This low-energy collective mode is strongly affected by the interspecies interactions. Measurements are performed in the classical and quantum degenerate regimes and reveal the crucial role of the statistical properties of the mixture. At the onset of quantum degeneracy, we investigate the role of Pauli blocking and superfluidity for K and Rb atoms, respectively, resulting in a change in the collisional interactions.


The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha Jan 2016

The Carbon Rent Economics Of Climate Policy, Matthias Kalkuhl, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

By reducing the demand for fossil fuels, climate policy can reduce scarcity rents for fossil resource owners. As mitigation policies ultimately aim to limit emissions, a new scarcity for “space” in the atmosphere to deposit emissions is created. The associated scarcity rent, or climate rent (that is, for example, directly visible in permit prices under an emission trading scheme) can be higher or lower than the original fossil resource rent. In this paper, we analyze analytically and numerically the impact of mitigation targets, resource availability, backstop costs, discount rates and demand parameters on fossil resource rents and the climate rent ...


Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Brecha, Gunnar Luderer Jan 2016

Analyzing Major Challenges Of Wind And Solar Variability In Power Systems, Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Brecha, Gunnar Luderer

Robert J. Brecha

Ambitious policy targets together with current and projected high growth rates indicate that future power systems will likely show substantially increased generation from renewable energy sources. A large share will come from the variable renewable energy (VRE) sources wind and solar photovoltaics (PV); however, integrating wind and solar causes challenges for existing power systems. In this paper we analyze three major integration challenges related to the structural matching of demand with the supply of wind and solar power: low capacity credit, reduced utilization of dispatchable plants, and over-produced generation. Based on residual load duration curves we define corresponding challenge variables ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler Jan 2016

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha Jan 2016

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha Jan 2016

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha Jan 2016

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Steckel, Robert Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer Jan 2016

Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Steckel, Robert Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the relationship between economic development and energy consumption in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation. The main contribution of this work is to compare estimates of energy thresholds in the form of minimum energy requirements to reach high levels of development with output projections of per capita final energy supply from a group of integrated assessment models (IAMs). Scenarios project that reductions of carbon emissions in developing countries will be achieved not only by means of decreasing the carbon intensity, but also by making a significant break with the historically observed relationship between energy use and economic growth ...


Holographic Renormalization Of Asymptotically Lifshitz Spacetimes, Robert Mcnees, Robert Mann Jan 2016

Holographic Renormalization Of Asymptotically Lifshitz Spacetimes, Robert Mcnees, Robert Mann

Robert A McNees IV

A variational formulation is given for a theory of gravity coupled to a massive vector in four dimensions, with Asymptotically Lifshitz boundary conditions on the fields. For theories with critical exponent z=2 we obtain a well-defined variational principle by explicitly constructing two actions with local boundary counterterms. As part of our analysis we obtain solutions of these theories on a neighborhood of spatial infinity, study the asymptotic symmetries, and consider different definitions of the boundary stress tensor and associated charges. A constraint on the boundary data for the fields figures prominently in one of our formulations, and in that ...


Black Holes In The Conical Ensemble, Robert Mcnees, Daniel Grumiller Jan 2016

Black Holes In The Conical Ensemble, Robert Mcnees, Daniel Grumiller

Robert A McNees IV

We consider black holes in an “unsuitable box”: a finite cavity coupled to a thermal reservoir at a temperature different than the black hole’s Hawking temperature. These black holes are described by metrics that are continuous but not differentiable due to a conical singularity at the horizon. We include them in the Euclidean path integral sum over configurations, and analyze the effect this has on black hole thermodynamics in the canonical ensemble. Black holes with a small deficit (or surplus) angle may have a smaller internal energy or larger density of states than the nearby smooth black hole, but ...


Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, Robert Mcnees Jan 2016

Conventions, Definitions, Identities, And Other Useful Formulae, Robert Mcnees

Robert A McNees IV

As the name suggests, these notes contain a summary of important conventions, definitions, identities, and various formulas that I often refer to. They may prove useful for researchers working in General Relativity, Supergravity, String Theory, Cosmology, and related areas.


Conformal Gravity Holography In Four Dimensions, Daniel Grumiller, Maria Irakleidou, Iva Lovrekovic,, Robert Mcnees Jan 2016

Conformal Gravity Holography In Four Dimensions, Daniel Grumiller, Maria Irakleidou, Iva Lovrekovic,, Robert Mcnees

Robert A McNees IV

We formulate four-dimensional conformal gravity with (anti–)de Sitter boundary conditions that are weaker than Starobinsky boundary conditions, allowing for an asymptotically subleading Rindler term concurrent with a recent model for gravity at large distances. We prove the consistency of the variational principle and derive the holographic response functions. One of them is the conformal gravity version of the Brown–York stress tensor, the other is a “partially massless response”. The on shell action and response functions are finite and do not require holographic renormalization. Finally, we discuss phenomenologically interesting examples, including the most general spherically symmetric solutions and rotating ...


The Electric Field At The Chargeless Interface Between Two Regions Of Space, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Robert Mcnees Jan 2016

The Electric Field At The Chargeless Interface Between Two Regions Of Space, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Robert Mcnees

Robert A McNees IV

A common method for solving Poisson's equation in electrostatics is to patch together two or more solutions of Laplace's equation using boundary conditions on the potential and its gradient. Other methods may generate solutions without the need to check these conditions explicitly, and reconciling these solutions with the appropriate boundary conditions can be surprisingly subtle. As a result, a student may arrive at paradoxical conclusions—even in the case of elementary problems—that seem to be at odds with basic physical intuition. We illustrate this issue by showing how the potential of a uniformly charged ring appears to ...


Cosmological Constant As Confining U(1) Charge In Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity, Daniel Grumiller, Robert Mcnees, Jakob Salzer Jan 2016

Cosmological Constant As Confining U(1) Charge In Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity, Daniel Grumiller, Robert Mcnees, Jakob Salzer

Robert A McNees IV

The cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamical parameter in the framework of two-dimensional dilaton gravity. We find that the cosmological constant behaves as a U(1) charge with a confining potential, and that such potentials require a novel Born-Infeld boundary term in the action. The free energy and other thermodynamical quantities of interest are derived, from first principles, in a way that is essentially model independent. We discover that there is always a Schottky anomaly in the specific heat and explain its physical origin. Finally, we apply these results to specific examples, like anti-de Sitter–Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black holes ...


Boundary Terms Unbound! Holographic Renormalization Of Asymptotically Linear Dilaton Gravity, Robert Mcnees, Robert Mann Jan 2016

Boundary Terms Unbound! Holographic Renormalization Of Asymptotically Linear Dilaton Gravity, Robert Mcnees, Robert Mann

Robert A McNees IV

A variational principle is constructed for gravity coupled to an asymptotically linear dilaton and a p-form field strength. This requires the introduction of appropriate surface terms—also known as 'boundary counterterms'—in the action. The variation of the action with respect to the boundary metric yields a boundary stress tensor, which is used to construct conserved charges that generate the asymptotic symmetries of the theory. In most cases a minimal set of assumptions leads to a unique set of counterterms. However, for certain examples we find families of actions that depend on one or more continuous parameters. We show that ...


Boom Or Bust? Mapping Out The Known Unknowns Of Global Shale Gas Production Potential, Jérôme Hilaire, Nico Bauer, Robert Brecha Jan 2016

Boom Or Bust? Mapping Out The Known Unknowns Of Global Shale Gas Production Potential, Jérôme Hilaire, Nico Bauer, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

To assess the global production costs of shale gas, we combine global top-down data with detailed bottom-up information. Studies solely based on top-down approaches do not adequately account for the heterogeneity of shale gas deposits and hence, are unlikely to appropriately capture the extraction costs of shale gas. We design and provide an expedient bottom-up method based on publicly available US data to compute the levelized costs of shale gas extraction. Our results indicate the existence of economically attractive areas but also reveal a dramatic cost increase as lower-quality reservoirs are exploited. At the global level, our best estimate suggests ...


Shape Invariance And Its Connection To Potential Algebra, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Jeffrey Mallow, Uday Sukhatme Jan 2016

Shape Invariance And Its Connection To Potential Algebra, Asim Gangopadhyaya, Jeffrey Mallow, Uday Sukhatme

Asim Gangopadhyaya

Exactly solvable potentials of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics are known to be shape invariant. For these potentials, eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be derived using well known methods of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. The majority of these potentials have also been shown to possess a potential algebra, and hence are also solvable by group theoretical techniques. In this paper, for a subset of solvable problems, we establish a connection between the two methods and show that they are indeed equivalent.


The Physical Tourist, A Science Guide For The Traveler, Tom Greenslade Nov 2015

The Physical Tourist, A Science Guide For The Traveler, Tom Greenslade

Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr.

Typical travel guides have sections on architecture, art, literature, music and cinema. Rarely are any science-related sites identified. For example, a current travel guide for Germany contains one tidbit on science: Einstein is identified as the most famous citizen of Ulm. By contrast, this travel guide walks a tourist through Berlin and identifies where Max Planck started the quantum revolution, where Einstein lived and gave his early talks on general relativity, and where, across the street, Einstein’s books were burned by the Nazis. Or, if you are walking in Paris, this guide tells you where radioactivity was discovered and ...


The Physical Tourist, Tom Greenslade Nov 2015

The Physical Tourist, Tom Greenslade

Thomas B. Greenslade, Jr.

Typical travel guides have sections on architecture, art, literature, music and cinema. Rarely are any science-related sites identified. For example, a current travel guide for Germany contains one tidbit on science: Einstein is identified as the most famous citizen of Ulm. By contrast, this travel guide walks a tourist through Berlin and identifies where Max Planck started the quantum revolution, where Einstein lived and gave his early talks on general relativity, and where, across the street, Einstein’s books were burned by the Nazis. Or, if you are walking in Paris, this guide tells you where radioactivity was discovered and ...